Advances in Applied Sociology, 2014, 4, 63-68
Published Online March 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Kenari, M.A. (2014) Effect of Exercise on Mental Health in the Physical Dimension, Anxiety and
Mental Disorder, Social Dysfunction and Depression. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4, 63-68.
Effect of Exercise on Mental Health in the
Physical Dimension, Anxiety and Mental
Disorder, Social Dysfunction and
Morteza Alibakhshi Kenari
Martyr Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran
Email: Morteza.alibak hshikenari@gmail.c om
Received 26 December 2013; revised 26 January 2014; accepted 4 February 2014
Copyright © 2014 by author and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
In the last twenty years, a lot of attention to issues of psychology and psychotherapy are asso-
ciated with physical activity. Due to the increasing rate of mental disorders in country, this study
attempts to compare the health of athletes and non-athletes in Beheshti University. Mental Health
in schools will also compare. In this study, the health measured using the General Health Ques-
tionnaire GHQ-28 has performed. University students participated in this study of 260 patients
who were randomly selected to represent the school. Statistical methods are used for the analysis
and comparison of two sample t-test. The results show that the significant differences of symp-
toms of physical, anxiety, sleep disorder, social dysfunction and depression in the two groups
were observed between athletes and non-athletes. The college student mental health and physical
education than other students in four scales were much more favorable situation.
Exercise; Physical Dimension; Anxiety and Sleep Disorders; Depression; Mental Health; Impaired
Social Functioning
1. Introduction
In recent years much attention has been psychological and psychotherapy, because people today are more than
anything suffering from mental health problems. Now in the world, especially in developing countries, about
150 million people suffer from some form of mental disorder. These figures are somewhat higher population
M. A. Kenari
growth and changes in lifestyle and family breakdown and economic problems involved. One of the ways that
psychologists have identified a role for the reduction and treatment in mental health is exercise (McGannon &
Poon, 2005). In other words, the researchers found a strong link between exercise and mental health and mental
disorder there. Since our co untry is a develop ing country and the future of the students and mothers of tomorrow
and the search for identity and age may b e due to various reasons such as being aw ay from fa mil y an d feel more
responsibility and career and marriage and other iss ue s ha ve been u n de r a lot of s tress an d traum a a re a t risk. It is
important to note. Obviously neglecting their health status may be irreparable damage to the family that they
formed under the di re c t supervi s i on and follow it to the community (Humphreys , 2003).
2. Health and Mental Tension
The World Health Organization defines mental health state of complete physical, mental and social be called
(WHO, 2007). Some psychologists believe that the ability and flexibility to adapt to the environment and the
judge denied and fair and reasonable in the face of mental health and psychological criteria (Knechtle, 2004).
And treatment of mental illness as well as social and family life and enable compatibility of environmental. It
should be noted that those with no mental disorder but its necessarily mentally healthy people to account, just as
those who have no mental disease but are not considered to be healthy (Pereira, 2007).
Stress is a condition in which the emotions and expressions of the human body comes into tension and heavi-
ness. To say t o the stress of the hum an capacity for doing wo rk that req uires menta l focus as wel l as the we akening
of the human forces that began to fatigue.
3. The Role of Exercise in Mental Health Care
Studies on the effect of exercise on mental health in children have found that play an important role in main-
taining the health of sick children’s physical activity (Matsudo, 2006). According to a study conducted in 1991
also found that aerobic exercise is an important factor in reducing the effects of stress (Samad, 2004). In addition,
it was found most effective exercise in elderly hospitalized and non-hospitalized alleviate symptoms of anxiety,
depression, mood and stress reactions , as well as aerobic exercise is important for stress reduction (Brunner &
Suddarth, 2004). In 1990 it was fo und exercise improves mood and mental health and increased self-esteem and
self-respect, Bornak and colleagues (1995) found that intense exercise can have many benefits on mood and be-
havior and reduce stress and increase self-esteem and aerobic exercise may improve the self-esteem of dust.
4. Materials and Methods
This research is a descriptive search. Beheshti University student population with a bachelor’s or master’s in
school year 2013 were enrolled in MQT form. The number of participants is 260 persons who comprise 80 indi-
vidual athletes and 180 non-athletes. These were in addition to several sports teams of the members of the group
selected College of Engineering and Physical education and art and literature and science and theology and
psychology and so c ia l scien ce has been formed, whi c h were randomly selected.
