Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2014, 2, 304-311
Published Online April 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Zhang, T., Liu, Z.T., Hao, H.L. and Chang, L.C. (2014) Application Research of Intake-Air Cooling
Technologies in Gas-Steam Combined Cycle Power Plants in China. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2, 304-311.
Application Research of Intake-Air Cooling
Technologies in Gas-Steam Combined
Cycle Power Plants in China
Tao Zhang, Zhitan Liu, Hongliang Hao, Lianchen Chang
GUODIAN Science and Technology Research Institute, Nanjing, China
Received February 2014
The generated power and efficiency of gas-steam combined cycle (GSCC) power plants depend on
the temperature of the inlet air greatly. Based on the analysis of basic theory of inlet air cooling
technologies, the application of evaporative cooling system and the absorption cooling system in
GSCC power plants are discussed in this paper. Moreover, in China with high temperature and hu-
midity, applied research and simulation analysis of the above two different cooling systems are
conducted separately, the research results of which can provide certain reference for optimal de-
sign and economic operation of inlet air cooling system for GSCC power enterprises in China.
Intake-Air Cooling; Combined Cycle; Application Research
1. Introduction
As a kind of clean energy, gas-powered plants have many advantages such as high energy conversion efficiency,
less pollutants, start-stop fast, flexible operation, etc. In recent years, with the large-scale development and uti-
lization of natural gas resources and the national west to east gas pipeline projectin China, GSCC power
plants have played an increasingly important role in electric power industry. By the end of 2013, there are nearly
160 gas power generation companies and 600 sets of gas turbine with the installed capacity of 43 million kilo-
watt, east China power grid gas-electric accounts for 56.6% and southern grid accounts for 23.7%.
The gas turbine is a kind of constant volume equipment, output and efficiency of which is highly affected by
the environmental conditions. When the inlet air temperature rises, the temperature ratio and equivalent flow of
air and reduced speed of gas turbine will decrease, which will result in performance of the gas turbine degenera-
According to related literature, depending on the type of the gas turbine, the electric output will decrease by a
percentage between 6% and more than 10% for every 10˚C of intake-air temperature increase. At the same time,
the specific heat consumption increase by a percentage between 1.5% and more than 4%. However, generally
the high temperature period is the moment when the power grid needs gas turbines taking part in peak regulation
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increase output, as shown in Figure 1.
The characteristic that gas turbine power plant performance is affected by the environment temperature has
aroused widespread attention. If it were possible to obtain a constant low inlet air temperature, a constant high
power output could be generated from a gas turbine. Now inlet cooling technologies has been applied in practice.
As is known, in east and south of China where a large number of gas turbines are used for generation, mean-
while the annual average temperature in these regions is higher than others, This paper, through studying on the
inlet air cooling technologies applied in GSCC power plants, provides certain reference for optimal design and
economic operation of inlet air cooling system in China.
2. The influences of Air Temperature on Gas Turbine Performance
2.1. Analysis of the Influence of the Temperature on Gas Turbine Performance
Atmospheric temperature has great influences on power and efficiency of simple cycle and combined cycle of
gas-powered plant. At present, the number of importing heavy-duty gas turbines is increasing year by year,
therefore it is very significant and valuable to study on the effects of temperature on large GSCC power perfor-
mance. Taking GE PG9371FB, Mitsubishi M701F4, Siemens SGT5-4000F (4) which are the most advanced
heavy-duty gas turbine model in China for instance, some aspects of the mentioned issues are being discussed, l,
as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
As we can see from the Figure 2, the output of these three kinds of gas turbine units reduce greatly as the
temperature rises. Taking GE PG9371FB as a example, for gas turbine simple cycle, the load at 28˚C is ap-
proximately about 30 MW lower than ISO design condition (15˚C), similarly, for gas-steam combined cycle, the
load at 28˚C decrease about 40 MW.
