iBusiness, 2011, 3, 53-60
doi:10.4236/ib.2011.31009 Published Online March 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ib)
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
Construction of Virtual Information Center in
Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency
Jingxin Zhou, Tao Lu
School of Management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
Email: zhoujingxin@dlut.edu.cn, lutao@dlut.edu.cn
Received December 22nd, 2010; revised January 16th, 2011; accepted January 21st, 2011.
Unexpected public emergency events have occurred frequently in recent years. How to deal with these events quickly
and efficiently has become an important issue. First, the paper describes the importance of information in scene man-
agement of unexpected public emergency events, then points out the weaknesses and shortcomings of current emer-
gency plans. After that a model of virtual information center for unexpected public emergency events is proposed. Fi-
nally, the paper describes how to build a virtual information center for assisting emergency work by a case.
Keywords: Unexpected Public Emergency Events, Scene Disposition, Virtual Information Center
1. Introduction
Recently, humans have suffered many public emergency
events, including crashes, explosions, urban fires, etc.
These emergency situations occur unpredictably and
cause individuals and organizations to shift their focus
and attention immediately to deal with the situation
based on exact information. Therefore, the effectiveness
of information delivering plays an important role in the
handling of the emergency events.
Various departments perform their own responsibility
in emergency incident according to their respective rules
and regulations, which can not ensure the fine communi ca-
tion and coordination among various departments. There-
fore, the departments need to ensure information deliv-
ering straightway in time through unblocked communi-
cation with other departments while doing their own
work. According to the past experience of handling of
emergency incidents, effective communication can re-
duce the disaster losses to a minimum. However, there
are often two problems when communicating with others
under tense situation, one is information overload prob-
lem [1], namely the information receiver receive far be-
yond its processing capacity of information, another is
information hunger problem, namely people who proc-
essing disaster information ability tend not to deal with
the information, or peop le who possess disaster informa-
tion don’t have ability to handle, even cau ses information
derogations because of bureaucracy system [2]. There-
fore, in order to finely solve public emergencies, we must
ensure the flow of information is smooth, and guarantee
agencies can promptly receive the required information
completely, enhance effective communication and coor-
dination thereby.
Scene disposition, as a crucial part in emergency
events disposition, refers to carry out site vigilance and
rescue work, evacuate masses, control the site, maintain
orders and manage other relevant work in the scene after
the emergency incident occurs [3 ]. The scene disposition
needs to be deal with immediately and there is no enough
time to hold a meeting to arrange. This type of the in-
formation particularly emphasis on current situation and
can’t be arranged uniformly [4]. For the information
transferring, we should prepare and drill beforehand and
see how the wind blows when we do it.
The current emergency plan of the public emergency
is a management plan or an overall plan setting up
through a certain procedures before the incidents occur
[5,6]. It clearly define who is responsible for what to do,
when to do, how to do, and the corresponding strategy
and resource allocation, etc during public emergencies’
preparing and processing [7,8]. However, various situa-
tions in scene disposition are unpredictable and the in-
formation in scene disposition is real-time and trivial, so
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
the key problem is the way how information transfer in
the process can’t be accounted in emergency plans.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct an
information center aimed at information collecting and
transferring in public emergency events disposition, es-
pecially in the scene disposition.
The information involved in the incident is physically
dispersed [9]. When the emergency occurs the information
is combined to be a system which has a uniform dispatch.
It seems like there have an organizational entity called
information center, but the information center raised in
our paper is a virtual organization without actual exis-
tence of office space, so the information center is named
as virtual information center compared to the traditional
information center. Once Tung X. Bui raised the virtual
information center to operate for an emergency disposi-
tion in 2001 [10]. This paper focuses on the functions,
components and workflow modeling method of virtual
information center in scene disposition on the base of
In summary, the virtual information center can handle
the transmission of information in emergencies disposition,
solve coordination radically in scene disposition of emer-
gency among departments, and thereby reduce the harm
extent of accident. This paper mainly researches on how
to model the virtual information center and how it works.
2. Conception of Virtual Information
The concept of virtual information center is first pro pos ed
by Tung X. Bui, who considered the virtual information
center can effectively deal with large quantities of informa-
tion request in disaster preparation, disaster management
and disaster recovery. The center is independent in certain
areas, and is easily connected with government and pro-
posed other organizations which need supportive deci-
sions through the techno logy of network.
