Advances in Physical Education
2014. Vol.4, No.1, 25-28
Published Online February 2014 in SciRes (
Analysis of Anaerobic Performance between Futsal and
Handball through the Wingate Test
Fabiano de Barros Souza1, Ricardo Cesar Alves Ferreira2*,
Alessandra de Almeida Fagundes1, Leandro Yukio Alves Kawa guchi1,
Wellington Ribeiro2, Rodrigo Alexis Lazo-Osório1,2
1Faculdade Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Reabilitação Cardiovascular, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba,
São Jose dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil
2Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento—IP&D, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, São Jose dos Campos,
São Paulo, Brazil
Email: *
Received September 24th, 2013; revised October 24th, 2013; accepted November 2nd, 2013
Copyright © 2014 Fabiano de Barros Souza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all
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et al. All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the anaerobic power of amateur futsal and handball
players utilizing the Wingate Test. Material and Methods: Twenty-two athletes between the ages of 18
to 21, who agreed to participate in the research after reading and signing the Terms of Free and Clarified
Consent, took part in the Wingate Test using 7.5% of their total body mass. The relative and absolute
Maximum Power (MP); relative and absolute Average Power (Ap) and Fatigue Rate (FR) were compared.
The statistical method used was the non-paired t-student test with a significance level of P < 5%. Results:
Handball players presented higher values of absolute MP (879.45 ± 182.22 W) and Ap (671.91 ± 109.37)
when compared to the values of MP (749.00 ± 71.94) and Ap (600.42 ± 52.72) of futsal players. However,
there was no significant difference when the variables studied were relative to the MP and Ap and Fatigue
Rate. Conclusions: Based on these results, it can be concluded that handball presents greater alactic an-
aerobic power compared to futsal where, most likely, the importance of certain characteristics and speci-
fic training contributes to the determination of the predominant metabolic medium during sport practice.
Keywords: Anaerobic Capacity; Wingate; Fatigue; Sports; Anaerobic Power
The activity patterns of many sports such as basketball, soc-
cer, futsal and handball are intermittent, they consist of re-
peated bouts of brief (<=6-second) maximal/near-maximal
work interspersed with relatively short (<=60-second) moder-
ate/low-intensity recovery periods. This sport involves several
sprints, which provoke high mechanical stress on lower body to
high reaction forces during sprinting (Arjmandi, et al., 2010). If
the recovery period is insufficient to restore the metabolism to
its resting conditions, fatigue will occur and performance will
be compromised (Glaister, 2005). During handball participation,
for example a great number of rapid directional changes, starts,
stops, jumps and landing occur (Arjmandi, et al., 2010). The
ability to attain high performance recovery from high in- tensity
training is a prerequisite for success in many sporting situations,
but it is limited by what we call muscle fatigue, which can be
defined as any exercise-induced decrease in maximal voluntary
force or power produced by a muscle or muscle group (Leri-
collais et al., 2010).
During anaerobic metabolism, characterized by the ATP-CP
and glycolytic systems predominant in anaerobic activity, it is
common that muscular fatigue occurs. During frequent periods
of high intensity exercise in futsal and handball matches,
muscular energy is generated by anaerobic glycolysis (Gastin,
Since handball and futsal are known as sports with, typically,
short high intensity exercise periods alternated with moments of
rest; the anaerobic metabolism would appear to be highly rele-
vant to its performance (Rannou et al., 2001; Lima et al., 2005).
Therefore, the anaerobic power and capacity are important
variables in the performance of these sports (Lima et al., 2005).
Indoor soccer (futsal) is a sport that has had a significant in-
crease of practitioners throughout the world, and its popularity
is rising due to the huge availability of practicing spaced avail-
able (Ribeiro et al., 2003). According to the Brazilian Federa-
tion of football, this sport is currently played by over 12 million
Brazilians (Ribeiro et al., 2003). However, despite its popular-
ity in Brazil and other countries, futsal still appears as a modal-
ity that is lacking in more scientific approaches to various as-
pects of the sport; including physiologic conditions.
Conversely, handball has been drawing more attention in the
last few years and has merited more studies that characterize
the physiological profile of its players. Rannou et al. (2001)
determined the physiological profile of handball players com-
*Corresponding a uthor.
pared to sprinters, both enduring trained and untrained sub-
jects. They performed a Wingate anaerobic test to determine
maximal power (Wmax). The authors disclosed that the values
for Wmax were similar in the international and national hand-
ball player groups and were also very similar to the values of
the sprinters. When normalized for body mass or lean body
mass, Wmax was greater in handball players when compared to
untrained or endurance trained subjects (Rannou et al., 2001).
