Internationa l Journal of Geosciences, 2014, 5, 122-130
Published Online Januar y 2014 (http://www.scirp .org/journal/ijg)
Provenance, Tectonics and Paleoclimate of
Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation in Son-Mahanadi
Basin, Central India with Special Reference to Chirimiri:
Using Petrographical Interpretation
Khansa Zaidi1*, Sarwar Rais1, Abdullah Khan1, Mohd Masroor Alam2
1Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
2Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Email: *khansa.schol ar @ m, rais
Received October 28, 2013; revis ed November 29, 2013; accepted Dece mber 24, 2013
Copyright © 2014 Khansa Zaidi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accor-
dance o f the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2014 are reserved for S CIRP and the owner of the int ellectual
property Khansa Zaidi et al . All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and b y SCIRP as a guar dian.
The present study deals with the petrographic interpretation of Talchir Formation sandstone, in and around
Chirimiri area, Koriya district, Chhattisgarh state India located in Son-Mahanadi basin. This basin is an elon-
gate graben showing northwest-southeast trend and c onsidered to be one o f the larg est intra-crato nic rift basins
of Indian peninsula. Talchir Formation is the lowermost unit of thick classical Gondwana sedimentary succes-
sion and rests unconformably on Precambrian basement. The petrographic studies consisting of point count
show the presence of quartz as a dominant framewo rk minera l with subordinat e amounts of fel dspars and r ock
fragments. The data plot in the fields of cratonic interior and transitional margin of continental block prove-
nance. In the Qt (quartz)-F (feldspar)-L (lithic fragments) triangular diagram, indicating the source of these
sediments was located in transitional margin and continental block provenance. The petrographic classification
suggests that this formation in the study area dominantly contains compositionally immature to submature ar-
kosic, sub-arkosic and lithic-arkosic sandstones. The bivariate plot between Qp/(F+R) vs. Qt/(F+R) indicat e s
changes in c l imatic conditions fr om semi-arid to semi-humid during P e rmo-Carboniferous period.
Son-Mahanadi; Talchir Formation; Chirimiri; Provenance; Tectonics; Petrography; Paleoclimate
1. Introduction
The compositions of sandston e have been widely used by
sedimentologists during past several decades to decipher
the provenance, paleoclimate and tectonic setting of the
source areas [1-9]. The characters of detrital framework
grains are substantially affected by the nature of proc-
esses that act in the depositional basin and also by the
type of transporting medium and distance of transport
[8,10]. Determination of different aspects of provenance
viz its location with respect to depositional basin, lithol-
ogy, climate and tec to nic setti ng is some of the important
parameters of basin analysis [11].
The Go ndwana sed i me nt s o f P e nins ul ar Ind i a mar k th e
resumption of sedimentation during Permo-Carbonifer-
ous a fter a lo ng hiat us since Pr oterozoic. The sedimenta-
tion in Gondwana basins of India evolved through a
complex interplay of faulting, changes in sea level and
climate [12]. The basinal geometry was modified by tec-
tonic movement during different periods. Indian plate is
an assembly of several micro continents, sutured along
early/middle Proterozoic Mobile belts [13-15]. These
mobile belts became the locales of rift nucleation and
played a fundamental role in the mechanism of rift pro-
pagation along reactivated ancient shear zones [15-18].
These intra-cratonic rifts are referred to as Gondwana
Corresponding author.
The Gondwana basins are linearly arranged along the
present day river valleys viz. Koel-Damodar, Son-
Mahanadi and Pranhita-Godavari (Figure 1(b)). The
sediments are mostly made up of clastics of glacial and
glacigene rocks at the base followed by coal measures
and red beds at the top [19]. The Talchir Formation, the
lowermost member of Gondwana sequence of India, is
suggested to be of glacial, glacio-flu vial, g lac io -lacus-
trine and/or glacio-marine depositional environment
[20-32]. The Talchir Formation is marked by uniformly
deposited olive green sandstone, conglomerate, thinly
laminated shales, siltstone, and varves with typical
glacigene facies tillite mostly at the base.
