2014. Vol.5, No.2, 142-147
Published Online February 2014 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/psych) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.52022
Psychometric Properties of the Measure of Adolescent
Coping Strategies (MACS)
Sigrun Sveinbjornsdottir1, Einar Baldvin Thorsteinsson2
1University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland
2University of New England, Armidale, Australia
Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received December 18th, 2013; revised January 15th, 2014; accepted February 14th, 2014
Copyright © 2014 Sigrun Sveinbjornsdottir, Einar Baldvin Thorsteinsson. This is an open access article distri-
buted under the Creative Co mmons Attribution License, which p ermits unrestricted use, dis tribution, and repro-
duction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons
Attribution License all Copyrights © 2 014 are reserved for SCIRP and the own er of the intellectual property Si-
grun Sveinbjornsdottir, Einar Baldvin Thorsteinsson. All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and by SCIRP
as a guardian.
This paper presents the collective results of three independent studies in two countries, Australia and Ice-
land, aimed to develop a psychometrically sound adolescent coping scale, the Measure of Adolescent
Coping Strategies (MACS). Study 1, relying on 3034 Australian and 6908 Icelandic adolescents, revealed
five conceptually distinct first-order factors. Two second-order factors (dimensions) were derived: (a)
adaptive coping encompassing stoicism/distraction, seeking social support, and self-care, and (b) mal-
adaptive coping encompassing acting out and rumination. This factor structure was supported by multi-
sample confirmatory factor analysis (MSCFA) across age, gender and national samples. Study 1 estab-
lished evidence of discriminant validity. In Study 2, including 534 Australian adolescents, the factor
structure was verified through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence of
construct validity. Study 3, employing 118 Icelandic adolescents, established 16-week test-retest reliabil-
ity and evidence of convergent validity. Therefore, the MACS is a short, reliable and valid scale to meas-
ure adolescent coping, thus enabling clinicians, researchers and educators to improve their practice when
conducting research and guiding adolescents in developing effective coping methods.
Keywords: Adolescent; Coping; Cr oss -Cultural; Scale; Psychometrics
How people cope with their daily hassles is believed to affect
their health and well-being (Lazarus, 1993, 2000). The World
Health Organization (WHO, 2003, 2006, 2007) has raised con-
cerns for adolescents’ mental health and psychosocial devel-
opment in particular, and identified poor coping skills as one of
several risk factors for ill health in adulthood and even premature
Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) theory of coping has inspired
coping research through decades. The theory suggests that cop-
ing is two-dimensional; problem-focused, aimed at changing
the situation or managing the problem causing the stress and
emotion-focused, adjusting or controlling the emotions related
to the problem. However, there is still confusion surrounding
the concept and measurement of adults’, adolescents’ and child-
ren’s ways of coping (e.g., Compas, Connor-Smith, Saltzman,
Thomsen, & Wadsworth, 2001; Schwarzer & Schwarzer, 1996;
Steger, 2006). Reviews of coping scales reveal inconsistent
factor structure across samples (for an exhaustive review of
diverse coping measures, see Compas et al., 2001; Skinner,
Edge, Altman, & Sherwood, 2003) and diverse psychometric
shortcomings regarding adolescent coping scales (Sveinb-
jornsdottir & Thorsteinsson, 2008). Some have argued that
using factor analysis for determining lower-order factors (bot-
tom-up) and deductive approaches for the determination of
dimensions or higher-order factors (top-down; a priori decided
categories) may be necessary for grasping the construct of cop-
ing (Skinner et al., 2003). Others suggest further empirical re-
search (Sveinbjornsdottir & Thorsteinsson, 2008).
The primary aim of the present study is to provide an empir-
ically derived coping scale for adolescents. Hence, through
three studies independent of each other, the Measurement of
Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS) will be developed. The
objectives are three: 1) identify a latent structure of adolescent
coping through implementation of exploratory factor analysis
(EFA) on a large cross-cultural construction sample (Study 1)
and a CFA on an independent sample (Study 2); 2) test for factorial
invariance across age (Year 7 and Year 10), gender (female and
male) and national samples (Australia and Iceland) (Study 1);
and 3) test for evidence of discriminant validity (Study 1 and
Study 2), convergent validity and test-retest reliability (Study 3).
