Journal of Computer and Communications, 2014, 2, 37-41
Published Online January 2014 (
Elements and Steps of E-Learning Benchmarking Model
for Higher Education Institutions
Jirasak Sae-Khow1, Onjaree Na-Takuatoong2, Jintavee Khlaisang2
1Faculty of Education, Suratthani Rajabhat University, Suratthani, Thailand; 2Division of Educational Communications and Tech-
nology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Received October 2013
The purposes of this research were to 1) develop of an e-learning benchmarking model for higher education in-
stitutions; 2) analyze and synthesize e-learning indicators for e-learning benchmarking model. The research was
conducted using the research and development methods. The result shows that there are eight elements of
e-learning benchmarking model: 1) team/staffs 2) benchmarkings title 3) comparative companies 4) bench-
marking indicators 5) data collection method 6) analysis data and results 7) report of results and 8) action plan
development. Moreover, four steps of benchmarking model will be used in this research. Planis the step of
setting team for benchmarking title and choosing the company to collect the benchmarking while “Do” is a field
study in order to analyze and collect each indicator. The step “Check” presents the data to stakeholders and set
the purposes of action plan. Finally, “Act” which is the development of action plan leads to the practice or im-
plementation which related to auditing and evaluating.
e-Learning; Benchmarking; e-Learning Benchmarking Model
1. Introduction
E-learning operation in the university level has been de-
veloped and expanded continuously in almost every part
of the world. One method commonly used in the United
States, Europe, Australia and New Zealand is to improve
the quality of benchmarking e-learning which is useful
for identifying organizational strengths and weaknesses
with developing a strategic plan for e-learning as well as
its quality assurance. Moreover, it can determine the ex-
tent of success from the e-learning operation. Changing
concepts and improving e-learning, for example, e-
learning benchmarking in Australia is ACODE (Austra-
lasian Council on Open, Distance and E-learning) [1].
Has developed strategies for the implementation and also
brought to the success in three aspects of the perfor-
mance—operation result, management efficiency and e-
learning services improvement [2,3].
Among the European countries, England is a leader in
e-learning benchmarking method in higher education.
The Higher Education Academy (HEA) and the Joint
Information Systems Committee (JISC) is a pioneering
project of the initiative, and comparable performance in
England [4]. The study of comparison in five benchmark-
ing e-learning methods, ELTI (Embedding Learning
Technologies Institutionally), MIT90s (developed by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1990s),
OBHE/ACU (Observatory for Borderless Higher Educa-
tion/Association of Commonwealth Universities), Pic &
Mix (developed by Professor Paul Bacsich, the pro-
gramme’s consultant) and eMM (e-learning Maturity
Model) Nazako Joanicjusz are analyzed and started in
November 2005 [5]. The objective of this project is to
create the standard, capacity and good practice in e-
learning as well as the issue of improving quality and the
development of e-learning continuously. For the devel-
opment of benchmarking e-learning model in higher
education institutions in Thailand, it is derived from the
concept of e-learning and theories that various scholars
used to suggest including quality assurance, performance
indicators and benchmarking in e-learning in foreign
countries. This research plays an important part in the
implementation of e-learning in higher education institu-
tions, the countrys quality standards as well as the crea-
tion of new knowledge in the context of e-learning to
improve its quality. From the results, e-learning growth
to other countries is progressive both in quantity and
Elements and Steps of E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions
quality and it moves onward with the changes occurring
in the future.
2. Literature Review
Benchmarking is a systematic and continuous developing
process for evaluating institution’s performance quality
to determine how the different accepted famous orga-
nizations work by studying the best practice by setting
standard indicators and comparing from the indicators
and finally, apply the result to improve the performance
quality both in producing and service processes [6-10].
2.1. Elements of Benchmarking Model
Academics have discussed the elements of benchmarking
as followings:
Andersen and Pettersen and Camp discussed the ele-
ments of benchmarking that it started by setting a com-
parable performance team and then clearly defined the
structure of the Executive management, the position and
the role of each division to be flexible and consistent
promotion of each other. Learn to observe the process of
the Organization and understand the processes running in
your own organization to identify methods and operating
procedures to determine the criteria for selecting an or-
ganization that uses a pair of equivalent performance to
determine indicators for comparable performance to se-
lect methods and tools to collect information to analyze
data throughout the report and apply the results to con-
tinue to improve enterprise development [6,7].
Robere described setting up a team is an important
element in the comparable performance as well as defin-
ing the compared Agency, collecting data and analyzing
data on indicators, summarizing and reporting the results
of operations and communications informing people in
all levels through the Organization by using various me-
thods to make final plans to perform the objectives of the
organization. Finally make a plan to accomplish the or-
ganization’s goal [9].