The present study is based on modal analysis of
Figure 1. (a) Map of India shown inset; (b) The outline map of Peninsular India showing Gondwana basins and paleohigh-
lands. Arrows indicate direction of Pe rmia n-Triassic paleoslope modified by Tewari and Veevers, 1993; (c) Map showing
study area modified after Raja Rao 1983.
80˚ 84˚
Bay of Bengal
Doler it es
Ta lch ir
Precambrian basement
Geologic al Unit s
sandstones of Talchir Formation of Chirimiri, Koriya
district, Chhattisgarh state, located in Son-Mahanadi
basin (Figure 1(c)). The aim of the study is to interpret
the possible provenance, tectonic setting and paleocli-
mate variability that led to the deposition of these sand-
stone s dur i ng Permo-Carboniferous period.
2. Geological Setting
The Chirimiri coalfield, the study area, is a part of Son-
Mahanadi basin falls between latitudes 23˚8'N to 23˚15'N
and longitudes 82˚17'E to 82˚25'E. Talchir Formation is
exposed along streams flowing in the vicinity of Chiri-
miri town. Olive green, thinly laminated shales and me-
dium grained sandstone succeeded by lemon yellow al-
ternate beds of shale and sandstones are found exposed in
this area. The Chirimiri area was surveyed by C.S Raja
Rao and stratigraphic succession was proposed (Table 1)
The Son-Mahanadi graben is one of the largest intrac-
ratonic rift basins of peninsular India. The Mahakoshal
supra crusta l lie in t he nort h of Son-Mahana di Gond wana
basin. The rocks of Sausar mobile belt and Betul su-
pracrustals are exposed in the south, whereas the eastern
and south eastern fringes of the Son-Mahanadi basin are
constituted by granite-gneissic complex of Chotanagpur
terrain and Precambrian rocks of Singhbhum and Bastar
craton respectively [34]. To the west of the basin unclas-
sified Precambrian migmatites and geneisses are exposed.
Tecto nically, the b asin ha s be e n divided into three blocks
i.e., Son, Hasdo-Arand and Mahanadi separated from
each other by ENE-WSW trending prominent basement
ridge [35]. Spatial distribution of rock units, variation in
the thickness of sediments, different disposition of struc-
tural elements and contrasting lineament-trends of these
three blocks suggest that each underwent a different
sedimentation and tectonic his tory [35].
3. Material and Methods
The current study deals with petrographic interpretations
of Talchir sandstones in Chirimiri area. 50 Talchir sand-
stone samples have been collected along the stream cut-
tings in and around Chirimiri, where they are found ex-
posed. The streams from where these samples have been
collected are Halphali, Kudra, Bhukbhuki, and Ghor-
ghera (Figure 1(c)). Out of these 50, only 29 representa-
tive samples of sandstone were selected for petrographic
studies. Thin sections of the selected samples were pre-
pared by standard technique. Modal analysis of samples
was carried out using point counting method to deter-
mine the quantitative mineralogical aspects of these
sandstones. About 350 points per thin section were
counted (Table 2 ) us i n g Ga zz i -Dickenson’s method [36].
The counted grains were recalculated into percentage as
summarised in (Table 3).
Table 1. Stratigraphic succession of Chirimiri, coalfield
Koriya district, Chhattisgarh (Raja Rao, 1983).
Age Formation Lithology
Upper Cretaceous
to lower Eocene (?)
Deccan Traps Basic flows, dykes and sills.
Lower Permian Barakar
Essentially sandstone with
subordinate Shales and coal
seams (230 m to 435 m).
Carboniferous to
Early Permian Talchir
Predominantly olive green
sha les and Medium to fine
grained sandstone.
Granite, Gnies ses and
Table 2 . K ey f or petrograp hic and other p ara meters u sed in
this study (modified after Dickinson 1985).
