﻿ Research on the Method of Calculating Node Injected Reactive Power Based on L Indicator Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2014, 2, 361-367 Published Online April 2014 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jpee http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jpee.2014.24048 How to cite this paper: Gong, X., et al. (2014) Research on the Method of Calculating Node Injected Reactive Power Based on L Indicator. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2, 361-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jpee.2014.24048 Research on the Method of Calculating Node Injected Reactive Power Based on L Indicator Xue Gong1, Bingcheng Zhang2, Bing Kong1, Anan Zhang1, Hongwei Li1, Wei Fang1 1School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, China 2Baikouquan Oil Production Plant, Petro China Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay, China Email: gxsnowswpu@163.com, 1013215627@qq.com, kongbsc@163.com, ananzhang@swpu.edu.cn, lhwmail@126.com, weifang@163.com Received Sep te mber 2013 Abstract With the power grid load increasing, the problem of grid voltage stability is increasingly promi-nent, and the possibility of voltage instability is also growing. In order to improve the voltage sta-bility, this paper an al yz ed how the voltage stability was influenced by different reactive power in-jection based on the simplified L-indicator of on-line voltage stability monitoring. According to the basic differential property of the simplified L-ind icator, a general and normative analytical algo-rithm about reactive power optimization was deduced. The analytical algorithm can calculate the load node injected reactive power, and then the network can run in the optimal steady state on the basis of the calculat i on results. According to the simulation results of IEEE-14, IEEE-30, IEEE-57 and IEEE-118, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to i m prov e voltage sta-bility and reduce the risk of grid collapse were verified. Keywords Voltage St ability; L-Indic ator; Injected Reactive Power; Reactive Power Optimization; Fast Calculation 1. Introduction With the extending of power grids and the increasing of electricity demands, the challenge for voltage stability is increasing. One of the challenges, the system voltage declining, can reduce the power grid transmission capacity and increase the power losses as well, and this is not conducive to the electrical equipment operation. What’s worse, it may also lead to system voltage collapse and even cause more serious accidents of the whole power grids  . In order to ensure the safety of power grid operation and avoid voltage instability incidents, it is necessary to do some research on how to monitor voltage stability on-line and improve voltage stability quickly -. Voltage stability evaluation indicator achieved by the voltage stability study is a significant progress, it is an effective method to measure the system voltage stability as well as the basis for the implementation of the voltage stability control -. The proposed L-indicator in article  , which can be used in on-line monitoring, has attracted much attention for its accuracy, linearity, quickness, etc., and it has been applied in the actual pow- X. Gong et al. 362 er grids. Considering that the value of reactance is far greater than that of resistance in actual power grids and the bus voltage phase is small, the L-indicator has been simplified and an L-Q sensitivity analysis method has been proposed in . The L-Q sensitivity analysis method facilitates the quantitative analysis of voltage influ-ence between different nodes. However, this method requires a large amount of computation, and its reaction speed to solve voltage instability still needs to be improved. Considering the above problems, this paper analyzed how the voltage stability was influenced by different reactive power injection based on the simplified L-indicator of on-line voltage stability monitoring. According to the basic differentia l property of the simplified L-indicator, a general and normative analytical algorithm about reactive power optimization was deduced. The analytical algorithm can calculate the load node reactive power injection volume, and then the network can run in the optimal steady state on the basis of the calculation results. It can ensure the safety of power grid operation and avoid voltage instability incidents. 