It was hypothesized that (a) EFA of the MACS items would
reveal first—and second—order factors (i.e., dimensions), (b)
the factor structure would remain invariant of adolescents’ age,
gender and country, and (c) factors would have acceptable evi-
dence of convergent and discriminant validity and test-retest
S. SVEINBJORNSDOTTIR, E. B. THORSTEINSSON
Study 1 was conducted in Iceland and Australia. It was pop-
ulation-based in Iceland, including Year 7 and Year 10 students
in primary and lower secondary schools (co-educational public
schools). A total of 157 Icelandic schools participated, com-
prising 82% of the cohorts (7800 students). A total of 6908
students (89%) accepted participation, with 50% being female.
In Victoria, Australia, 16 Catholic secondary schools (six sin-
gle-sex girls’ schools, three single-sex boys’ schools, and seven
co-educational schools) in inner and outer metropolitan Mel-
bourne and rural areas participated (3782 students). A total of
3034 students (80.1%) accepted participation, with 60% being
The mean age for Year 7 was 12.33 years (SD = 0.56) and
15.28 years (SD = 0.57) for Year 10 for the Australians; and
12.04 years (SD = 0.25) and 15.07 years (SD = 0.30) for the
Icelanders. The Australian sample reflected a diverse ethnic
background of the population with 89.9% of students, 57.3% of
fathers, and 62.3% of mothers born in Australia. Others in the
sample were from 82 countries and all continents. The Icelandic
population-based sample reflected a homogeneous ethnic back-
ground. Born in Iceland were 95.1% of students, 95.4% of fa-
thers and 96.7% of mothers. Others in the sample were from 60
countries in North West Europe (students = 3.6%, fathers =
2.1%, mothers = 1.4%) and less than 1% from all remaining
continents. Socio-economic background, as measured by par-
ents’ e ducational level and their professions was similar in both
countries and reflected the distribution of socio-economic status
in each country.
Study 2 was conducted in Australia. Participants were 534
students from five co-educational government schools and one
independent single sex girls’ school in inner and outer metro-
politan Melbourne. The mean age was 12.55 (SD = 0.58) for
Year 7 and 15.36 (SD = 0.53) for Year 10, with 59% being
female. Their ethnic background and socio-economic status was
varied which is similar to the Australian participants in Study 1.
In Study 3, two schools from one Icelandic town were ran-
domly selected and 118 students, 46% females, with a mean
age of 11.76 (SD = 0.43) for Year 7 and 14.86 (SD = 0.35) for
Year 10, agreed to participate. Participants’ ethnic background
was homogeneous, and their socio-economic status was com-
parable with the Icelandic participants in Study 1.
Social support. The Social Support Questionnaire Short
Form (SSQ6; Sarason, Sarason, Shearin, & Pierce, 1987) mea-
sured perceived support satisfaction (SSQS) ranging from 1
(very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied) and the perceived size of
the available social support network (SSQN) ranging from 0 to
9. The SSQ6 was developed using samples of older adolescents
and young adults. Psychometric properties for the SSQ short
version are rated as similar to the full 27-item version. Test-
retest reliability for the full 27-item version of SSQN and SSQS
(four-week interval) is .83 and .90, respectively, and internal
consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) is .94 and .97, respectively
(Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983). The SSQ6 has
been used in studies of adolescents 14 and 16 years old (Du-
mont & Provost, 1999) with reported internal consistency
above .90 for both scale s, and in studies of children and y ounger
adolescents from 11 to 12 years, with internal consistency
of .91 for SSQN and .86 for SSQS (Johnson, Esposito-
Smythers, Miranda, Rizzo, Justus, & Clum, 2010) and .73 for
SSQN (Bal, Crombez, Van Oost, & Debourdeaudhuij, 2003). In
Study 1, the internal consistency for SSQS was .90 and for
Self-Esteem. Rosenberg’s Global Self-Esteem Scale (RSE;
Rosenberg, 1965) consisting of 10 items as adapted by Bach-
man (1978) was employed. Students tick one of five boxes for
each item (ranging from “almost always true” to “never true”).
Six items are positively worded (e.g., “When I do a job, I do it
well”), and four negatively (e.g., “I feel I can’t do anything
right”). Items were scored from 1 to 5 with higher scores indi-
cating higher self-esteem. Internal consistency is .93; test-retest
reliability (two-week interval) of .85; and evidence of validity
as indicated through correlations of the RSE with other meas-
ures of self-esteem from .56 to .83 (Chiu, 1988; Hagborg,
1993). The intern al consistency was .82 in Study 1.