In this paper, we introduce the conception of virtual
information center to the field of unexpected emergency
event disposition. However, compared to the original
definition of virtual information center raised by Bui, the
virtual information center in our paper focuses on the
scene disposition and we should pay more attention on
information delivering , handling and feedb ack by institu -
tions or people. Decision makers, scene staff and other
related personnel can communicate through th is informa-
tion institution timely so as to improve the management
efficiency, and drop the disaster loss to the minimum,
involve accidents information, influence and the progress
of relief work, casualties, etc.
In this paper, the virtual information center is defined
as a system that communicates information and consists
of ECA rules [11], expert knowledge base and relevant
information warehouse and the function of these parts
will be illustrated in section3.1. The responsibility of the
center is to collect data, information of all areas and data
warehouse relevant with crisis utilizing subsistent net wo rk
communication technology. When unexpected public
emergency event occurs, the center provides information
support for events disposition according to a certain pat-
tern, result in resolving disaster problem effectively.
Compared with traditional busin ess process, the work-
flow under emergency has large amounts of dispersive
sources, which exchange mass complicated data and in-
formation such as device in formation, product information,
operator information, etc. Due to this, the virtual infor-
mation center shou ld have the following four features:
1) Distribution
Sources of information in virtual information center
are distributed dispersedly and they perform their daily
work convention a lly.
2) Concentration
Virtual information center, as a center, is mainly due
to its function as an information platform to store infor-
mation which is physically dispersed . The information cen-
ter fully saves time in information gathering in public
emergency cases because of information concentration,
thus ensure the quick emergency response.
3) Virtuality
Virtual information center is a virtual organization, it
doesn’t have actual existence of office space, and its of-
fice space is established along with the sudden public
4) Real-time
Virtual information center receives event information
dynamically, and then react to it, so its work flow is not
fixed. It also continues receiving new real-time event
information and making new workflow along with the
emergency disposition.
Constructing a virtual information center demands the
mobile devices of perfect function, a network of command
and co mmunicat io ns , an d th e be st o f m anagerial skills. The
explosion of telecommunications technology, the ever
expanding Internet, the availability of inter-platform
connectivity software made in group decision and nego-
tiation are all making the concept of the virtual informa-
tion center for emergency disaster relief to be an effec-
tive and feasible measure [12].
Th is cha pte r d escribes the definition, characters and ne-
cessity of virtual information center in unexpected emer-
gency events. Then we will illustrate how the virtual in-
formation center ought to be and how it works.
3. Construction of VIC in Unexpected
Emergency Event
In the process of constructing virtual information center,
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
we should consult existing emergency plans to design work
flows and develop corresponding information support sys-
tems so as to construct a virtual information center based
on it. Through the platform, the system can deliver corre-
sponding commands and inform the target people by col-
lecting information fed back from the sensors or people so
as to promise the effective information communication in
the public emergency. Virtual information center involves
all the departments related in the scope of ap plication from
obtaining the warning information till to the incident hav-
ing been solved, even to the post-processing, but the pri-
mary step is the stage of scene disposition.
The virtual information center should organize drills af-
ter its construction, finding problems and modifying it in
time, to ensure its feasibility and effectiveness. Once the
emergency takes place, the center can make effective dis-
posal immediately so as to reduce the possible loss to the
least. Constructing the virtual information center overall
involves two steps and they are introduced in Sections 3.1
and 3.2, respectively.
The most important function of this virtual information
center is collecting and delivering information. The types
of the collected information include the information daily
collected and the information collected in the scene. Apart
from this, a big challenge in delivering information is to
send the right information to the right person by proper
manner at the right time. In order to solve this problem, the
virtual information center needs a suitable workflow
mechanism, which is defined by rules and rules can be de-
fined by experience or events. In addition, the most impor-
tant chara cter of th e mech anism fo r this v irtu al infor mation
center is that the information is delivered by the knowledge,
which is stored in the form of ECA rules. Through the rules
the system can send corresponding orders or information
on the basis of different conditions when various events
triggering in emergency. The specific presentation and ne-
cessity of introducing ECA rules is illustrated in section
3.1. Basic Components of VIC
Virtual infor mation center consists of thre e parts. They are
virtual informati on m anagem ent system VIMS, exp ert
knowledge base (EKB), event triggered rule base.