The Figure 3 shows that temperature has a greater influence on efficiency of those three kinds of model's
combined cycle. The influence on GE unit is most prominent. When the temperature is 28˚C, its efficiency is
Figure 1. Relation curve between power load and gas turbine
-2 0246810 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Mit s ubis hi CC
Siemens CC
Mitsubishi SC
Siemens SC
Figure 2. P-T curves of GSCC units at full power load.
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-2 0246810 12 14 1618 20 22 24 26 28 30
Figure 3. E-T curves of GSCC units at full power load.
57.3%, which is 1% lower than the ISO design condition. From the above analysis, we can get a conclusion that
temperature has a very significant influence on the performance of gas turbine units.
2.2. Theoretical Analysis of Effecting of the Temperature on Performance of Gas Turbine
If the inlet air temperature rises, efficiency and output of the gas turbine will reduce. Conversely, they will in-
crease when the temperature drops. For simple cycle gas turbine, the main reasons are as following:
1) When the temperature of the air increases, the air density and, consequently, the air mass flow decreases.
The reduced air mass flow directly causes the gas turbine to produce less power output. The ideal gas state equa-
15 15
are respectively air pressure, air temperature and air density, and
are respectively air pressure, air temperature and air density after the inlet air temperature changes. Usually, the
air pressure basically remains unchanged. When the inlet air temperature declines, air density will rise obviously
and the air volume of gas turbine will increase, so the power output will also increase accordingly.
2) By the Thermodynamics, the lower the temperature of gas is, the lower the speed of its molecular move-
ment is. So the smaller compression work is needed to achieve the same pressure. The equations are as follows:
(1) (1)
τπ π
=−=−− −
( 1)
11 1
(1 )
=−=− =−
where, WGT is power output of the ideal cycle, WT is expansion power, WC is consumption work of compressor,
Cp is air specific heat at constant pressure, T1 is atmospheric temperature,
is pressure ratio, and
is tem-
perature ratio.
(1) /m
= −
is adiabatic index,
is coefficient of useful work.
Because the gas turbine output power is the difference between gas turbine expansion power and compressor
consumption work from the above equations, the higher intake-air temperature results in an increase of the spe-
cific compressor work and, therefore, in a further reduction of the power output [1].
3. Fogging Evaporation System and Application
Gas turbine cooling technologies can be divided into two categories: evaporative cooling and refrigeration cool-
ing. The former is mainly divided into media type evaporative cooling and the fogging cooling based on the
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structure of the cooler; the latter is divided into compression refrigeration cooling, absorption refrigeration
cooling, and cold storage cooling according to the ways to obtain energy source. This paper focuses on the anal-
ysis of fogging evaporative cooling and absorption cooling system which are the typical two kinds of inlet air
cooling technologies.
3.1. Theoretical Analysis
Fogging evaporative cooling is a common method for gas turbine inlet air cooling, a typical fogging cooling
system is as shown in Figure 4(a). And the corresponding cooling process is presented in Figure 4(b). It is as-
sumed that, 1) GTCC inlet fogging is adiabatic humidifying process; 2) The capacity (or number of high-pres-
sure pumps) of inlet fogging system is designed large enough; 3) the fogdrop diameter is small enough and heat
exchange efficiency of fogging approximates 100%. Thus, GTCC inlet air temperature can be cooled to wet
bulb temperature by fogging. Inlet air cooling process through evaporative media coolers is similar to the inlet
fogging process, except that compressor inlet air cannot reach saturated state.
3.2. Analysis of Cases
In the 1980s, the fogging cooling system of gas turbine was firstly adopted. Direct inlet fogging is a method of
cooling where demineralized water is converted into a fog by means of special atomizing nozzles operating at
138 bar 2000 psi. Details pertaining to the thermodynamics and practical aspects of fogging have been described
in Meher-Homji. The fog provides cooling when it evaporates in the air inlet duct of the gas turbine. This tech-
nique allows close to 100% effectiveness in terms of attaining 100% relative humidity at the gas turbine inlet
and thereby gives the lowest temperature possible the wet bulb temperature without refrigeration. Direct high
pressure inlet fogging can also be used to create a compressor inter cooling effect by allowing excess fog into
the compressor, thus boosting the power output considerably. At present, the comparatively advanced fogging
cooling system has combined inlet air cooling technologies and wet compression technology together [1].