Coping. The KIDCOPE is a 10-item adolescent coping
checklist (Spirito, Stark, & Williams, 1988). The KIDCOPE
items were selected from commonly mentioned strategies or
factors in the adult coping literature and represent: problem
solving, distraction, social support, social withdrawal, cognitive
restructuring, self-criticism, blaming others, emotional regula-
tion, wishful thinking, and resignation. For the purpose of
Study 3, the item of emotional regulation was divided into two
items, one positive and the other negative, and the modified
KIDCOPE thus contained 11 items. Responses were rated on a
4-point Likert scale from 0 (I did not use) to 3 (I used almost
all the time). Test-retest correlations are reported as moderate
for a three-day interval (.55 to .75, M = .65), lower with a seven-
day interval (.07 to .83, M = .50), and lowest with a 10-week
interval (.17 to .43, M = .27), and validation studies indicate
moderate correlations ranging from .33 to .77 for KIDCOPE
items with the Coping Strategies Inventory (Spirito et al., 1988;
Tobin, Holroyd, Reynolds, & Wigal, 1989). Internal consistency
cannot be assessed for the modified KIDCOPE as it is a check-
list and does not comprise factors.
Permission for each of the three studies was gained from lo-
cal and national authorities, and their policies for parental con-
sent were followed. For Studies 1 and 3, permission was thus
given via parents’ lack of objection (passive consent). For Stu-
dy 2, parental written consent was received for participating
students (active consent).
Studies 1 and 2 were anonymous. Since test-retest purposes
were incorporated in Study 3, confidentiality was ensured such
that each participant had a unique code allocated. This code
appeared on the questionnaire and in a separate key associating
code with name. The key was kept separate (physically and by
another person) from the questionnaires. After 16 weeks, the
participants were again given questionnaires with their respec-
tive codes by the research assistant who had the key. The key
was then destroyed.
Questionnaires were administered during school hours with
an average of 25 students per administration. Standard written
information was read to participants: participants were to think
of a stressor and rate their responses to the MACS items based
upon this stressor. In Study 3, students used the same stressor
for both administrations.
S. SVEINBJORNSDOTTIR, E. B. THORSTEINSSON
The questionnaire package was developed in English and
translated into Icelandic through a combination of back-trans-
lation and committee approach (Brislin, Lonner, & Thorndike,
The original idea of developing an adolescent coping scale,
on which the MACS is based, stemmed from late Dr Chris
Madden’s interest in athletes coping with competitive stress
(Madden, 1987; Madden, Kirkby, & McDonald, 1989; Madden,
Summers, & Brown, 1990) and his clinical experience working
with drug addicts (Madden, 1989). Originally, Madden ac-
commodated Lazarus’ theory on emotion-focused versus prob-
lem-focused coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and developed
the Ways of Coping with Sport (WOCS; Madden et al., 1989),
a 64-item scale that was adapted from the Ways of Coping
Checklist (WOCC; Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) to suit com-
petitive athletes. Under the direction of Dr Madden, a group at
La Trobe University in Melbourne also developed an adoles-
cent coping scale for general concerns, the Coping Question-
naire for Adolescents (CQA; Angleton, 1994). The CQA in-
cluded 34 items drawn from the coping literature and the
WOCS. The wording of items was adapted for use with ado-
lescents. The CQA also included an open-ended item asking
about additional coping strategies. The CQA was administered
to 261 Year 10 students in Melbourne (mean age 15.03 years,
SD = 0.60, 54% males) with varied socio-economic and ethnic
backgrounds (Angleton, 1994). The students identified their
own stressor experienced during the last twelve months and
completed the CQA according to that stressor. Their self-gen-
erated coping strategies were classified and a total of 19 items
were created on the basis of frequency.
There were 53 pre-MACS items on which the final version of
the MACS was based, including the 19 items generated from
the adolescents and the 34 items of the CQA.
