Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 2014, 2, 63-65
Published Online January 2014 (
Hydrophobic Sand on the Basis of Superhydrophobic
Soot Synthesized in the Flame
B. T. Lesbayev*, M. Nazhipkyzy, N. G. Prikhodko, M. G. Solovyova, G. T. Smagulova,
G. O. Turesheva, M. Auyelkhankyzy, T. T. Mashan, Z. A. Mansurov
The Institute of Combustion Problems, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Email: *
Received October 2013
The paper presents the results of studies on the synthesis of superhydrophobic soot, and on the development of
its technology-based production of bulk material (sand), which has hydrophobic properties. The hydrophobic
properties of sand had attached by fixing soot having superhydrophobic properties of nanoscale layer on the
surface of the grains of sand. The resulting sand was examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine the
structural and morphological parameters. The resulting composite material is characterized by good water re-
pellent and resistant to external corrosive environments, which allows it to be used in civil and road construction,
water-resistant layer for reclamation in hot and arid regions, and in areas where there is a need for bulk materi-
als with hydrophobic properties.
Superhydrophobic; Soot; Nanoscale; Sand
1. Introduction
The presence of water in the building or structure leads
to the appearance of moisture on the base of the walls,
under the floor slabs, rust at the base of steel poles, ef-
florescence, discoloration or rotting wood panels and
other objects near the floor, wall or ceiling, there is mold
on concrete, plaster, furniture, carpeting, or wallpaper,
efflorescence (white powder) on concrete; dilapidated
floor slabs, the smell of dampness, “foggingof the walls
(condensation or excessive humidity), water condensa-
tion on the windows, the growth of moss and the like.
Moisture can penetrate the structure vertically, for
example, due to the accumulation of water on the roof or
horizontally through the water flowing through the exte-
rior walls of the building due to extreme weather condi-
tions. A major problem is the depth of wall applications
where the hydrostatic pressure in the surrounding soil
leads to horizontal infiltration of water into the building.
The penetration of moisture through the concrete wall
due to the porosity of the concrete (about 12% - 20%)
occurs during the curing process, excess water when cre-
ating a network of interconnected capillaries, about 10 -
100 nm in diameter.
Because of the moisture occurs corrosion depth of ob-
jects, such as underground pipes, gas tanks, tunnels and
cables caused by electrolysis of corrosive substances,
insects or microorganisms rapidly proliferating in the wet
ground it all leads to a considerable reduction of operat-
ing these facilities. Waterproofing is also necessary re-
servoirs, particularly an issue in arid areas, where it is
desirable to preserve the contents of the reservoir as long
as possible. Almost all of the water, up to 85%, is spent
in the desert areas of our planet for irrigation of agricul-
tural land, creating a shortage of water for drinking and
hygiene needs, while, according to scientists from the
company DIME Hydrophobic Materials, water is con-
sumed irrationally.
Thus, today there is universally recognized need in the
hydrophobic composite materials, the production of
which would be beneficial, and used effectively.
2. Experimental
The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels soot particles are
an accessory product of combustion. But if burn fuel
under certain conditions, it is possible to produce carbon
black with desired properties [1,2]. Globally, every year
it produces hundreds of tons of different modifications of
carbon black, which are widely used in the production of
rubber, paint, components, copiers, as well as carbon
*Corresponding author.
black is used as a filler in nanocomposite materials. In
this paper, the task of creating hydrophobic sand based
soot having superhydrophobic properties resulting from
the combustion of propane and plastic wastes. This
problem is closely related to the study of the conditions
of formation of soot having hydrophobic properties dur-
ing combustion of propane and plastic waste. Industrial
manufacturing methods of carbon black based on the
decomposition of hydrocarbons under the influence of
high temperatures, soot formation occurs in some cases
in a flame of burning material with limited access to air,
in othersby thermal decomposition of materials in the
absence of soot combustion air Preparation materials
with limited access of air is essentially in two methods.
According to the most popular method for raw materials
are burned in furnaces, burners equipped with various
Soot formed in the flame for a certain time (about 6
seconds) is together with the gaseous products of the
process in the high temperature zone. Thereafter, the
mixture was cooled gases and carbon black and carbon
black is separated from the gases in special apparatuses.
By the second method, raw materials are burned with
burners using a narrow slit, mounted in metal casings.
Flat flame was connected with the moving metal surfaces.
The time of contact of the flame with the surface is
slightly. The precipitated on a metal surface black
quickly removed from the area of soot formation. The
formation of soot particles can be suspended at a certain
level, interrupting the process of its formation. Superhy-
drophobic properties of soot having applications to create
a hydrophobic of sand were prepared using the above
principle by the deposition of soot particles on a cold
surface, placing it at a certain height of the flame. The
photo setup is shown in Figure 1. The principle of the
device is based on the deposition of soot particles from
the flame on the surface of iron spinning cylinder. A cy-
linder made of stainless steel, 12.5 cm diameter 13.5 cm
Figure 1. The photo of the experimental setup.
height, the speed of 1/sec, the number of nozzles at the
burner 7 having a diameter of 2 mm, the flow rate of ga-
seous feed carbon was 425 - 500 cm3/min.
