Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2014, 2, 135-138
Published Online May 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Khan, S. (2014) Comparison between the Personality Dimensions of Delinquents and Non-Delin-
quents of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 135-138.
Comparison between the Personality
Dimensions of Delinquents and
Non-Delinquents of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa
(KPK), Pakistan
Sehrish Khan
Department of Humanities, Comsats Institute of Information and Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
Email: sehrishkhan
Received February 2014
This study was an attempt to find out the comparison between the personality dimensions of de-
linquents and non delinquents of Khyber Pukhtonkhwa (KPK). Eysenck personality Questionnaire
(junior) (Urdu Version 2007) was administered on the sample of 400 (Delinquents = 200, non-de-
linquent s = 200). Delinquents were the inmates in different jails of KPK while non-delinquents
were the students of different colleges of KPK. It was hypothesized that the delinquents will score
higher on all the four dimensions of Eysenck personality scale as compared to non delinquents.
Findings of the study confirmed the said hypothesis. It was proved that delinquents have higher
scores of psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion, and lie as compared to non-delinquents. The
findings of this study can help the parents, teachers, and the law departments to focus on the con-
struction of healthy personality so that the rate of crimes among adolescents can be minimized.
Delinquents, Psychoticism, Neuroticism, Extaversion
1. Introduction
Juvenile delinquency is an issue which is given great importance by researchers over many years. Comparison
between the personality dimensions of delinquents and non delinquents has always been given great attention by
personality theorists. Many Psychologists believed that criminal behavior must be explained by personality di-
mensions of criminals. Both classical and recent researches show that some individuals are crime prone i-e they
have certain specific personality features which cause them to involve in illegal activities [1] Developmental
psychologists are of the view that adolescence is a stage in which anti-social acts are on peak [2]. Adolescents
are on greater risk of committing crimes as compare to adults [3].
Many researchers compare the delinquents and non delinquents on a number of psychological factors. Most
but not all studies found the relationship between crime and personality [4]. Most of the researchers compared
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delinquents and non delinquents on the four dimensions of personality given by Eysenck. Almost all the studies
showed that delinquents scored higher on psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion and lie as compared to
non-delinquents [5]-[10] compared the inmates with non-inmates and concluded that both differ in their perso-
This research is an attempt to compare the delinquents and non delinquents on personality dimensions. Juve-
nile delinquency is one of the most serious problems confronting Pakistan today. The total population of Pakis-
tan is 165 million of which 49 % are under the age of 18 years, and most of these adolescents are breaking laws.
The research on the personality dimensions of delinquents is important and useful for both the crime preven-
tion and the treatment of delinquents. This type of research helps to treat the personality disorders in delinquents
by knowing their personality features and to help them to avoid anti social acts. The high scores on psychoticism,
neuroticism and extroversion will show the need for counseling.
1.1. Objectives
The main objectives of the study are as follows:
To compare the personality dimensions of delinquents and non delinquents.
To find out the gender differences in the personality dimensions of delinquents.
1.2. Hypotheses
The hypotheses of present study are given below:
1) Delinquents will score high on psychoticism as compare to non Delinquents.
2) Delinquents will score high on neuroticism as compare to non Delinquents.
3) Delinquents will score high on extraversion as compare to non Delinquents.
4) Delinquents will score high on lie as compare to non Delinquents.
2. Research Methodology
2.1. Sample Selection
400 adolescents with the age range of 14 - 20 participated in this study. The convenient sampling was used to
select the sample which was divided into four categories i-e male delinquents (n = 100), female delinquents (n =
100), male non delinquents (n = 100) and female non delinquents (n = 100). The delinquents were selected from
different jails of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (Mansehra jail, Abbottabad jail, Haripur jail and Peshawar jail) and non
delinquents from different colleges of same districts.
2.2. Instrument
The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Junior) (Urdu Version 2007) was used in the study. It was originally
developed by Eysenck and Eysenck (1970). It was translated and adapted by Naqvi and Kamal in 2007 for
measuring the personality dimensions of Pakistani adolescents. It is 81 items scale with dichotomous response
options (yes or no) that was develop to measure three dimensions of personality which are extraversion, psycho-
ticism and neuroticism with lie scale. The alpha reliability coefficient of EPQ (junior) for the current study is 0.9
which reveals that it is a reliable instrument to measure personality traits in Pakistani culture.