Q Total Quart z gra ins (Qm + Qp)
monocr yst alline quartz
Qp polycrystalline quartz
F Total Feldspar (P + K)
K alkali feldspar
R Total rock fragmen ts including chert
Qt Total quartz grains (Qm + Qp)
Qm monocrystalline quartz
Qp polycrystalline quartz
F Total Feldspar (P + K)
P Plagioclase
K alkali feldspar
Total lithic fragments
QmF Lt
Qm monocrystallin e quartz
F Total Feldspar (P + K)
K alkali feldspar
Lt Total rock fragments including polycrystalline quartz
Qp polycrystalline quartz
Lv Total volcani c an d Me ta-volcanic rock fragments
Ls Total sediment ary rock fragments
LmLv Ls
Lm Tot al metamorphic rock fragments
Lv Total volcanic rock fragments
Ls Total sedimentary rock fragments
Qp/F + RF vs. Qt/F + RF
Qt Total quartz grains (Qm + Qp)
monocr yst alline quartz
Qp polycrystalline quartz
F Total Feldspar (P + K)
RF Total rock fr agments
Table 3. Recalculated detrital composition of Talchir sandstones of Chiri miri area, Koriya district.
S.No QFR QtFL Q mFLt QpLvLs Qp/(F + R) Qt/(F + R) QmP K
Q F R Qt F L Qm F Lt Qp Lv Ls Qm P K
NT1 71.23 16.44 12.33 60.46 38.37 1.17
71.23 16.44 12.33 0 0 100
60.47 0 39.55
NT2 70.42 15.49 14.08 57.89 40.35 1.76
70.42 15.49 14.08 0 0 100
56.90 0 43.1
NT3 69.62 18.99 11.39 52.40 43.26 4.34
69.62 18.99 11.39 0 0 100
55 15 30
NT5 61.54 19.23 19.23 55.26 39.48 5.26
61.54 19.23 19.23 0 0 100
58.33 5.55 36.12
NT7 67.57 18.92 13.51 54.17 29.17 16.7
67.57 18.92 13.51 0 0 100
65 0 35
NT8 91.67 4.86 3.47 68.94 28.43 2.63
91.67 4.86 3.47 66.66 0 33.34
70.49 4.26 25.25
NT9 80.13 16.03 3.85 68.57 24.58 6.85
80.13 16.03 3.85 0 0 100
73.61 2.47 23.92
NT10 73.53 13.24 13.24 76.36 23.64 0 73.53 13.24 13.24 0 0 0
76.36 1.81 21.83
NT12 71.11 22.22 6.67 58.1 37.4 4.5 71.11 22.22 6.67 0 0 0
60 7.5 32.5
NT13 70.71 20.20 9.09 83.54 16.46 0 70.71 20.20 9.09 0 0 0
85.71 1.3 12.99
NT14 71.43 23.81 4.76 62.92 35.96 1.12
71.43 23.81 4.76 33.33 0 66.67
63.64 0 36.36
GN1 73.36 18.22 8.41 77.38 17.86 4.76
54.55 27.27 18.18 70 0 30
66.66 4.44 28.9
GN2 64.10 25.00 10.90 72.12 21.15 6.73
67.31 21.15 11.54 45.5 0 54.5
76 3 21
GN3 67.57 21.62 10.81 69.70 24.24 6.06
69.70 24.24 6.06 0 0 100
74.2 3.22 22.58
GN4 61.74 26.85 11.41 61.90 29.25 8.84
60.54 29.25 10.20 13.33 0 86.67
67.42 3.02 29.56
GN5 84.52 11.90 3.57 77.65 20.00 2.35
77.65 20.00 2.35 0 0 100
79.53 8.43 12.04
GN6 74.65 14.08 11.27 74.20 17.35 8.45
67.74 17.74 14.52 33.33 0 66.67
79.24 0 20.76
GN7 76.11 19.44 4.44 68.75 27.60 3.65
62.50 27.60 9.90 66.67 16.7 16.67
69.38 9.82 20.8
GN8 79.40 16.08 4.52 78.61 18.41 2.99
64.68 18.41 16.92 80.02 11.4 8.57
77.84 1.2 20.96
GN9 79.14 10.07 10.79 63.16 29.47 7.37
56.00 32.00 12.00 44.44 0 55.56
65.85 3.04 31.11
GN10 7 1.64 22.39 5.97 70.78 26.23 2.99
68.81 26.24 4.95 40 10 50
72.39 2.6 25.01
GN11 8 2.05 11.11 6.84 87.27 10.91 1.82
82.50 10.00 7.50 80 0 20