For polyethylene plastic waste flame was placed in a
sealed rector and was thermally decomposed without air
at a temperature of 900 - 970 K. The decomposition of
polyethylene produced easily condensable gas white col-
or, which, when ignited, burns sustained smoky flame.
On the surface of the iron cylinder is soot deposition
thickness of 1 - 1.2 mm. A method for producing super-
hydrophobic soot proposed method is described in detail
in [3].
Technology of production of hydrophobic sand in-
volves several stages. First of all, on the surface of the
sand applied adhesive, the next step is to process a hy-
drophobic carrier. This is followed by curing. Sand of the
river was used. As adhesive polyurethane adhesive
SD-600, which was dissolved in ethyl acetate was used.
The content of the adhesive mass is not more than 5% by
weight of the hydrophobic sand. The adhesive layer ap-
plied on the surface by sand settling polyurethane film
from the solvent. What sand polyurethane adhesive dis-
solved in ethyl acetate and subjected to intensive mixing,
the volatile solvent evaporates and the sand nanosized
film formed of polyurethane. In sand thus obtained is
added 1% superhydrophobic soot resulting mass at 40˚C
- 90˚C stirred at 60 rev/sec for 30 minutes. During the
stirring surface grains of sand with nanoscale film of a
mixture of hydrophobic soot are enveloped.
3. Results
The resulting sand has the exclusive hydrophobic prop-
erty. Figure 2 shows a photograph of the behavior of
water droplets on the surface of the resulting hydrophob-
ic sand. The contact angle of water drops is more than
150 degrees.
Were conducted comparing the characteristics of the
dynamics of water absorption (Figure 3) taken in the
original source sand, sand coated with a polyurethane
films surface and the resulting hydrophobic sand.
For comparison, the original source taken from the
sand and the sand coated with the polyurethane absorbs
water immediately and completely wetted. Coating the
surface prepared hydrophobic sand water distributed over
Figure 2. Drops of water on the surface hydrophobic sand.
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 3. The dynamics of water absorption: ordinary sand
—(a); sand with polyurethanes–—(b); and hydrophobic
sand (c).
its surface in the form of droplets and not absorbed hy-
drophobic sand until its evaporatio n.
Durability of hydrophobic sand external water pres-
sure was measured. The ability of hydrophobic aggre-
gates to withstand the water pressure is proportional to
the cosine of the contact angle and inversely proportional
to the radius of the capillary or the radius of the lumen
between the grains. In order to measure the ability of the
resulting hydrophobic sand withstand the water pressure
was carried out the following test. The spout of a long
syringe diameter of 1 cm2 cut off so that a homogeneous
cylinder. The syringe is inserted into the hydrophobic
sand located in the vessel so that a distance from the sy-
ringe from any wall was 2 cm and then a syringe filled
with water and inserted into it the plunger. Placing 200
gram load on the piston allowed per day, water pressure
remains constant during this period.
Figure 4 shows the behavior of the visibility for the
source of sand, sand coated with polyurethane and the
resulting hydrophobic sand with her falling asleep in the
water. We observe that the resulting hydrophobic sand in
an amount of 10 g of free floats on the water surface.
The resulting sand was investigated by scanning elec-
tron microscopy (SEM), electron image is shown in
Figure 5. Studies have shown that soot completely en-
velops the surface of a uniform layer of sand 20 nm.
Tests were conducted on the mechanical abrasion of soot
particles from the surface of sand. The tests had showed
that the soot grains fixed on the surface, and has good
adherence, process of stirring for 2 hours does not reduce
the film thickness of the soot.
4. Conclusion
Thus was perfected procedure for the synthesis of soot
having hydrophobic properties during combustion of
propane and plastic waste. With the application of the
resulting soot created hydrophobic sand, resulting gido-
fobny sand is proposed to use as a filler in building mate-
rials for exterior finishes and in agriculture to prevent
seepage of irrigation water in the lower layers of soil or
Figure 4. Behavior of sand on the surface.
Figure 5. Electron micrograph of the surface of the grains
of sand.
evaporation. Also hydrophobic sand can be used for iso-
lation of soil around the plant from the soil and salt saline
groundwater, leading to destruction of the root system of
the plants.
[1] A. Levesque, V. T. Binh, V. Semet, D. Guillot, R. Y. Fil-
lit, M. D. Brookes, et al., “Mono Disperse Carbon Nano-
pearls in a Foam-Like Arrangement: A New Carbon
Nano-Compound for Cold Cathodes,” Thin Solid Films,
Vol. 464-465, 2004, pp. 308-314.
[2] S. Sen and I. K. Puri, “Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nano-
fibers and Nanofiber Composites Containing Encapsu-
lated Metal Particles,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 15, No. 3,
2004, pp. 264-268.
[3] Z. A. Mansurov, M. Nazhipkyzy, B. T. Lesbayev, N. G.
Prikhodko, T. V. Chernoglazova, D. I. Chenchik and G. Т.
Smagulova, “Synthesis at Superhydrophobic Soot Flames
and its Applied Aspects,” World (Intern) Conf. on Car-
bon, Krakow, 2012, p. 768.