Open Journal of Depression
2014. Vol.3, No.1, 3-4
Published Online February 2014 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojd) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojd.2014.31002
Depression—Factors, Symptoms, Prevention and the Role of
Open Journal of Depression
Stanislava Y. Stoyanova
South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
Received November 15th, 2013; revised December 26th, 2013; accepted January 8th, 2014
Copyright © 2014 Stanislava Y. Stoyanova. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Com-
mons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, pro-
vided the original work is prop erly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all C opy-
rights © 2014 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intellectual property Stanislava Y. Stoyanova. All
Copyright © 2014 a re guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.
The data for the spread of depression in several countries are presented. The differences in occurrence of
depression among some social categories of population are discussed. The symptoms and the forms of
depression are described in brief, as well as several factors contributing to depression. The role of Open
Journal of Depression is related to some possibilities for coping with and preventing depression.
Keywords: Depression; Mood Disorders; Coping
Human health is among the most important values in all so-
cieties (European Values Study Group and World Values Sur-
vey Association, 2011). That is why every striving for impro-
vement of human health (including by means of study of de-
pression) is respectable and highly estimated.
Depression is a kind of mood (affective) disorders. It could
be mild, moderate or severe, recurrent (repeated), psychogenic
or reactive (World Health Organization, 2010). There are some
differential peculiarities in the forms and development of de-
Depression is one of the most frequent diseases. It influences
about 20 million Americans each year (National Institute of
Mental Health, 2013; Mental Health America, 2013; University
of Maryland Medical Center, 2011) and between 5% - 10% of
the population in Brazil, Germany, and Turkey (Info Center for
Mental Health, 2006). Its spread in the other countries is prob-
ably similar. More and more different groups in the societies
suffer from depression. The age boundaries of this illness widen
among the elderly people (Büchtemann et al., 2012; Bose &
Neelakandan, 2013; Wood et al., 2010) and youth (Tezvaran,
Akan, & Zahmaciog, 2012; Cole et al., 2012), but depression is
more typical for the people advanced in age (about 50 years old)
than for the young people (Wood et al., 2010; Patten, Gor-
don-Brown, & Meadows, 2010). The representatives of differ-
ent kinds of occupations also experience this disorder in some
moment of their life—even the doctors (Galán-Rodas et al.,
2011). Women suffer more by depression than men do (Bü-
chtemann et al., 2012), but men commit a suicide at least three
times more often than the women do and 2/3rds of the suicide
acts are due to depression (Info Center for Mental Health,
Depression is related to suicide ideas and attempts, to dimi-
nished efforts in work and study, to decreased interest in life,
and other people. Depression changes a big part of human life.
There are some somatic, behavioural and emotional changes
related to depression. The depressive person suffers from lowe-
ring of mood, sadness, anx iety, reduction of energy, decrease in
activi ty, loss of appetite, weight loss or weight growth, changes
in libido. Interest, concentration, and motivation are reduced,
but helplessness and indecisiveness are increased. Tiredness
after even minimum effort is common. Sleep is disturbed (the
typical problem is waking earlier in the morning several hours
before the usual time). Appetite is diminished. Self -esteem and
self-confidence are reduced. Some ideas of guilt or worthless-
ness are often present, as well as feeling rejected and alone
(World Health Organization, 2010; Info Center for Mental
There are a lot of reasons for depression—unemployment, fi-
nancial problems, social isolation, st ress, crisis situations, con-
flicts with the relatives, friends, colleagues, and institutions,
physiological and hormonal processes related to heredity, etc.
(Izard, 1977: 272-289). Depression is even related to the season
changes, e specially to the spring and fall (Info Center for Men-
tal Health, 2007a). Such events are inevitable and mainly un-
controllable in human life. Everyone has different tolerance to
their occurrence, but the interaction of several factors often is
crucial for development of depression. In many cases, the own
efforts are not enough to overcome it.
High depression is associated with high maladaptive coping
and low social support (Thorsteinsson, Ryan, & Sveinbjorns-
dottir, 2013). The uncontrolled attempts to overcome depres-
sion could lead to some forms of drug abuse. That is why the
role and assistance of psychologists, psychiatrists and other
specialists is important in our society. T he treatment of depres-
sion is complex. It includes some medicines, psychotherapy,
and the possible changes of the way of life and the environ-
OPEN ACCESS 3
S. Y. STOYANOVA
Moderate physical activity is important in preventing de-
pression and stress (Gavric, 2012).