87.27 2 10.73
BBK1 71.43 14.29 14.29 49.25 42.25 8.50
45.54 43.56 10.90 0 14.29 85.71
51 0 49
BBK3 59.70 22.39 17.91 53.00 44.00 3.00
52.11 45.07 2.82 100 0 0
53.62 0 46.38
BBK4 63.37 28.71 7.92 70.00 24.00 6.00
53.33 26.67 20.00 100 0 0
42.3 3.84 53.86
BBK5 51.28 25.64 23.08 41.00 53.00 6.00
39.64 54.05 6.31 0 33.33 66.67
45.5 0 54. 5
BBK6 73.96 20.71 5.33 38.89 55.56 5.56
38.89 55.56 5.55 100 0 0
63.69 10.71 25.6
BBK7 77.92 10.39 11.69 63.32 33.67 3.02
60.80 38.07 1.13 90 0 10
66.66 16.66 16.68
KN3 74.11 14.29 11.61 56.62 40.44 2.94
56.92 42.31 0.77 75 0 25
57.37 0 42.63
4. Petrog raphy
These sandstones are predominantly coarse to medium
grained. Quartz is the chief component of these thin sec-
tions. It occurs in three varieties, monocrystalline, poly-
crystalline, and stretched (Plates 1(a) and (b)), the per-
centage of quartz ranges from 38.89 to 83.54 percent.
The mono-crystalline quartz has both straight to slightly
undulator y extinction with angular to subrounded grains.
Detrital feldspar comes next to quartz, followed by rock
fragments. Feldspar form 10.9 to 55.56 percent in these
sandstones followed by rock fragments which range from
3.47 to 23.08 percent. Three varieties of feldspar, that is,
orthoclase, plagioclase and microcline have been re-
corded in these sandstones (Plates 1(c)-(e)). Feldspar
grains are fresh, coarse to medium in size and sub
rounded in shape. Some feldspar grains also exhibits
slight alteration (Plate 1(d)). Orthoclase is more abun-
dant than rest of the feldspar varieties. Heavy minerals
observed in these thin sections include zircon, rutile,
garne t and e pido te, al ong wit h rock fr ag ments of grani te/
gneis s, schi st (Plate 1(g)), chert, shale and siltstone. Clay
matrix is the common binding material present, along
Plate 1. (a) P hoto microgra phs of Talchir For mation of Chiri miri ar ea, Kori ya dist rict, Chhat tisgarh, arrow s show ing mon o-
crystalline quartz grains and polycrystalline quartz; (b) Stretched quartz; (c) Orthoclase grain showing iron staining; (d)
Plagioclase grain slightly altered; (e) Microcline grain; (f) Perthite grain; (g) Schist fragment; (h) Plagioclase grain with in-
clusion of quartz; (i) Pore filling clay matrix; (j) Undifferentiated matrix ( black in colo ur) and Iron cement ( black arro w).
with ferruginous cement occurring at the edges of the
grain or in small patches. Pore filling matrix is also com-
mon in these sand stones of Talchir Formation (Pla te 1(i))
Undifferentiated matrix (Plate 1(j)) and few patches of
calcite cement have also been encountered in framework
of some of these studied sa mples.
The studied Talchir sandstone specimens of Chirimiri
area have been classified according to Folk’s classifica-
tion [37] into three categories viz arkose, subarkose, and
lithic arkose (Figure 2).