2. Simplified L-Indicator Voltage stability local L-indicator was derived by kessel, etc. according to the simplest two nodes system. Ap-plying the L-indicator into common multi-node systems needs dividing the nodes into two categories. One is characterized by the behavior of the PQ-node which stands for a type consumer node and is defined as αL. The other comprises the generator node which may be given by PV-node or by a slack node and is defined as αG. For any load node j (j ∈ αL), the equation for local L-indicator (Lj) can be described as follows : *****2221LLij iij icorr iiiiij ijj jjjjjjjj jjj jjj jZS ZSVVS SSSLvvYv Yv Yvαα+∈∈≠≠++++== =+=+⋅⋅⋅∑∑ (1) where Sj is nodal power of load node j, Sjcorr is equivalent power which stems from other loads in the system. Sjcorr is given by *Lij icorrjiiijZSSVα∈≠=∑ (2) In Equation (1), jjY+ is the node self-admittance and it equals to 1/Zjj. *jjY+ is conjugate value of self-ad mittance. Lα is the collection of load nodes in the system. Vi, Vj are the load node voltage vectors. vj is the voltage amplitude value of load node, and vj2 is equal to Vj* Vj*. *ijZis conjugate value of the mutual imped-ance between load node i and j. Si is the equivalent load of the system for consumer node i. In order to ensure the voltage stability, each node j in the system must satisfy the condition Lj ≤ 1. The global L-indicator of the system is defined as follows. max max( )LjjLL Lα∈= = (3) Thereby, L ranges from 0 to 1.0. A smaller L means a more steady system. When L is close to 1.0, the system tends to critical stable state. In order to guarantee system stability, the value of L must be less than 1.0, and the difference between L value and 1.0 can be used as the voltage stability margin of the system. Equation (1) is a complex expression with complex operation, and the computation will increase sharply with the expansion of power grids. Because the value of reactance is far greater than that of resistance in actual power grids, and bus voltage phase is small, etc., the literature  has proposed a simplified L-indicator without considering the reactance and voltage phase. Based on Equation (1), Equation (4) can be obtained. *1Lij iiiijjZSVvα∈≠≤∑ (4) According to Equation (4), Equation (5) can be introduced. X. Gong et al. 363 **221 ()11- =1-LLij iiiijjjij iiiijjjZSVrejecti o nvLZSVfgvvαα∈≠∈≠+=+∑∑ (5) According to the simplified method, Equation (6) can be obtained. LLiiiijii jiiiiijii jiffvf QXggvg PXαα∈≠∈≠==== −∑∑ (6) where Pi and Qi represent the active power injection and reactive power injection respectively. Xji is the reac-tance between load node i and j. Therefore, the Equation (7) is obtained. 222 2111-1() ()LLi jiijijia iajji iij ijQX PXL fgvvv v∈∈≠≠−= +=−+∑∑ (7) 3. Optimal Reactive Power Compensation The initial value of L-indicator is set in Equation (8). 2211 ()()LLi jii jijori ia iaji iij ijQX PXLvv v∈∈≠≠−=−+∑∑ (8) When reactive power compensation is needed, the injected reactive power is set as △Qi. Then the reactive power is updated to Qi + △Qi, and the relationship between reactive power injection and Lj can be described as Equation (9). 22()11 ()()LLiijii jijia iaji iij ijQQ XPXLvv v∈∈≠≠+∆ −=−+∑∑ (9) When the first order partial derivative function value of local indicator Lj is set to zero, the extreme value of Lj is obtained. As Lj is a convex function, the extreme value is the minimum. The power grid can run in optimum steady state with the minimum Lj. The first order partial derivative function is described as follows. 1jjjmLQLQLQ∂∂∆∂= =∂∆ ∂∂∆0 (10) where m is the number of load nodes. X. Gong et al. 364 Because there are usually more than one node in the power grid, solving the extreme value needs to be carried out repeatedly. To simplify the computation and facilitate the understanding, the value of Lj corresponding to each node is added and the sum is set to Lsum, then multiple minima (Lj, j = 1, 2,…, m) can be converted into one minimum (Lsum) . Its expression is as follows. 