Open Journal of Depression gives the possibility one to ac-
cumulate more knowledge about the reasons, the symptoms, the
forms, and the treatment of this disease by means of assuring
support and patience, encouraging the positive outcomes and
doing the things that one likes.
Open Journal of Depression has the task to permit the ex-
pressions of sympathy, support and care for suffering people; to
help the estimation of the degree of risk and the acceptance of
situation; to offer different possibilities for solving the problem;
to encourage and to spread knowledge, skills and experience.
Since its start in 2012, Open Journal of Depression has pub-
lished several articles dealing with some aspects of depression
—its treatment, measurement, and coping. The aim of Open
Journal of Depression is to increase the number of the presented
topics related to depression, the number of the co-operating au-
thors and the own usefulness for the readers and specialists.
Bose, P. C., & Neelakandan, R. (2013). A study on hospital an x iety and
depression among aged groups. Indian Streams Research Journal, 3,
Büchtemann, D., Luppa, M., Bramesfeld , A., & Riede l-Helle r, S. (2012).
Incidence of late-life depression: A systematic review. Journal of
Affective Disorders, 142, 172-179.
Cole, D. A., Sun-Joo, C., Martin, N. C., March, J. S., Compas, B. E.,
Rohde, P., Essex, M. J., Curry, J. F., Slattery, M. J., Youngstrom, E.
A., Findling, R. L., Goodyer, I. M., Weissman, M., Hyde, J. S., Fore-
hand, R., Felton, J. W., & Maxwell, M. A. (2012). Are Increased
Weight and Appetite Usef ul In dicato r s o f Depress ion in Ch ildren an d
Adolescents? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 838-851.
European Values Study Group and World Values Survey Association.
(2011). Values S urv eys 19 81-2004 Integrated Questionnaire v.20060423.
Galán-Rodas, Е., Gálvez-Buccollini, J. A., Vega-Galdós, F., Osada, J.,
Guerrero-Padilla, D., Vega-Dienstmaier, J., Talledo, L., Catacora, M.,
& Fiestas, F. (2011). Salud Mental en Médicos Qu e Realizan El Ser-
vicio Rural, Urbano-Marginal En Salud En El Perú: Un Estudio de
Línea Base. Revista Peruana Medicina Experimental Salud Publica,
28, 277-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1726-46342011000200015
Gavric, Z. (2012). Determining the score for depression and its rela-
tionship with the level of physical activity in a patient at the family
medicine. Open Journal of Depression, 1, 1-7.
Info Center for Mental Health (2006). Depresia [Depression].
Info Center for Mental Health (2007a). Bipoliarno Afektivno Razstro-
istvo [Bipolar affect Disorder].
Info Center for Mental Health (2007b). Samoubiistvo [Suicide].
Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.
Mental Health America (2013). Depression: What you need to know.
Clinical depression is a common, real and treatable illness.
National Institute of Mental Health (2013). The numbers count: Mental
disorders in America.
http://www.ni mh .nih.gov/health/publications/the-nu mbers-count-me
Patten, S. B., Gordon-Brown, L., & Meadows, G. (2010). Simulation
studies of age-specific lifetime major depression prevalence. BMC
Psychiatry, 10, 85-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-10-85
Thorsteinsson, E. B., Ryan, S. M., & Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2013). The
mediating effects of social support and coping on the stress-depres-
sion relationship in rural and urban adolescents. Open Journal of De-
pression, 2, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojd.2013.21001
Tezvaran, Z., Akan, H., & Zahmaciog, O. (2012). Risk of depression
and anxiety in high school students and factors affecting it. Health
MED, 6, 3333-3339.
University of Maryland Medical Center (2011). Depression.
Wood, B. M., Nicholas, M. K., Blyth, F., Asghari, A., & Gibson, S.
(2010). The utility of the short version of the depression anxiety
stress scales (DASS-21) in elderly patients with persistent pain: Does
Age make a difference? Pain Medicine, 11, 1780-1790.
World Health Organization (2010). ICD-10. Version: 2010.