Virtual information management system (VIMS) is
mainly responsible for managing and invoking in the
system's database, and it stores the information captured
by sensors to the database of the information system. The
VIMS can also invoke and share data of expert knowledge
base, and hand down strategic decisions made by expert
knowledge to each department, aimed at directing the
relief work in emergency. Therefore, the VIMS is the
core of the whole system.
Expert knowledge base (EKB) is mainly responsible
for the system’s decision analyzing. Censors collect large
amount of information after emergency occurs, and EKB
filter the information needed by decision analyzing from
vast information to prevent information overload, after
that, the EKB gives optimal scheme of processing and
rescuing decision support through analyzing of public
emergencies. The emergency plan compiled beforehand
in traditional working process can be seen as a kind of
decision knowledge stored in EKB, in addition to some
other forms of artificial intelligent algorithm and rules
recommend by experts can be stored as knowledge in
EKB. The EKB in the whole system plays a high-level
decision supported role.
Event triggered rule base is mainly respon sible for fir-
ing and invoking other modules (such as VIMS, EKB) in
virtual information center through beforehand defined
event triggering rules. Because in the conventio nal work-
flow, the event state is consecutive and connected in the
form as flow, while in the unconventional workflow,
many unexpected event happens which makes the event
state becomes inconsecutive and many independent
branches exist in the workflow. Thus , after an emergency
occurs, it could initiatively start rule and control the in-
cident conducting timely. These events triggered rules of
system are stored in active rule engine (ARE) as the form
of ECA rules [13], the ECA rule is traditionally per-
formed as a kind of rule used for the description of dis-
crete event model. ECA rules will be illustrated in next
part. The whole structure of the virtual information cen-
tre is illustrated in Figure 1.
The focus of this architecture is on how to perform the
information matchmaking mechanism in emergency in-
cidents, that is, how to arrange the proper information to
the appropriate one at right time.
3.2. Workflow Modeling
The process of modeling workflow defines all the proc-
ess, from the preparing work to finishing work, including
process-related information and the status of each in-
stance of the process as it gets executed. The workflow
of virtual information center can be divided into two
types: conditional workflow and un conditional workflow.
We will illustrate each step as follows:
3.2.1. Preparing Work
Before the virtual information center starts after the oc-
currence of emergent events, we need some preparing
work. In the normal state, the dairy work of virtual in
formation center includes:
1) The construction and maintenance of the sensors,
mobile equipments and wireless communication network,
etc. Flexible and powerful mobile equipments are guar-
anteed for the effective handling emergency due to the
staff participating in handling emergency are scat terin g in
geography, so the hardware we construct must support
coordinated environment based on information, making
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
Figure 1. The whole structure of virtual information center.
sure that the information in solving the emergency can be
unblocked timely. The hardware must support the six
tasks including detecting and reporting task, identifying
task, informing task, organizing task, executing task,
evaluating and researching task [14].
2) Collecting, sorting and saving information related in
solving the public emergency, ensuring the information
can be updated in systems timely. The information in-
cluding the information received by sensors in the emer-
gency scene, information concerning with management
departments and information used for decisions. The
information storeroom in virtual information center can
be divided into five effective information fields which
are communicating information, map information, envi-
ronment information, schedules and procedure informa-
tion [15] .
Resource information consists of the information
about the category, quantity and allocating method of
emergent traffic equipments, machines and facilities. The
workers can get needed resource or find out related con-
nection information immediately through the inf ormati on,
then accelerate the emergency disposition.
Communicating information is the information through
which the system contacts with the needed workers to
solve the problems when the emergency takes place,
which includes telephon e numbers, Emails, job responsi-
bilities and available ability that day. The available abil-
ity information is influenced by location, weather, health
condition, etc.
Map information is the information that ensures to
draft the optimal route under emergent situations. We
need different route information in different emergent
situations such as earthquake, flood, bridge collapse, etc.
The kind of information includes location information,
optional traffic route informatio n, traffic information and
even disposing information of heavy mechanical ma-
chines, etc.