2.3. Proced ure
For conducting the present research, the permission letter was signed by supervisor. Then the I.G officers of dis-
trict Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur and Peshawar were approached in their respective offices for taking written
approval to visit jail. After taking the permission delinquents were approached in Abbottabad jail, Haripur jail,
Mansehra jail and Peshawar central jail of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Delinquents were given the brief introduction
regarding the objectives of the present study. After developing rapport with the delinquents demographic sheet
was filled which consisted of few information like age, sex, socioeconomic status, crime type etc. Then Eysenck
Personality Questionnaire Junior was filled from delinquents. The non delinquents were approached from dif-
ferent colleges of Abbottabad, Haripur, Mansehra and Peshawar. After taking permission from the head of the
each college the test was administered on them in the same way as on delinquents. The respondents were asked
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to complete the questionnaire honestly. So, in order to find the comparison between delinquents and non delin-
quents and to find the gender differences, the final data was analyzed by using the t-test.
3. Results
Table 1 shows the mean, S.D & t-value of delinquents and non delinquents on Eysenck personality question-
naire (junior) (Urdu Version 2007) and its subscales. Results indicate that there is significant mean difference (p
< 0.000) among delinquents and non delinquents on Eysenck scale and the sub scales of psychoticism, neurotic-
ism, extraversion, and lie scale which shows that delinquents have more tendency of psychoticism, neuroticism,
extraversion and lie.
4. Discussion
The current study was conducted to find out the differences between the personality dimensions of delinquents
and non delinquents. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant difference (t = 20.79, df = 387,
p > 0.05) between delinquents and non delinquents on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Junior) (Urdu
2007) suggesting that delinquents have higher tendency of psychoticism (t = 11.19), extraversion (t = 13 .10),
neuroticism (t = 17.05), and lie (t = 13.12) than non delinquents. All the four hypotheses are confirmed by the
The results of this study are consistent with the previous researches. Tenibiaji (2010) conducted a compara-
tive study with 121 inmates and 79 non-inmates. By using the Eysenck personality questionnaire it was con-
cluded that inmates and non-inmates differed significantly i-e in-mates scored higher than non-inmates on psy-
choticism dimension of personality.
Miller and Laynum (2010) by applying five factor model of personality on delinquents concluded that anti
social individuals are high on neuroticism dimension of the personality. In another study Jie along with his col-
leagues (2009) compared the 378 juvenile delinquents with 410 students of high school by using the Askenk’s
character questionnaire. The results showed that juvenile delinquents scored higher on extroversion scale as
compared to high school students. Moreover it was shown that there is positive correlation between the scores
on lie scale and the scores on delinquency, i-e the higher scores on lie scale is linked with delinquency.
5. Implications of the Study
This study focused on the relationship between the personality dimensions and delinquency. The obtained find-
ings can be helpful for psychologists, parents, social workers, teachers, jail staff, and the authorities of other in-
stitutions working for the mental health of delinquents to control the crime rate and to develop the prevention
programs for delinquents.
Findings of this study suggest that personality dimensions (psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion and lie)
should be included and used in criminological models for development of intervention strategies of delinquents.
I strongly acknowledge the kind guidance of Professor Doctor Maher Bano throughout the research and the fi-
Table 1. Mean, standard deviation, and t value of delinquents and non delinquents on eysenck personality scale and its sub
Delinquents (n = 200) Non-delinquents (n = 200) t p
Eysenck 54.9 11.59 34.2 7.36 20.7 0.000
Psychoticism 8.47 4.85 4.08 2.69 11.19 0.000
Neuroticism 14.87 4.11 7.83 4.15 17.055 0.000
Extraversion 16.85 4.04 11.57 4.02 13.104 0.000
Lie 14.70 3.39 9.99 3.77 13.12 0.000
df = 398/397; p > 0.05.
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nancial support from Association of commonwealth universities.
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