5. Provenance, Tectonic Setting and
The studied sandstones of Talchir Formation, Chirimiri
area have been plotted in QtFL diagram (Figure 3(a)),
where most of the samples concentrate on continental
block provenance and recycled orogen. QmFLt ternary
plot also shows the same result (Figure 3(b)). The
QmPK plot (Figure 4(a)) of the studied samples shows
that these Talchir sandstones have been derived from con-
tinental block provenance. The QpLvLs (Figure 4(b))
Figure 2 . Classification of Talchir sandstone, Chiri miri area,
Koriya district, Chhattisgarh (after Folk, 1980).
Figure 3. (a) Triangular diagram QtFL of Talchir sand-
stones, Chirimiri, Koriya for Provenance (after Dickinson et
al., 1985). (b) Triangular diagram QmFLt of Talchir sand-
stones, Chirimiri. Koriya for Provenance (after Dickinson et
al., 1985) .
Figure 4. (a) Triangular diagram QmPK of Talchir sand-
stones, Chirimiri, Koriya district, for Provenance (after
Dickinson et al., 1985). (b) Triangular diagram QpLvLs of
Talchir sandstones, Chirimiri, Koriya district for Prove-
nance (after Dickinson et al., 1985).
diagram based on lithic fragments population, suggests
collision suture and fold thrust belt as source of these
sandstones. The study of past climate of Permo-Carbon-
iferous period is based on mineral composition of sand-
stone usi ng bivaria te p lot b etween Qt/(F + R) vs. Qp /(F +
R) as shown in (Figure 5). The samples show variation
in climate, changing gradually from semi-arid to semi-
6. Results and Discussion
The moda l anal ysis of st udied Talchir sandstone s (Table
3), plotted on ternary diagram indicates that the sedi-
ments of Talchir Formation of Chirimiri, Koriya district,
Quartz arenite
Figure 5 . B ivari ate log -log plot of Qt/(F + R) and Q p/(F + R)
ratios of Talchir sandstones, Chirimiri, Koriya district, in
cl ima t e discrimination diagram (after Suttner and Dutta,
Chhattisgarh were derived from continental block
provenances and recycled orogen (Figure 3(a)). Within
these major provenances sediments were derived from
transitional continental block, basement uplift and small
inputs also came from mixed field as shown in (Figure
3(b)). Continental block comprises variety of rocks,
ranging from felsic-intermediate-mafic igneous, meta-
morphic and sedimentary to volcano-sedimentary assem-
blages. Recycled orogen sediments are sedimentary and
subordinate volcanic rocks, which are metamorphosed
and exposed to the surface by erosion and uplift of fold
belts and thrusts. Some of these sediments were derived
from recycled orogeny as shown in (Figure 4(b)). It can
be interpreted from the present study that these sediments
were derived from transitional c ontinental region o f con-
tinental block, which are generally of intermediate com-
position and provided compositionally immature to
sub-mature sediments to the basin as shown in (Figure
4(a)). The palaeoflow data indicates that, in this part of
peninsular India depositing streams were flowing from
East-South- East to West-North-West during late Paleo-
zoic [22]. On the basis of type of detrital framework
components and available paleocurrent data it may be
suggested that the provenance of the studied sandstone
samples was probably Chotanagpur/Singhbhum craton
and some other metasediments exposed in the vicinity of
the ba sin. T he stud ied sa mple s show (Figure 5) that dur-
ing late Palaeozoic era the climate changed gradually due
to drifting of Indian sub continent towards the equator
The quartz grains in shape ranges from angular to
subrounded with strain lamellae in some of these grains.