Camp mentioned the important component of compa-
rable performance is to identify what elements we want
to compare by considering missions from both organiza-
tions, how to collect the comparative organization, de-
termining how to collect information and a variety of
information gathering, analyzing, summarizing, imple-
menting report and plans for future operation [7].
Kelly mentioned that to specify the elements of com-
parable performance we need to consider the functions in
the operation of the team, choose a format that will make
comparable academic performance documents and re-
lated information, pick a pair compared organization and
appoint the comparable performance team, analyze data
using statistical method, present the presentation was
updated and how to perform the best (Best Practice),
write a summary of a plan and publish a policy and fi-
nally, turning into action, work together is the policy in
the last work together to hand coordination planned to-
gether to take a step towards to excellence [8].
2.2. Steps of Benchmarking Model
Andersen and Pettersen have divided benchmarking
model into 5 steps. Plan is the most important process
that will bring benchmarking to be successful and effec-
tive and get the good implementation. Search is the step
to find the best comparative companies. An activity re-
quired in this step is to define the criteria for selecting
potential comparative companies. Observe: the purpose
of observing is to define and understand the performance
process of the comparative companies to improve per-
formance process in your own company. Analyses: to
determine the gap of the process and analyze the prob-
lems that cause the gap and discuss the results of the data
obtained to develop performance process, and Adapt: to
improve operating process is necessity in comparable
performance. To define the opportunity in improving and
developing after getting the Best Practice, team needs to
consider the elements of time and resource, and necessi-
ties of company, availability of personnel processes in-
volved in developing and targeting must be able to
measure and assess, to report operating results as a sum-
mary execution from the beginning until the end and to
add some comments and further suggestions [6].
Robere and Associates Benchmarking Model have
developed a format derived from the ideas of the compa-
rable performance experts an experience in the field of
quality more than 20 years. They have merged to bright
out the strengths model as part of the model by combin-
ing the steps of Edward De Ming as following below.
Plan—Select the process you want and provide compa-
rable performance team. Do—Collect and analyze the
data, examine the differences, advantages and strengths
that have been found in the company. Study—Study sys-
tematically and inform involved people all findings of
the benchmarking and set the targets. Action—Create
action plan development [9].
Camp the main phases of comparable performance
based on Camp’s concept are divided into 5 phases. 1 - 4
phrases are comparable performance process and each
phase is broken down totally into 10 procedures. Phase 5
has two additional steps to ensure that operation has op-
erated effectively and achieved the goal. Phases and steps
of benchmarking model consist of: Phase 1 Planning the
operation. The purpose is to answer the 3 points, What,
Who and How is to be benchmark? There are 3 sub-steps:
Sub-step 1: identify what to compare. Sub-step 2: define
which company that has the best practice. Sub-step 3:
determine data and data collection method, the operator
must plan and define the detailed operation procedures
Elements and Steps of E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions
carefully to get the best information. Phase 2: Analysis
phase: to analyze, compare and understand our company
and to see the different data of comparative company.
What are the weaknesses and strengths of comparative
company, where is the best practice? How to bring the
process to use with our company? Sub-step 4: set the
performance space and take report results in our organi-
zation and compare with the comparative company in
quantity or quality comparison. Sub-step 5: determine the
plan or the level of operations in the future. Phase 3, In-
tegration phase. In order to change or improve organiza-
tion, integrating new techniques or new innovation is
very important. Sub-step 6: communicate or inform the
discovery to everyone in company to know the result and
findings from the benchmarking. Sub-step 7: set opera-
tion’s goals. Phase 4: action phrase Sub-step 8: planning
development. Sub-step: monitoring and following up
Sub-step: evaluating and comparing results with the
standard criteria. Phase 5: Maturity, the operation in this
phase is to make the best element, that is, the execution
of all processes in the organization and competency de-
velopment to participate at the same time [11].
Kelly there are 8 steps in educational benchmarking as
follows: 1. Decide to make a benchmarking by consider-
ing from function and its results. 2. Select the format or
model to be com-pared by consulting from the documen-
tation and relevant information, selection of a suitable
performance compared with the job. 3. Select the com-
parative companies and assign the team to operate by
choosing equivalent comparative company that has
equivalent performance and same environment and as-
sign the efficiency of personnel to take responsibility. 4.
Select the appropriate comparable performance by stud-
ying and comparing the results of each process. 5. Com-
pare possible results by creating with 3 steps: create a
draft questionnaire, tryout and develop and use it to col-
lect data at last. 6. Result comparison, there are 2 steps;
statistic data analysis and comparing to find the space of
the performance.7. Design new operation and set the
targets. There are 2 steps; one is to define and create the
models and the other one is to reduce the performance’s
gap in presenting new model to board committees to
consider the new improved model. 8. Improving and de-
veloping. There are 3 steps, these are; take the sugges-
tions and comments of the committees to improve and
develop to be the best practice. Summarize plans and
declares as the policies in cooperating and follow the
action plan. The template is used to format your paper
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spaces, and text fonts are prescribed; please do not alter
them. You may note peculiarities. For example, the head
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customary. This measurement and others are deliberate,
using specifications that anticipate your paper as one part
of the entire proceedings, and not as an independent
document. Please do not revise any of the current desig-
nations [8].