Environment information includes local wind direction,
wind velocity, temperature, pressure, humidity, rainfall
and water, soil information in polluted area. The infor-
mation will have positive or negative influence on re-
source collocating, staff contacting, route and traffic, fire
spreading and toxic gases scattering, so we choose the
optional information according to the environment in-
formation to some degree.
Schedule and procedure information is the information
that is formulated ahead of time to ensure handling the
emergency safely, and we should draw up the kind of
information into the virtual information center while we
draft different emergency plans. The information consists
of procedure for alerting dangers, specific emergent ac-
tion plan, system commanding plan and comprehensive
emergency management plan. According to the type of
information, the staff in the scene can work under the
accurate information guiding so as to decrease potential
With the improvement of the emergency job’s re-
quirement, we must ensure the accuracy of the ability to
obtain, analyze and handle information in the virtual in-
formation center, clear and definite procedures to check
and ratify information and assure the unity of the infor-
mation collected, avoiding the contradictory information.
3.2.2. Unconventional Workflow
According to the above step, we can deal with the normal
workflow through the hardware and the information col-
lected, however, the workflow of the emergency changes
dynamically most times. Therefore, the next step we
should design the workflow in the non-normal state, that
is, after emergency takes place. The entire workflow of
the organization is after receiving warning information,
the system firstly analyses and verifies information; and
then makes decisions according to the guidance from
ex-incorporating ECA rules; furthermore, the system
sends the commands information to the related depart-
ments to instruct their job; finally, the system receives
the information feedback from the scene continuously
along with the handling with incidents, and then evalu-
ates again, and lastly make the next commands, thereby,
control the changes of incidents in time. The specific
Message channel
Secure guide
ECA rules
IMS of De
artment 2
IMS of De
artment 1
IMS of Department N
ECA rules ARE
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss57
unconventional workflow of the virtual information cen-
tre is shown in Figure 2.
We can see that the work of virtual information center
is to let the departments gain the accurate and timely
information through strengthening the management of
sharing information. The system collects and distributes
the targeted info rmation to the targeted groups, which not
only reaches to “soft” control effect but also has a func-
tion of reassuring the people. In this case, what to dis-
tribute, how to distribute and when to distribute is be-
coming complex and detailed decision problems, and this
is what the virtual information center should do. The aim
to constructing the virtual information center is to fasten
the information broadcast and improve the accuracy and
velocity of handling the emergency, so the flow of in-
formation should be unconstrained, real-time and correct.
3.3. Workflow Modeling Based on ECA Rules
After constructing the system architecture and workflow
of virtual information center, we need to define the cor-
responding triggering mechanism considering the ur-
gency and dynamics of public emergencies. This trigger-
ing mechanism is based on information interactive level,
therefore, we can define the triggering mechanism of
public emergencies’ virtual information center for corre-
sponding information. This paper applies the triggering
mechanism based on ECA rules. It invokes each abstract
information module using the initiative and timeliness of
ECA rules, and then achieves the effective management
of the corresponding personnel or organizations of each
module, through that it can control working process in
virtual information center.
Event-Condition-Actio n Rule abbreviates to ECA rule,
and initially been used in database sharing field on the
purpose of providing the fast reaction of event-driven
ability for active database system [16,17]. Many applica-
tion fields consider and adopt it as one of the most effi-
cient coordination approach because of the concise, clear
characteristics in describing the response behavior.
In next section, we will use a case to explain how to
use the ECA rules and what the form of the rules.
4. Case Study
There are many dangerous chemicals in the chemical
laboratory, and leakage, fire, explosions and other causes
may result in great risk of chemical accidents which are
harmful to society, including acute poisoning, injury or
death. Take the chemical accident in chemical lab of one
school as an example, this paper will introduce how to
build a virtual information center of this accident ac-
cording to the proposed method of Virtual Information
Center in Section 3. In order to build this organization,
we need to construct its system architecture based on
emergency plan [18] of chemical accident, define the
roles and design its workflow, establish the correspond-
ing information support system. The specific scheme is
as follows:
Figure 2. Unconventional workflow of virtual information center.