The instrument used in this research questionnaire is 28 questions, {GHq28} is a standard tool designed by
Goldberg and Hiller. This questionnaire was formed of 28 questions to ask first eight physical symptoms and
eight second question anxiety and eight third question of social dysfunction and Eight quarters o f the symptoms
of depress i on and sleep disturbances were assessed. To compare the mental health of athletes and non-athletes of
all indices t test for independent groups was used. All statistical calculations were performed using computer
SPSS software.
5. Results and Findings
After statistical analysis and hypothesis testing, research findings revealed significant differences in mental
health status than non-athlete student athlete “as shown in table”. The problem in all dimensions: physical
symptoms of anxiety and sleep disorder symptoms, social functioning and depressive symptoms compared to
non-athletes were better {p < 0/05} “as shown in Table 1”.
Considering the above table mental health scores of athletes is very better than non-athletes “as shown in Ta-
ble 2”.
According to information found in each of the four scale athletes are a more favorable situation as shown in
Figure 1.
M. A. Kenari
Table 1. Scores on mental health subjects.
mean Standard deviation mean Standard deviation
19.81 11.94 24.94 15.26
Table 2. Scores on the four scales the mental health in the participants.
Depression Impairment in social
functioning Anxiety and sleep
disorders Physical
deviation mean Standard
deviation mean Standard
deviation mean Standard
deviation mean Index
3.38 4.14 4.01 5.58 3.43 5.13 2.38 4.3 ATHLETES
3.41 5.18 4.84 7.01 3.81 6.5 399 6.31
Figure 1. Comparison of four scales in the student-athletes and non-athletes.
In this study, four mental health scales were calculated separately for the eight colleges as shown in Figure 2.
So that diagram 2 is shown the Students School of Physical Sciences and Engineering and Theology and so-
cial sciences, art and psychology of better mental health. The results of the four mental health scales were also
segregated schools. Charts tree showing physical signs to separate colleges as shown in Figure 3.
As can be seen in terms of physical symptoms and physical health of college students Theological and Lite-
rary physical and engineering sciences and social sciences, and arts and psychology in order to have been better.
Results from four mental health scales and symptoms of anxiety and sleep disorders are divided into the follow-
ing four graphs as shown in Figure 4.
Based on these findings in terms of anxiety and sleep disorders in college students Physical and engineering
and social sciences, art, literature and psychology were better the situation. The results of the four measures of
mental health symptoms and social dysfunction are shown in Figure 5.
Diagram 6 to four measures of mental health symptoms in schools heaven compared to that. According to di-
agram 6 is characterized by symptoms of depression in the Schools Physical and engineering sciences and social
sciences and psychology, theology, literature and art are in a more favorable situation as shown in Figure 6.
Six charts revealed that symptoms of depressive in The School of Physical Education, Engineering, Theology,
Literature, Science, Social Sciences, Psychology and art are in a mor e favorable situation.
6. Conclusion
Data collection and statistical analysis of the results suggest that student athletes compared to non-athletic
M. A. Kenari
Figure 2. Comparison of the mental health divided into faculty.
Figure 3. Comparison of physical symptoms Divided into Schools.
students have better mental health significant differences and it was also seen in all aspects of mental health
such as physical symptoms and signs and symptoms of anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depressive
symptoms. Athletes were significantly different from the non-top {p < 0/05}. The results are consistent with
similar studies. In this study, it was found that exercise can improve mood and psychological well-being an d in-
creased confidence, and physical and mental health is increasing as well. As a result, mental health, and measures
M. A. Kenari
Figure 4. Comparing symptoms of anxiety and sleep disorders Divided into Schools.
Figure 5. Comparing symptoms of social dysfunction Divided into Schools.
in four different schools are also out. As in the mental faculties Faculty of Physical Education and School Psy-
chology in the best position is at the lowest level. The symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and dysfunction were
more freque nt in the Schoo l of Psycho logy. Depression scores were registered in the Faculty of Physical Educa-
tion to be allocated to the lowest rates of depression and depressive symptoms in the highest state of the art
M. A. Kenari
Figure 6. Comparison of symptoms of depression divided into Schools.
school is located. The results are characterized that student athletes in terms of mental health conditions are
more favorable. As well as the stud ents physical and mental health of college students are superior to others and
the role of physical activity in the students mental health shows. Hope that all students with physical outdoor
activities, and prepare yourself for a healthy lif e .
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