12sum mL LLL=+++ (11) 221()1[1()() ]LLmiijii jisum j iaiaji iij ijQQ XPXLvv v=∈∈≠≠+∆ −=−+∑∑ ∑ (12) with (),LLiijii jiia iaiiij ijQQ XPXvvvµ∈∈≠≠+∆ −= =∑∑ (13) Therefore, there is 1221112211LLjsum ja jjsumsum jmmja jmjmXLvvQLQLXQvvµµνµµν∈≠∈≠∂−⋅ ⋅ +∂∆∂== ∂∆ ∂−⋅ ⋅∂∆  +∑∑ (14) When the value of Equation (14) is equal to zero vector, it can be converted into matrix form as Equation (15). ⋅⋅+⋅⋅∆=0DKQ DKQ (15) 1100mmXX=D (16) 11100mmmXvXv=K (17) Finally, get ∆=−QQ (18) 4. Simulation Results According to the above derivation, the IEEE-14, IEEE-30, IEEE-57, and IEEE-118 systems have been tested on matpower platform, and the simulation results are shown as below. In Figure 1, with the original load of IEEE-14 standard model as a benchmark and one fifth of the original load as the step length, the load changes from 0.2 times to 4.2 times of the original load. The curve L in Figure 1 is the global L-indicator value without reactive power compensation, while Lc is global L-indicator value with reactive power compensation. Ls and Lsc in F igure 1 are the summation of all local L-indicator Lj (j = 1, 2,…, m) without and with reactive power compensation respectively. Contrasting curves L and Lc, as depicted in Figure 1, it can be seen that the effect of improving voltage stability is obvious, and the heavier the load, the more sig-nificant the effect is, which illustrate that the proposed method is conducive to ensure the safety of powe r X. Gong et al. 365 Figure 1. L/Lsum of IEEE-14 with load changes. grid operation and reduce the risk of grid collapse, especially when the grid voltage stability is poorer. For ex-ample, corresponding to 3.8 of the horizontal axis, L-indicator value of L curve is close to 0.5, which means that the system is in so sensitive a state that a slight increase of load will augment the possibility of voltage instabili-ty, while L-indicator value of L curve is about 0.3 enough to avoid voltage instability. Comparing curves L and Lc to curves Ls and Lsc, what can be concluded is that the two groups of curves are the same-the shape and the trend. Therefore, L and Lc can be enlarged as Ls and Lsc, which is more convenient for observation. In Figure 2, the IEEE-30 standard model has been tested. The load changes from 0.2 times to 4.0 times of the original load. The effect of improving voltage stability is more apparent, and load power margin is also im-proved. According to Figures 3(a) and (b), the conclusions obtained are similar to the above. The simulation results of the IEEE-14, IEEE-30, IEEE-57 and IEEE-118 have illustrated the universal applicability of the proposed method. However, the difference between the above models and the actual power grids can not be ignored, which makes the voltage drop proportion of model greater than that of the actual power grids. In actual power grids, the resistance is far less than the reactance and the voltage drop caused by the active load is almost negligible. If the proposed method were applied to one model more similar to the actual power grid, the results would be more ideal. 5. Conclusion This paper analyzed how the voltage stability was influenced by different reactive power injection based on the simplified L-indicator of on-line voltage stability monitoring. According to the basic d ifferential property of the simplified L-indicator, a general and normative analytical algorithm about reactive power optimization was de-duced. The simulation results that the proposed method applied to all systems of IEEE-14, IEEE-30, IEEE-57 and IEEE-118 can improve voltage stability and reduce the risk of power grid collapse significantly and effec-tively, and the heavier load, the more significant effect, have verified that the proposed method could ensure the safety of power grids operation and avoid voltage instability incidents with its universal applicability. X. Gong et al. 366 Figure 2. IEEE-30 L/Lsum with load change. (a) (b) Figure 3. L(a)/Lsum(b) curves of 4 systems corresponding to each load changes. Funding The National Natural Science Fund Project (51107107). Acknowledgements We thank the support received from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51107107) and the Chi-nese National Key Basic Research and Development Program (973) (2013CB228203). References  IEEE Committee Report (19 90) Voltage Stability of Power Systems. 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