Warning Information
Can not be effec-
tively controlled or
heavy losses of lives
Leaders in charge
of the departments
and their relevant
specialized troop
Analyze and
of the accident
Responses to
situations and
Site data
ARE active
rule engine
Map In-
Schedule and
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
4.1. System Structure Design
VIMS’ responsibilities are as follows: receiving warning
information, instant information from the scene and in-
struction information of emergency rescue from local
government or higher education authorities; submitting
information to the decision-makers timely; querying in-
formation from the information base and sending mes-
sages and commands to each functional department on
the purpose of directing and coordinating their rescue
work; sending up the situation of the accident and rescu-
ing process to higher education authorities on the condi-
tion that the incident can’t find effective control or result
in heavy casualties.
EKB: The president or the person appointed by presi-
dent holds the post of chief commander while the
vice-president or heads of the departments hold the post
of vice-chief in decision-making. The system directs
emergency disposing work real-time after receiving
emergency information and in the end organizes the ac-
cident investigation to update information base. Expert
teams needed by EKB are made up of the experts in po-
lice stations, fire brigades, health bureaus, environmental
protection agencies, transportation bureaus, meteoro-
logical bureaus and bureaus of civil affairs. They pro-
pound emergency plan and safety measures for emer-
gency rescue, and provide technical guidance for rescue
work. All these emergency disposal plans and experts’
advices are stored in EKB in the form of rules or knowl-
IMS of depart ments:
Public Security Office of School and Handan Munici-
pal Bureau: they formulate pre-arranged planning of
personnel evacuation and accident alert. Organization
accident may endanger the personnel evacuation in area,
so they must make security administration for the per-
sonnel evacuation area; hey control the ambient traffic
which surrounding the scene of the accident, and they
inhibit cars from going into the dangerous area in order
to protect the smooth flow of relief road; they involve in
the accident investigation and handling.
Hospital Wing and Handan Municipal Public Health
Bureau: they formulate pre-arranged planning of treat-
ment of injured person and ambulance emergency. They
determine injured person’s professional treatment and
ambulance design ated hospitals, they train corresp onding
health-care professionals; they direct designated hospital
to lay up corresponding medical instrumentation and
first-aid medicine; they deploy medical personnel, medi-
cal instrumentation and first-aid medicine of the scene,
organize rescue and transfer the wounded; they count the
case of casualties.
Police Station and Fire Brigade: they formulate pre-
arranged planning of handling hazardous chemical acci-
dents. They are in charge of some tasks at the emergency
scene, for example detect, vigilance, rescue, risk control,
fire extinction, flood protection, export and transfer, de-
contamination and cleaning.
Environmental Protection Bureau: they organize the
monitoring of dangerous chemical pollution incidents,
and determine the composition of hazardous substances
and the concentration of influential area; they warn the
area that may have environmental impact for a long time,
put forward controlling measures and monitoring; after
the accident under control, they direct hazardous sub-
stances remained at the scene to remove the environ-
mental pollution; they survey major pollution incidents
of dangerous chemicals and ecological damage events.
Handan Municipal Communications Bureau: they
specify emergency transport unit; they supervise mainte-
nance of emergency vehicles, training of drivers, trans-
port goods and materials and workers at the emergency
Handan Municipal Meteorological Bureau: they report
weather information and provide corresponding technical
support; they provid e weather information for emergency
scene, such as wind direction, wind speed, temperature,
air pressure, humidity and rainfall amount; they organize
professional teams to predict the spread of fire, and the
direction, speed, scope of toxic gas diffusion.
Handan Municipal Civil Affairs Bureau: they organize
the deployment of rescue equipment and goods and ma-
terials, transfer and place disaster victims, and imple-
mentation of disaster relief li f e.
Information Office: they organize and coordinate pub-
lication of accident news.
School Affairs Office: they deal with the disposal of
auxiliary field, such as placating the victims and students
timely, contacting with the family of wounded .
4.2. Workflow Design
In the view of the dangerous accident in school chemistry
lab, the workflow of constructing virtual information
center in general is as follows:
1) Constructing and maintaining the sensors, mobile
devices, wireless communication network and other
hardware facilities. Dangerous chemical accidents mostly
have two categories including leaking accidents and fire
(explosion), so sensors include automatic fire alarm and
automatic alarm sensor which is distributed within the
laboratory or around the laboratory to measure the hu-
midity, temperature and concentration of toxic gas in air.