3. Methodology
3.1. Study and Analyze Theoretical Concept
Documents related to the elements and steps of ben-
chmarking as follow:
the benchmarking handbook: step-by-step instruction
Benchmarking: A system approach for continual im-
provement [9].
Business Process Benchmarking: Finding and Imple-
menting Best Practices [7].
Benchmarking for School Improvement: A practical
guide for comparing and achieving effectiveness [8].
3.2. Opinion Interview and Confirming Data
Opinion interview and confirming data from the spe-
cialists about the elements of e-learning benchmark-
ing to get suggestions and opinions about the ele-
ments and steps that related and suitable with e-lear n-
ing benchmarking including data confirmation from
the specialists. The researcher used the interview
question covered the important weight and appro-
priateness of elements and steps of e-learning ben-
5 representative samples who answered the question-
naire were chosen by using purposive sampling. In-
terview question was used as a tool for this research.
Collecting and analyzing comments from the special-
ists based on the content validity comparing with
theoretical concepts related to the issues and consi-
dered the appropriateness and consistency of data.
Mean and SD were used as the statistical procedure to
analyze data.
4. Results
The opinion interview and questionnaire results about the
elements and steps of e-learning benchmarking were
taken from five specialists and summarized shown in
Tables 1 and 2 be low.
The consideration results from the experts found that
the elements of benchmarking consist of 8 elements as
follow: 1) team/staffs 2) bench marking’s title 3) com-
parative companies 4) benchmarking indicators 5) data
collection method 6) analysis data and results 7) report of
results 8) action plan development.
The result from the specialists found that the steps of
benchmarking consist of 1) Plan includes team/staff,
bench-marking model, benchmarking titles, benchmark-
ing indicators, comparative companies and data collect-
Elements and Steps of E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions
Table 1. Elements of e-Learning Benchmarking.
Considering issues Mean S.D Meaning
team/staffs 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
benchmarking title 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
comparative companies 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
benchmarking indicators 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
data collection method 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
analysis data and results 4.40 1.34 Most appropriate
report of results 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
action plan development 4.40 1.34 Most appropriate
Table 2. Steps of e-Learning Benchmarking Model.
Considering issues Mean S.D Meaning
Team/staff 4.80 0.45 Most appropriate
Benchmarking model 4.20 1.79 appropriate
Benchmarking titles 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Benchmarking indicators 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Comparative companies 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Data collecting method 4.20 1.79 appropriate
Data and result analysis 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
Report of results 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Best Practice 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Setting goals 4.20 1.30 appropriate
communication 4.00 1.41 appropriate
Writing or designing 4.80 0.45 Most appropriate
Implementation 4.40 1.34 appropriate
Evaluation and assessment 4.60 0.89 Most appropriate
ing method 2) Do in-cludes data and result analysis, re-
port of results and best practice 3) Check includes setting
goals, communication 4) Act includes writing or design-
ing, implementation and evaluation and assessment.
The result of this paper shows that there are eight ele-
ments of e-learning benchmarking model: 1) team/ staffs
2) bench marking’s title 3) comparative companies 4)
benchmarking indicators 5) data collection method 6)
analysis data and results 7) report of results and 8) action
plan development. Moreover, four steps of benchmarking
model will be used in this research. “Plan” is the step of
setting team for benchmarking title and choosing the
company to collect the benchmarking while “Do” is a
field study in order to analyze and collect each indicator.
The step “Check” presents the data to stakeholders and
sets the purposes of action plan. Finally, “Act” which is
the development of action plan leads to the practice or
implementation which related to auditing and evaluating.
5. Conclusion
All research projects are ongoing, so the conclusion can
explain the results of first stage which are partly from the
main research of e-learning benchmarking model for
higher education institutions. The researcher presented
the eight elements as the key and continued with four
steps of e-learning benchmarking. The results will con-
tribute and encourage benchmarking techniques for using
e-learning in higher education institutions which can help
the operating staffs in using and developing an efficient
e-learning for students. These also lead to the develop-
ment of a good standard of e-learning and will be a good
practice model in higher education institutions.
The support of this work by the Office of the Higher
Education Commission, Thailand through a grant in the
program “Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research
Network for the Ph.D. Program, Thai Doctoral degree” is
gratefully acknowledged.
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