In Study 1, the following choices of EFA procedures were
employed: (a) common factor analysis (e.g., principal axis fac-
toring) (e.g., Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahn, 1999;
Gorsuch, 1983; Widaman, 1993); (b) oblique rotation (e.g.,
Oblimin) (Child, 1990; Kline, 1994); and (c) parallel analysis
(PA), Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) and scree
plots. Final item selection from the pool of 53 based on: (a) a
full range distribution of responses for each item on the four re-
sponse scores; (b) each factor include a minimum of five items
(Gorsuch, 1983); (c) each item load beyond .25 on one factor
only (Fabrigar et al., 1999; Widaman, 1993); (d) each factor’s
internal consistency being at least .70; (e) mean inter-item cor-
relations (Mr,) for each factor being between .20 and .40
(Briggs & Cheek, 1986); (f) face validity; and (g) conceptually
In Study 2, a CFA of the MACS final factor structure at first-
and second-order level was tested using AMOS structural equa-
tion modeling software (Byrne, 2010; Kline, 2011). Missing
values were imputed using covariance-based statistics or the
expectation-maximization (EM) method (normal distribution
assumption). Structural equation model indices were selected to
cover the main facets of model fit. The Goodness-of-Fit Index
(GFI) was used as an absolute fix index; GFI ranges from 0 to 1,
values above .95 indicating a good fit. Comparative Fit Index
(CFI) was calculated. It ranges from 0 to 1 and values above .90
suggest a good fit. The root mean square error of approximation
(RMSEA) and squared root mean residual (SRMR) were cal-
culated. SRMR with a value of 0 represents a perfect fit be-
tween the model and the population covariance matrix. RM-
SEA values below .06 and SRMR values below.09 are gen-
erally interpreted as favourable. Finally, the Tucker-Lewis
coefficient (TLI) was reported, values close to 1.0 indicating
A multi-sample CFA (MSCFA; Kline, 2011) was conducted
for the second-order factor model using the data from Study 1.
Factorial invariance was examined for gender (male, female),
age (Year 7, Year 10), and country (Australia, Iceland). A crite-
ria of .01 change in CFI (ΔCFI) from the configural model
(unrestrained) to the measurement model (restrained) was used
to determine if invariance should be rejected or not.
In Studies 1 and 2, the SSQ6 (i.e., SSQS and SSQN) and the
RSE as adapted by Bachman, O’ (1978) were employed to
provide evidence of discriminant validity. It was hypothesized
that correlations between MACS, SSQ6 and RSE would be
Finally, in Study 3, the KIDCOPE (Spirito et al., 1988) was
chosen to establish evidence of convergent validity of the
MACS. Moderate correlations between a presumably psycho-
metrically sound test and a poor(er) one is expected (Kline,
1986). It was hypothesized that the first-order factors of MACS
would correlate moderately with the KIDCOPE.
Factor Analysis: First Order
Principal axis factoring (PAF) with Oblimin rotation was
performed on the data from Study 1. The data was then divided
into four sub-samples (Australia Year 7 and Year 10; Iceland
Year 7 and Year 10) and factor analyses performed on all
groups. Items with low loadings for all groups or loading sig-
nificantly on more than one factor were deleted. Final factor
structure was derived after stepwise reduction of items. Five
first-order factors of coping were detected in Study 1 (N = 9942)
based on 34 of the original 53 items. Thirty items loaded ≥.25
on one factor only. Four items loaded on two factors; these
items were included in their higher loading factor. The number
of factors was based on a Scree plot suggesting five factors, a
parallel analysis suggesting six factors, and MAP test suggest-
ing four factors. Comparable factor structures emerged for both
age-groups in Iceland (Year 7 and 10) and for the older group
in Australia (Year 10) (stoicism/distraction, acting out, rumina-
tion, seeking social support, and self-care). For the fourth sub-
sample (Australian Year 7), the 34 items comprised four factors
with items from the stoicism/distraction and self-care factors
combined into one factor. Table 1 provides information on in-
ternal consistency, mean inter-item correlations in factors, and
number of items per factor. A CFA, using data from Study 2,
supported the factor structure with CFI = .95, TLI = .94, GFI
= .96, RMSEA = .047 [90% CI .038, .057], and SRMR = .046.
Factor Analysis: Second Order
Second-order factor analysis (PAF, Oblimin rotation) re-
vealed two dimensions of coping. One was adaptive (i.e., stoic-
ism/distraction, self-care, and seeking social support) and the
S. SVEINBJORNSDOTTIR, E. B. THORSTEINSSON
The five coping factors of the MACS, coefficient Alpha and mean
inter-item correlation (Mr) for each factor for study 1, N = 9942.