Mobile devices include mobile telephones, interphones
and other equipments which can receive information.
Wireless communication network makes up of computers,
a large number of microelectronic devices, precision
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB
machinery and equipment, etc.
2) Collecting, aggregating and storing the related in-
formation mentioned in information base of the previous
models, and ensuring to update this information timely in
the system. Specific information including:
Resource information includes the information of
medical staffs in designated hospitals, medical equip-
ments and first-aid medicines, emergency vehicles of
designated emergency transport units, rescue equipments
and other materials information, such as categories,
amounts and ways of supplying.
Staff communication information includes telephone
numbers, emails, positions and available information of
members in the expert teams, principals of various func-
tional departments and their professional team members;
it also includes the contact information and other mes-
sage files of teachers, students and their parents (such as
family medical histories, date of birth and so on).
Cartographic information is the school’s location in-
formation, optional routes of police cars, fire trucks, am-
bulances, transporting vehicles, traffic information, the
deployment information of heavy machineries and
Environmental information is the weather information
in the school location of wind direction, wind speed,
temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, rainfall
amount and the pollutant information of water bodies and
soil around laboratories.
Plans and procedures information concentrates all
program information in alarm reporting procedures,
evacuations and alerting plans, treatment and rescuing of
the injured persons plans, handling hazardous chemical
accidents plans and disposal of hazardous chemical pol-
lution incident plans.
When criminal cases or catastrophic incidents of che-
micals happen, the compiling workflow of school’s vir-
tual information center is: firstly, receiving warning in-
formation by the sensor at the scene or the phone from
teachers and students at the scene, including time, place,
type, strength and damage of the accident; secondly,
launching emergency disposition according to sphere,
level and variation of this event immediately after con-
firming and analyzing warning information; at last,
transmitting warning information to the principal of cam-
pus office, public security office of school, police station,
fire brigade, hospital, health bureau, environmental pro-
tection agency, transportation bureau, meteorological
bureau and civil affairs bureau, and the heads of these
departments organize professional teams and related
members to the scene to work. With the processing of the
incident, the system receives the information of pro-
gressing, accident investigating information, casualties’
information, substance transporting information, evacua-
tion information and en vironmental information fed back
from emergency scene by the principals of functional
departments or the members of the professional teams.
The system makes command of next step after re-evalu-
ating the event.
After disposing the event, organizing personnel to
analyze this event and composing information report to
modify the pre-compiled information database in virtual
information center so that they can dispose emergency
work easily in future. According to the format of ECA
rules, the instance described above can be represented as
the set of rules which are p artly shown in Figure 3 . Each
rule, when the condition is satised, will execute an ac-
In a word, the virtual information center proposed in
this paper can ensure the decision-makers and expert
groups to receive feedback information from scene im-
mediately as soon as the chemistry lab accidents happen.
We can also send the order and message to the relative
target people through virtual information center so that
they can take appropriate action in qu ick respon se. In th is
way, we can guarantee the efficiency of scene disposition
in chemical laboratory accidents.
5. Conclusions
In emergency management, the information is a bridge to
link each department and the steps within each depart-
ment. To make sure that dealing with emergency is ef-
fective during a given period of time, we must ensure the
On extEvent(sensor1.tempeture > 80) and extEvent(sensor 2.alarm = on)
If it is not practice
Do creatExtEvent(fire(conten=‘chemical lab is on fire,hurry!’))
On extEvent(fire)
If fire.reason = ‘Mg burning’
Do invokeService(EKB.request(reason of ‘Mg burning’))
On svcEvent(EKB.suggestion())
If message channel.open()
Do creatextEvent(Dep1.prepare (medicine)) and creatextEvent(Dep2.prepare(secure _equipment))
Figure 3. The ECA rules of the part process in this case.
Construction of Virtual Information Center in Scene Disposition of Unexpected Public Emergency Eventss
timely information unblocked in scene disposition.
The current emergency plan, which is adopted in our
architecture, is nowadays regarded as the most pervasive
method for emergency application integration, however,
it assumes huge message exchange over the disposition,
and it has evolved with a variety of sensors in wide areas.