M. e Lucia [2] made four cooling schemes for Gas turbine LM6000 cogeneration units: A) double stage ab-
sorption system; B) single stage absorption refrigeration; C) evaporative cooling; D) evaporative cooling com-
bined with absorption cooling. Single stage and two-stage absorption refrigerations power is 3300 kW. Which
is sufficient to enable to cool the intake air down from 25˚C (60% relative humidity) to 10˚C. In this paper, the
cooling systems were used in north (Region 1, north latitude 45.08' and there is about 3500 hours which the
(a) Schematic of fogging evaporation cooling
(b) The process of fogging cooling
Figure 4. Schematic of fogging cooling system.
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temperature is higher 15˚C throughout a year) and south (north latitude 38.13' and there is about 5300 hours )It-
aly. The changers of performance of combined cycle gas turbine are shown as Table 1.
At the same time, we have conducted an experiment through applying the fogging cooling system in a GCSS
power plant with gas turbine GE 9171E which is Located in east China. The changes of temperature of inlet air
and performance of gas turbine are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
Using of fogging evaporation cooling system, the ambient temperature was dropped from 33.8˚C to 27.0˚C,
and as a result, the average of output of gas turbine combined cycle was increased from 95.5 MW to 99.5 MW.
The power output of combined cycle was improved by 5% approximately.
4. Absorption Cooling System and Applications
4.1. Theoretical Analysis
The absorption refrigeration cooling system and the cooling process are presented in Figure 7, where the system
is mainly composed of a GSCC power unit, twin sets of single-effect hot-water driven water/LiBr absorption
chillers, and air coolers.
In the system, the hot flue gas from the gas turbine exhaust is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery
steam generator (HRSG). The steam which is from HRSG or steam turbine is usually used in a double-effect li-
thium-bromide absorption chiller to produce the chilled water. A compact heat exchanger should be designed for
installation at the compressor inlet duct. The chilled water from the absorption chiller flows through the heat
exchanger and cools the inlet air.
Inlet air cooling process is shown in Figu re 7(b), where the inlet air temperature is cooled from the ambient
temperature ta to t1. The point B refers to the apparatus dew point of air coolers and its relative humidity is gen-
erally assumed as 0.95. The point D is dew point of the ambient. When the chilled water temperature tcs < tD,
condensed water separates out from humid air and the air coolers operates under wet conditions.
4.2. Analysis of Cases
Mohanty [3] studied this system for a 100 MW gas turbine in Bankok. The increase in the power output was
Table 1. The changes of output and fuel consumption.
Relative to no-cooling
system (%)
Region1 Region 2
Output increasing Fuel increasing Output increasing Fuel increasing
Plan 1 5.4 4.9 9 8.2
Plan 2 5.2 4.9 8.7 8.2
Plan 3 2.7 2.3 3.8 3.2
Plan 4 5.7 5.2 9.7 8.8
Figure 5. Temperature-Time curves of GSCC units with inlet air
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Figure 6. Output-Time curves of GSCC units units with inlet air
1-comperssor; 2-combustor; 3-turbine; 4-HRSG; 5-steamturbine;
6-condenser; 7-absorption chiller; 8-air cooler
(a) Schematic of GSCC plant with absorption chiller
(b) Cooling process of chiller
Figure 7. Schematic of GSCC plant with absorption chiller.
11%. Also, this system has been analyzed in detail by Bies [4]. Toshiba Corporation has installed a hybrid inlet
air cooling system for a 5.42 MW gas turbine. This system includes an absorption chiller and a thermal energy
storage system. It cools the inlet air to the gas turbine from 38˚C to 15˚C. The capacity of the storage system is
35% of the total system capacity. M. Ameri [5] studied the intake air-cooling system that uses a steam absorp-
tion chiller in the Chabahar power plant. By using this technique the output power can increase by 11.3%. The
economical studied have shown the internal rate of return would be 23.4%. The payback period was estimated to
be around 4.2 years.