For Molina, et al. 2009, the Creatine Phosphate mobilization
rate is influenced by intensity and volume of exercise, CP con-
centration and type of muscle involved in that exercise which is
used for a ATP synthesis. In their studies the fatigue rate de-
creased after a supplementation with creatine, this result shows
us that type of exercise low CP amount is improved by use of
Another study evaluated the degree of neuromuscular fatigue
and recovery from fatigue, following handball training and
handball matches at the elite level. Neuromuscular fatigue was
measured as changes in voluntary isokinetic knee extensions,
jump height in counter-movement jumps, and 20 m sprint time.
The results showed a significant reduction by 2% - 6% in all
three performance tests during the training camp and by 4% -
7% during the tournament (sprint and jump test) (P < .05). Slow
recovery was indicated by incomplete restoration of perform-
ance between matches and training sessions (Ronglan, 2006).
Therefore, it is important to study and determine the physio-
logical profile of indoor soccer players and handball players
based on their anaerobic power and capacity in order to evalu-
ate their respective performances. There are various tests that
evaluate anaerobic power and capacity; among them is the
Wingate Test, which is considered an easy test to apply, valid
and highly reproducible. Besides this, it has a meaningful cor-
relation with anaerobic index such as lactate maximum concen-
tration and oxygen deficit (Fernandez-del-Olmo et al., 2011;
Okano et al., 2001; Bar-Or, 1987; Colontonio et al., 2003).
These characteristics make this test very suitable for the analy-
sis of anaerobic performance of individuals in the majority of
sport modalities (Rannou et al., 2001; Ribeiro et al., 2003;
Ronglan, 2006).
The objective of this study was to compare the anaerobic
power and capacity, and fatigue rate of amateur futsal and
handball players, during a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test.
Materials and Methods
Subjects: The sample of the present study was composed of
22 male athletes between the ages of 18 and 21, who agreed to
participate in the research after reading and signing a Term of
Free and Clarified Consent, explaining the objectives and risks
of the research. The players were divided into 2 groups: futsal
and handball.
All of the individuals were submitted to the same type of
training and were participating in an official competition pre-
sented by the São Paulo Federation.
Criteria for exclusion were considered to be: female gender,
any incompatibility due to health reasons and not having ex-
perience playing handball and futsal, respectively.
The athletes of both groups were submitted to an anthro-
pometric evaluation of weight and height (Table 1) and an elec-
trocardiographic register, according to the recommendations of
the National Council of Ergometry (1995). Afterwards, the
Table 1.
Antropometriccaractheristic of handball and futsal atlethes (Mean ±
Standard Deviation).
Sports Age (yr) Weight (Kg) Height (cm)
Handball 18.85 ± .89 78.28 ± 10.56 1.83 ± .02
Futsal 19.44 ± 1.81 69.2 ± 4.68 1.74 ± 4.88
Wingate Test was performed on a CYBEX® ergometriccycle
metabolic bike 6000, in the Cardiovascular Rehabilitation
Laboratory of the University of the Vale do Paraíba—UNIVAP,
in the city of São José dos Campos, SP—Brazil.
The Wingate Test was characterized by the performance of
the greatest number possible of pedal revolutions against a
resistance fixed at 7.5% of body mass (Bello Junior, 1998),
with a duration of 30 s. Before the test, the subjects remained at
rest for 180 s on the bicycle, followed by 60 s of uninterrupted
physical activity, the 30 initial seconds being performed in a
submaximum phase and the 30 subsequent seconds in a maxi-
mum phase, in other words, the Wingate Test.
Before the execution of the test, the participants were in-
structed to do stretching and warm-up of the trunk, superior and
inferior members by using the bicycle itself. As a simulation of
the test; they were interrupted after 5 seconds from the start to
rest for 2 minutes before initiating the definitive test.
After the Wingate test, the individuals performed a period of
active recuperation on the cycle ergonometric for 2 to 3 min-
Data Analysis: The data was analyzed using a non-paired
t-student test. The level of significance adopted was p < .05
The results illustrated in Table 2 constitute maximum (MP)
and average (Ap) power, absolute and relative for each group,
obtained by the Wingate Test. In Table 3, the data represents
the MP corresponding to each interval of 5 seconds of the
Wingate Test .
The groups studied presented significant statistical differ-
ences for the values of absolute MP and Ap. However, there
was no significant difference when the variables studied were
relative MP and Ap and Fatigue Rate.
The analysis of Absolute Maximum Power (MP) for the 0 to
15-second time interval demonstrated significantly higher val-
ues in handball athletes when compared to Futsal players. On
the other hand, there was no significant statistical difference
when the values of the interval of 15 - 30 seconds were ana-
There are few study reports available in scientific literature
regarding the physiological variables of futsal (Lima et al.,
2005). Futsal training should follow principles that take into
account that during the game there are, evidently, moments of
lactic and alacticanaerobiosis.
Due to its exceptional qualities from a formative, educational
and sportive perspective, handball is appreciated by both gen-
ders because it simultaneously develops resistance, ability,
coordination, speed and strength; all at the same time, it is an
explosive game. In addition to offering various qualities that are
quite specific, it unifies the three natural athletic phases:
Table 2.