Angularity of some quartz grains indicate that these are
first cycle of erosion sediments or have suffered some
short distance of transportation whereas subrounded to
rounded grains are either of second cycle or have been
transported for longer distance. The preponderance of
non-undulatory monocrystalline quartz over undulatory
quartz suggests plutonic source. Automorphic inclusion
of heavy mineral like zircon and tourmaline in
monocrystalline quartz and grains of perthite (Plate 1(f))
are direct evidences of granitic source. Some mono crys-
talline quartz, are free from inclusions of heavy mineral
and shows slight undulose extinction signifying that
old er gne iss or schist ro cks might be the source [38]. The
presence of iron oxide cement on feldspar grains also
depict humid climate [10,39,40].
7. Conclusions
On the basis of the petrological data of the sandstone
specimens of Talchir Formation (Permo-Carboniferous)
collected from Chirimiri, Koriya district, Chhattisgarh,
the following conclusio ns can be drawn:
1) These sandstones samples are compositionally im-
mature to submature and have been classified as arkosic,
subarkosic and lithic ar ko sic type.
2) Constituent grains of these sediments suggest their
derivation cont ine ntal bl ock provena nce.
3) Paleocurrent data indicate that the source area of
these sandstones was somewhere in the East-South-East
of the basin, which may be Chhotanagpur/Singhbhum
complex with some contribution from Bastar craton also.
4) During the deposition of these Talchir sandstones,
climate changed from semiarid to semi humid.
Ackno wledgements
The authors are thankful to Dr. L.A.K Rao, Chairman
and Dr. A.H.M. Ahmad, Incharge of sedimentology la-
boratory Department of Geology, A.M.U. Aligarh for
providing the necessary facilities to carry out the re-
search work. The financial assistance to Khansa Zaidi in
the form of UGC (Maulana Azad National Senior Re-
search Fellowship) is also gratefully acknowledged. The
authors are also thankful to anonymous reviewer for
suggesting necessary corrections in the manuscript.
[1] F. J. Pettijohn, P. E. Potter, and R. Siever, “Sand and
Sandstone,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972, p. 241.
[2] W. R. Dickinson and C. A. Suczek, “Plate Tectonics and
Sandstone Compositions,” American Association of Pe-
troleum, Geological Bulletin, Vol. 63, No. 12, 1979, pp.
[3] W. R. Dickinson, “Compositions of Sandstones in
Circum-Pacific Subduction Complexes and Fore-Arc B a-
sins,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bul-
letin Vol. 66, No. 2, 1982, pp. 121-137
[4] W. R. Dickinson, “Interpreting Provenance Relations
from Detr ital Mod es of Sandst ones,” In: G. G. Zu ffa , Ed.,
0.1 110 100
Se mi -humid
Se mi -arid
Provenance of Arenites, D. Reidel Publ. Co., New York,
1985, pp. 333-361.
[5] W. R . Dickinson, “Proven ance and Sediment Disp ersal in
Relation to Paleotectonics and Paleogeography of Sedi-
mentar y Basins,” In: K. L Kleinspehn and C. Paola, Eds.,
New Perspect ives in Basin Analysis, Springer, New York,
1988, pp. 3-25.
[6] W. R. Dickinson, L. S. Beard, G. R. Brakenridge, J. R.
Erjavee, R. C. Ferguson and K . F. I n ma n , “P rovenan ce of
North American Phanerozoic Sandstones in Relation to
Plate Tectonic Setting,” Geological Society of American
Bulletin, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1983, pp. 222-235.<222:PON
[7] P. E. Potter, “South America and a Few Grains of Sand,
Pt. I. Beach Sands,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 94, No. 3,
1986, pp. 301-319.
[8] L. J. Suttner and P. K Dutta,., “Alluvial Sandstone Com-
position and Paleoclimate, I. Framework Mineralogy,”
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1986,
pp. 329-345.
[9] R. Cox and R. D. Lowe , “Quantifications of the Effects of
Secondary Matrix on the Analysis of Sandstone Compo-
sition, and a Petro-Chemical Technique for Retrieving
Original Framework Grain Modes of Altered San dstones,”
Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1996,
pp. 548-558.