Shenzhen Jin Gang gas turbine power plant is the earliest power plant which use absorption chiller cooling [6].
The type of gas turbine is GE 6B, and the steam which is extracted from HRSG is used in a double-effect li-
thium-bromide absorption chiller to produce the chilled water. The transformation results show that with the
cooling system, excellent effects have been achieved. When the inlet air temperature is 31˚C and humidity is
75%, the intake air temperature is dropped by 14˚C, gas turbine power is increased by 3.94 MW (advanced 13.5%
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nearly), steam turbine power is increased by 1.3 MW (advanced 10.6% nearly), therefore, GSCC power increase
5.24MW (advanced 12.68%) and efficiency is increased by 3.2%.
A GSCC power plant with the gas turbine 9E of Guangzhou city adopt lithium bromide absorption chiller
cooling. In the cooling system, COP (performance coefficient of chiller) is 1.41, the outlet temperature of
steam is 90˚C, heat source of refrigerating is from low pressure steam of HRSG, and the inlet temperature is de-
signed to be cooled to 22.1˚C. Based on the above basic parameters, the method of simulation analysis is con-
ducted to analyze the performance of GSCC power plant.
From Fi gures 8 and 9, we can know that the output of gas turbine combined cycle increases from 147.28 MW
to 158.19 MW and the efficiency increases from 33.92% to 34.53% after taking absorption chiller cooling sys-
tem. Howeverthe output of steam turbine reduces from 75.41 MW to 74.65 MW and its efficiency reduces
from 30.27% to 29.39%, the reason of decline is that some low pressure steam is been drawn from HRSG. Fur-
thermore, the whole power output of combined cycle increases from 222.42 MW to 232.84 MW, but the effi-
ciency of combined cycle decreases slightly, which is consistent with the simulation result of GSCC power plant
with the inlet air cooling system by the Greek scholar E. kakarsa [7].
5. Conclusions
Based on the effect of the temperature on the performance of GSCC power plants, the paper shows the necessity
of inlet air cooling technologies. The main conclusions are as follows:
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Total power
Total efficiency
Output power/MW
Figure 8. The influence of inlet air temperature on the gas turbine
combined cycle.
15 20 25 30 35
Total power
Total efficiency
Output power/MW
Figure 9. The influence of inlet air cooling on the gas turbine
combined cycle.
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1) Adopting inlet air cooling technologies, the output and efficiency of gas turbine combined cycle units can
be improved generally.
2) The surrounding temperature is significant to choose which kind of the cooling technologies. Fogging
evaporative cooling technology can reduce the inlet air temperature effectively, and it is suitable for gas turbine
power plant which needs a lower cooling requirements.
3) Absorption chiller cooling technology has advantages of wide range of adjustments and cooling degrees,
which is suitable for various kinds of gas turbine power plants. Simulation results show that using steam as
cooling medium may affect the efficiency of combined cycle, so we should take comprehensive consideration
before adopting the technology, and select the appropriate temperature drop ranges.
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on a Combined Cycle Process. Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO, ASME, New Orleans.
[3] Mohanty, B. and Paloso, J. (1995) Enhancing Gas Turbine Performance by Intake Air Cooling Using an Absorption
Chiller. Heat Recovery Systems and CHP, 15, 41-50.
[4] Bies, D., Johantgen, U. and Scharfe, J. (1999) Optimised Cooling of the Compressor Intake Air: A New Way for the
Improvement of Power and Efficiency in Gas Turbine Plants. Proceedings of the International Gas Turbine Congress,
[5] Ameri, M. and Hejazi, S. H. (2004) The Study of Capacity Enhancement of the Chabahar Gas Turbine Installation Us-
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