Furthermore, the ubiquitous paradigm requires more
complicated and reactive communication architecture
beyond the existing architecture. Due to this, our paper
presents a virtual information center referencing on the
basis of former. Our approach was proposed to assist the
information transferring for unexpected public emergency
events. We described the operation mechanism based on
ECA rules by improving and deeply discussing the con-
crete implementation tache. As a result, the primitive
people or events, such as sensors, can also interact with
information systems to enact collaborative and effective
business process.
6. Acknowledgement
This research work was supported b y the National Natural
Science Founda t i on of C hi na (Grant No. 70771017).
[1] A. M. Schaafstal, J. H. Johnston and R. L. Oser, “Train-
ing Teams for Emergency Management,” Computers in
Human Behavior, Vol. 17, 2001, pp. 615-626.
[2] J. Hale, “A Layered Communication Architecture for the
Support of Crisis Response,” Journal of Management In-
formation Systems, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1997, pp. 235-255.
[3] Meizhou government, “Scene Disposition Standard of
Emergency Event in Meizhou City,” 2009. http://www.mei
d507 27. html.
[4] N. Wang, S. Han, H. Li and Y. Z. Wang, “Research on
Information Integrating Method Based on En-
tity-Relation-Problem Modeling System,” Journal of Da-
lian University of Technology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2007, pp.
[5] L. Ji, H. Chi and A. Chen, “Emergency Management,”
Higher Education Press, 2006.
[6] J. J. Xing, “Emergency Plan Compiling Technology in
Serious Accidents,” Journal of Chinese Security Science,
Vol. 14, No. 1, 2004, pp. 57-60.
[7] D. Z. Peng and J. Y. Hu, “Emergency Plan Research in
City Major Accident,” Industrial Safety and Environ-
mental Protection, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2004, pp. 38-40.
[8] H. Jiang, “Scenarios of Evolution in Rare Major Emer-
gency Real-Time Decision-Making,” Journal of
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Social
Science Edition), 2009.
[9] H. Artman, “Team Situation Assessment and Information
Distribution,” Ergonomics, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2000, pp.
[10] T. X. Bui and S. R. Sankaran, “Design Considerations for
A Virtual Information Center for Humanitarian Assis-
tance/Disaster Relief Using Workflow Modeling,” Deci-
sion Support Systems, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2001, pp. 165-179.
[11] J. Y. Jung, J. Park, S. K. Han and K. Lee, “An
ECA-based Framework for Decentralized Coordination of
Ubiquitous Web Services,” Information and Software
Technology, Vol. 49, 2007, pp. 1141-1161.
[12] H. Y. Mak, A. P. Mallard, T. Bui and G. Au, “Building
Online Crisis Management Support Using Workflow
Systems,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 25, 1999, pp.
[13] J. Kong, J. Y. Jung and J. Park, “Event-Driven Service
Coordination for Business Process Integration in Ubiqui-
tous Enterprises,” Computers & Industrial Engineering,
Vol. 57, 2009, pp. 14-26.
[14] Y. F. Yuan and B. Detlor, “Intelligent Mobile Crisis Re-
sponse Systems,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 48,
No. 2, 2005, pp. 95-98.
[15] S. W. Yoon, J. D. Velasquez, B. K. Partridge and S. Y.
Nof, “Transportation Security Decision Support System
for Emergency Response: A Training Prototype,” Deci-
sion Support Systems, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2008, pp. 139-148.
[16] N. Bassiliades and I. Vlahavas, “Device: Compiling Pro-
duction Rules Into Event-Driven Rules Using Complex
Events,” Information and Software Technology, Vol. 39,
No. 5, 1997, pp. 331-342.
[17] U. Dayal, B. Blaustein, A.P. Buchmann, S. Chakravarthy,
D. Goldhirsch, M. Hsu, R. Ladin, D. McCarthy and A.
Rosenthal, “The HiPAC Project: Combining Active Da-
tabases and Timing Constraints,” Acm Sigmod Record,
Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, pp. 51-70.
[18] Kunming government, “Dangerous Chemicals Emer-
gency Plan of Kunming,” 2007. http://www.ketdz.gov.cn/
Regulations/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID =1971.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. iB