[10] A. Basu, “Petrology of Holocene Fluvial sand Derived
from Plutonic Source Rocks: Implications to Paleocli-
matic Interpretation,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology,
Vol. 46, No. 3, 1976, pp. 696-709.
[11] Hota, et al., “Provenance Variability during Damuda
Sedimentation in the Talchir Gondwana Basin, In di a—A
Statistical Assessment,” International. Journal of Geo-
sciences, V ol. 2, No. 2, 2011, p p. 120-137.
[12] Mukhopadhyay, et al., “Stratigraphic Correlation between
Different Gondwana Basins of India,” Journal of Geo-
logical Society of India, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2010, pp. 251-
[13] S. M. Naqvi and J. J. W. Rogers, “Precambrian Geology
of India,” Clarendon Press, Ox for d , 1987, p. 223.
[14] B. P. Radhakrishna and S. M. Naqvi, “Precambrian Con-
tinental Crust of India and Its Evolution,” Journal of Ge-
ology, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1986, pp. 145-166.
[15] N. D. Mitra, “Tensile Resur gence alo ng Fo ssil Sutures: A
Hypothesis on the Evolution of Gondwana Basins of Pe-
ninsular India,” Abstracts of Proceedings 2nd Symposium
on Petroliferous Basins of India, Vol. 3, Dehradun, 1994,
pp. 55-62
[16] G. C. Chatterjee an d P. K. Ghosh, “Tectonic Framework
of Peninsular Gondwana of India,” Records Geological
Survey of India, V ol . 98, No. 2, 1970, pp. 1-15.
[17] S. K. Biswa s, “A Review on the Evolution of Rift Basins
in India during Gondwana with Special Reference to
Western Indian Basins and Their Hydrocarbon Prospects,”
Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy Special
Issue, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1999, pp. 261-283.
[18] S. K. Acharyya and A. Roy, “Tec to no -Thermal Hi sto ry of
the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and Reactivation of
Major Fault/Shear Zones,” Journal of Geological Society
of India, Vo l. 55, No. 3, 2000, pp. 239-256.
[19] R. C. Tewari, “Sed imentary-Tectonic Status of Permian-
Triassic Boundary (250Ma) in Gondwana Stratigraphy of
Peninsular India,” Gondwana Research, Vol. 2, No. 2,
1999, pp . 185-189.
[20] S. M. Casshyap and H. A. Qi dwa i , “Glacial Sedimenta-
tion of Late Palaeozoic Talchir diamictite, Pench Valley
Coalfields, Central India,” Geologica l Society of America
Bulletin, Vol. 85, No. 5, 1974, pp.749-760.<749:GSOL
[21] S. N. Das and D. P. Sen, “Depositional History of Pe r mo -
Carboniferous Tillites and Associated Sediments in West
Bokaro Gondwana Basin, Bihar,” Journal of the Geo-
logical Society of India, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1980, pp. 30-38.
[22] R. C. Tewari and S. M. Casshayap, “Palaeo flow Analysis
of Late Paleozoic Gondwana Deposits of Giridih and
Adjoining Basins and Paleogeographic Implications,”
Geological Society of India, Vol . 23, No. 2, 1982, pp 67-
[23] N. E yl e s and A. M. McCabe, “The Late Devensian
(<22000YBP) Irish Sea Basin: The Sedimentary Record
of a Collapsed Ice Sheet Margin,” Quaternary Science
Review, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1989, pp. 307-351.
[24] P. K. Bose, G. Mukhopadhyay and H. N. Bhattacharya,
“Glaciogenic Coarse Clastics in a Permo-Carboniferous
Bedrock trough in India: A Sedimentary Model,” Sedi-
mentary Geology, Vol. 76, No. 1-2, 1992, pp. 79-97.
[25] G. Mukhopadhyay and H. N. Bhattach ar ya, “Facies An a ly -
sis of Talchir Sediments (Permo -Carboniferous), Dudhi
Nala, Bihar, Indi a—A Glaciomarine Model,” IXth Inter-
national Gondwana Symposium, Oxford and IBH Publi-
cation, New Delhi, Vol. 2, 1994, pp. 737-753.