Values of the Mean and standard deviation of maximum and average
potency, absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) and the fatigue rate (%), MP
= maximum potency; Ap = average potency; W = Watt; W/Kg =
W/corporal weight; FR = Fatigue Rate; SD= standard deviation.
Handball Futsal
Mean SD Mean SD P < 5%
MP (W) 879.45 182.22 749.00 71.94 1.60%
(W/Kg) 11.6 1.31 10.76 1.06 8.51%
(W) 671.91 109.37 600.42 52.72 2.79%
(W/Kg) 8.77 .57 8.63 .79 31.88%
FR (%) 47.82 7.77 43.42 8.82 10.98%
Table 3.
Mean and standard dev iation (SD) of maximu m potency ( W) fo r each 5
seconds of the Wingate Test, SD = standard deviation; Sec = seconds;
TT = Test T.
Sec Handball Futsal TT
Mean Mean SD p < 5%
0 - 5 813.45 138.00 717.08 69.92 2.21%
5 - 10 785.09 131.87 689.75 56.34 1.62%
10 - 15 716.82 131.80 635.75 54.71 3.18%
15 - 20 647.09 121.58 579.67 64.99 5.39%
20 - 25 574.91 103.04 517.92 70.20 6.66%
25 - 30 493.73 76.24 461.50 64.45 14.23%
running, jumping and throwing (Bello Junior, 1998).
Rannou et al. (2001) evaluated professional French Handball
players who trained for 120 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 7
years. The authors discloused an absolute maximum power of
1067 W and a relative maximum power of 14.5 W/Kg. In
contrast, the values of the Handball team found in our study
were inferior to those encountered by Rannou et al. (2001),
corresponding to 879.45 and 11.46 for absolute and relative MP,
respectively. The fatigue rate of this modality in our study was
47.82%. It is possible that the discrepancies encountered in the
two studies are due to differences in training, professional level
and the number of training sessions per week.
Franchini (2002) and Okano et al. (2001) suggest that the MP
observed during the test is indicative of anaerobic power while
the Ap would be indicative of anaerobic capacity. Acco rding to
Campeiz and Oliveira (2006), the peak of power or MP
represents the potential to generate energy through the alactic
anaerobic system (ATP-CP), which is depleted in 5 to 10
seconds, its maximum peak being reached between 1 and 5
seconds and characterized by explosive movements.
On the other hand, the anaerobic capacity is obtained at the
end of the 30 seconds of the test which, according to Bar-Or
(1987), reflects the capacity to support the acidosis related to
the capacity of the glycolytic system, in other words, the effi-
ciency of the lactic metabolism, reflecting directly on the ca-
pacity of the athletes to support longer efforts of force and
Based on this point of view, it is possible to consider that the
handball athletes presented alactic anaerobic power and greater
anaerobic capacity in relation to the futsal players. However,
considering that the relative MP and relative Ap did not present
significant statistic differences between the groups studied, it is
possible to infer that the better performance of the absolute MP
(anaerobic power) and of the absolute Ap (anaerobic capacity)
of the handball players were influenced by the differences of
corporal mass.
In relation to the observation of MP during the Wingate Test,
both of the groups studied presented a gradative decrease.
According to Thomas et al. (2002), the adenosine triphosphate
creatine phosphate (ATP-CP) is responsible for providing
energy for muscular contraction at the beginning of the exercise
and in exercises of short duration and high intensity (that is, a
duration of less than 5 seconds). Therefore, since the system is
rapidly depleted in a short time (due to the muscleslow
capacity of storage), in just a few seconds the potency tends to
Although the behavior of anaerobic performance of the
studied individuals through the analysis of MP during the
Wingate Test was the same, the handball group presented
significantly higher MP values in the 0 to 15-second interval. It
can be suggested that the handball team presented greater
alactic anaerobic power in the initial stages of the Wingate
In the Wingate Test, the handball players presented greater
absolute maximum and average power than the futsal athletes.
On the other hand, there was no significant statistical difference
for relative maximum or average power and fatigue rate among
the handball and futsal players.
The results demonstrate that the differences manifest them-
selves mainly in the maximum power, absolute average and,
therefore, in the explosive characteristics of the athletes.We can
suggest that handball presents greater alactic anaerobic power
in relation to futsal and that the importance of the characteris-
tics and specific training of the sports probably contribute to the
determination of the predominant metabolic medium during the
practice. These results suggest that both sports modalities de-
mand high performance of anaerobic power, requiring rapid
movements in a short time.
Determining the physiological profiles of these sports can
help to indicate the type of training and the specific training
that could create better physical performance.
On the contrary, the Wingate Test showed that it is a useful
and reliable tool in the evaluation of handball and futsal play-
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