Factor Alpha Mr Numbe r of i t ems
Stoicism/distraction .73 .25 8
Acting out .75 .34 6
Rumination .70 .28 6
Seeking soc i al support .81 .37 7
Self-care .70 .25 7
other maladaptive (i.e., rumination and acting out; see Table 2).
A CFA for this model, including first- and second-order factors
using data from Study 2 was supported, CFI = .94, TLI = .92,
GFI = .95, RMSEA = .054 [90% CI .045, .064], and SRMR
MSCFA was used to investigate factorial invariance in Study
1for country, gender, and year at school. It was supported for
all three demographic factors examined; ΔCFI < .01 (see Table
Evidence of convergent validity was assessed in Study 3 by
examining the correlations between the first-order factors of the
MACS and the items of the modified KIDCOPE. As hypothe-
sized, there were moderate correlations between the 11 items of
the modified KIDCOPE and the corresponding five first-order
factors of MACS, with r ranging from .25 to .68 and with a
mean around .46.
In Studies 1 and 2, evidence of discriminant validity was as-
sessed for the five first-order coping factors of the MACS based
on correlations with SSQN, SSQS, and RSE. Low correlations
were expected and found between SSQN and all factors of
MACS , ranging from r = −.05 to r = .11 i n Study 1 an d Study
2. The correlations between SSQS and the factors of MACS
were also low, ranging from r = .02 to r = .17. The correlation
between RSE and the factors of MACS was somewhat higher
but within expected range, ranging from r = −.27 to r = .12.
A test-retest reliability of .50 was expected for a 16-week in-
terval, given the age and plausible development of participants
during the period. Study 3 found test-retest reliability for a
16-week interval as follows: seeking social support r = .74;
self-care r = .68; acting out r = .59; rumination r = .74; and
stoicism/distraction r = .53; all with p < .001.
The primary aim of the present studies was achieved, that is
to establish through empirical research a psychometrically-
derived measure of adolescent coping strategies, the MACS.
All three hypothesis were supported: (a) EFA of the MACS
items revealed first- and second-order factors (i.e. dimensions),
Pattern matrix for two seco nd-order factors using principal axis facto r-
ing with oblimin rotation for study 1, N = 9942.
Factor Adaptive coping Maladaptive coping
Stoicism/distraction .78 −.09
Self-care .65 −.03
Seeking soc i al support .61 .17
Rumination .15 .78
Acting out −.04 .33
Note: The cut-off limit for first-order factor loadings on second-order factors
(b) the factor structure remained invariant of adolescents’ age,
gender and country, and (c) evidence of convergent and discri-
minant validity, and test-retest r eliability was acceptable.
The five first-order factors of the MACS, comprising six to
eight items each, were conceptually distinct and labeled in rela-
tion to the main content of the strategies included. All factors
included both cognitive and behavioral strategies, and either
problem-solving or avoidant strategies.
The first factor, stoicism/distraction, captures the way indi-
viduals manage stressful events or situations without trying to
solve the problem or directly change the situation for the better.
The adolescents are aware of the stressful situation but try not
to let it affect them, such as distracting themselves by watching
TV or through play. These are possibly the only positive coping
strategies if situations are uncontrollable (e.g., awaiting sur-
The second factor, acting out, refers to destructive behavior
towards other people or things, and towards oneself, including
aggressive behavior, use of alcohol and drugs, and yelling ra-
ther than discussing. This coping factor was the least employed
by both females and males. Similar to stoicism/distraction,
acting out does not aim at solving a stressful situation. However,
it includes antisocial and self-destructive behavior which may
seem helpful in the short term but are likely to turn maladaptive
in the long run. Antisocial behavior at the age of 11 may in-
crease the risk of such behavior later (White, Moffitt, Earls,
Robins, & Silva, 1990) and the same applies for substance use
(Thorlindsson & Vilhjalmsson, 1991).
The third factor, rumination, includes negative feelings and
thoughts towards oneself, dwelling on the problem, and wishful
thinking, and does not solve the stressful situation. This coping
factor was the only one where gender differences were noted,
females employing it more than males. That supports previous
literature on rumination (e.g., Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyu-
The fourth coping factor, seeking social support, deals with
the stressful situation. It refers to active problem-focused strate-
gies, mainly cognitive, such as talking to other people, seeking
advice and getting ideas, or just sharing the problem with
someone to ease the burden. This is the most common way of
coping for both females and males; it aims to strengthen the
individual as well as to solve a stressful situation.