[26] J. J. Veevers and R.C. Tewa ri , “Gondwana Master Basin
of Peninsular India between Tethys and the Interior of the
Gondwanaland Province of Pangea,” Memoire of the Geo-
logical Society of America, No. 187, 1995, pp. 1-73.
[27] W. Maejima, R. Das , K. L. Pandya and M. Hayashi, “De-
glacial Control on Sedimentation and Basin Evolution of
P e r mo -Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Gond-
wana Basin, Orissa, India,” G ondwana R e s e ar c h, Vol . 72,
No. 2, 2004, pp. 339-352.
[28] H. N. Bhattacharya, B. B hattachar ya, I. Chakraborty and
A. Chakraborty, “Sole Marks in Storm Event Beds in the
P e r mo -Carboniferous Talchir Formatio n, Rani ganj Basin,
India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol . 1 66 , No. 3-4, 2004, pp.
[29] H. N. Bhattacharya, A. Chakraborty and B. Bhattacharya,
Significance of Transition between Talchir Formation
and Karharbari Formation in Lower Gondwana Basin
EvolutionA Study in West Bokaro Coal Basin, Jhar k-
hand, India,” Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 114,
No. 3, 2005, p p. 275 -286.
[30] H. N. Bhattacharya and B. Bhattacharya, “A Permo-
Carboniferous Tide-Storm Interactive System: Talchir
Formation, Raniganj Basin, India,” Journal of Asian
Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2006, pp. 303-311.
[31] H. N. Bhattacharya and B. Bhattacharya, “Soft Sediment
Deformati on Struct ures from an Ice-Marginal Storm-Tide
Interactive System, Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Forma-
tion, Talchir Coalbasin, India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vo l.
223, No. 3-4, 2010, pp. 380-389.
[32] B. Bhattach arya and H. N. Bhattacharya, “I mplications of
Mud-Clast Con glomerates within Late Palaeozo ic Talchir
Glacio-Marine Succession, Talchir Basin, India,” Indian
Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 66, No. 1, 2012, pp. 69-78.
[33] C. S. Rao Raj a, Chirimiri Coalfield,In: Coal Resour ces
of Madhya Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir, Bulletins of
Geological Survey of India, Series A, Vol. 3, No. 45,
1983, pp . 44-55.
[34] A. Roy, H. M. Ramchandra and B. K. Bandyopadhyay,
Supracrustal Belts and Their Significance in the Crustal
Evolution of Central India,” Proceedings Dr. M.S Krish-
nan Birth Cent, Sem., Geolo gical S urvey of Ind ia, Speci al
Publication, No. 5 5, 20 00, pp. 361-380.
[35] S. Dotiwala and K. K. S. Pangtey, KDMIPE, AAPG,
Search and Discovery Article, American Association of
Petroleum Geologist, International Conference and Exhi-
bition, Vie nna , 1997.
[36] R. V. Ingerso ll, T. F. Bu llard , R. L. For d, J. P. Gri mm, J.
D. Pickle and S. W. Sares, “The Effect of Grain Size on
Detrital Modes: A Test of the Gazzi-Dickinson Point
Counting Method,” Journal of Sedimentary Research,
Vol. 54, No. 1, 1984, pp. 103-106.
[37] R. L. Folk, “Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks,” Hemphill,
Austin, 1980.
[38] F. J. Pettijohn, “Sediment ary Rocks,” 3rd Edition, Harper
and Row, New York, 1975, 62 8p p.
[39] R. G. Walker, “Colour of Recent Sediments in Tropical
Mexico: A Contribution to the Origin of Red Beds,Geo-
logical Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 7, 1967,
pp. 917-920.[917:CORS
[40] R. L. Folk, “Bimodal Supermature Sandstones: Product
of Desert Floor,Proceedings 23rd International Gond-
wana Congress, Vol. 8, 1968, pp. 9-32.