The fifth and last factor, self-care, includes physical and
psychological care. The adolescents exercise, sleep and eat well,
pray and look after themselves. The stressful situation is not
solved or the problem directly addressed. Adolescents seek to
strengthen their body and spirit to help them withstand difficul-
ties (e.g., upcoming exams, parental illness).
S. SVEINBJORNSDOTTIR, E. B. THORSTEINSSON
Multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis examining factorial invariance for different demographics in study 1 second-order factor model.
Factorial invariance CFI TLI GFI RMSEA 90% CI SRMR
Comparing males vs. females .929 .907 .957 .045 .043, .046 <.05
Configura l model (unres t rained) .929 .907 .957 .045 .043, .046 <.05
Measurement model (restrained) .923 .909 .953 .043 . 043, .045 <.06
Comparing Year 7 vs. Ye ar 10
Unrestrained .925 .902 .955 .046 .045, .048 <.05
Restrain ed .921 .907 .951 .045 .044, .046 <.06
Comparing Australia vs. Icel and
Unrestrained .924 .901 .954 .046 .045, .048 <.06
Restrain ed .920 .906 .951 .045 .044, .046 <.07
Note: CFI = Comparative Fit Index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis Coefficient; GFI = Goodness-of-Fit Index; RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; SRMR =
Squared R oo t Mea n R es idual; ΔCFI = Change in CFI from unconstr a ined to constrained.
A second-order factor analysis clearly suggests that adoles-
cent coping is two-dimensional. One dimension includes the
first-order factors seeking social support, self-care and stoic-
ism/distraction; and the other, rumination and acting out. Given
the content of the two second-order factors, and the possible
consequences each implies for adolescents, the former may be
recognized as adaptive and the latter maladaptive. Therefore, it
is suggested that in relation to health and well-being, the two
second-order factors refer to: (a) adaptive coping as an indica-
tion of protection; and (b) maladaptive coping as an indication
The two empirically derived second-order factors of the
MACS (adaptive versus maladaptive coping) both comprise
behaviorally—and cognitively-based strategies that are either
active or inactive. Adaptive coping includes both problem—and
emotion-focused coping (i.e., aiming at changing the situation/
managing the problem; and adjusting or controlling the emo-
tions related to the problem) and it also includes either ap-
proaching the problem or avoiding it. In contrast, maladaptive
coping is emotion-focused and not problem-focused: the prob-
lem is avoided and not approached.
The present study is limited in its reliance on factor analysis
which always has a subjective component to it (e.g., final deci-
sion on the number of factors to extract). The MACS was de-
veloped through participation from two economically advanced
populations and its validity for alternative cultures is unknown.
Furthermore, it is for future research to examine the validity of
the interpretations of the MACS’s coping strategies as buffers
to the effects of stressors on adolescents’ psychological well-
being and physical health. Such research is taking place and
three projects have already been published utilizing the MACS.
First, a project in Botswana found that seeking social support
and distraction reduced the impact of negative life events on
psychological health (Thorsteinsson, Sveinbjornsdottir, Dintsi,
& Rooke, 2013). Second, an Australian project found that 66%
of the variation in depression was explained by a mediation
model where rumination, acting out and social support acted as
partial mediators of the perceived stress—depression relation-
ship (Thorsteinsson, Ryan, & Sveinbjornsdottir, 2013). Third,
an Australian longitudinal study suggests that self care and
rumination may affect change in compulsive Internet use and
depression, respectively (Thorsteinsson & Davey, 2014).
Researchers and practitioners (e.g., psychologists and educa-
tors) should find the MACS a reliable and valid measure of
adolescent coping that is applicable across different cultures.
The MACS enables researchers and practitioners to improve
their practice when conducting research and guiding adoles-
cents in developing effective coping methods.
We would like to acknowledge the late Dr Chris C. Mad-
den’s valuable contribution to the early development of the
MACS. We also thank Ms Alison Angleton for her contribution
to the item selection of MACS.
This research was supported by a grant from The Icelandic
Centre for Research (RANNIS).
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