Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 2013, 1, 68-75
Published Online December 2013 (
Open Access JHRSS
Am I Motivated? A Look at the Motivation Styles,
Symptoms and Working Conditions that Best Motivate
Human Resource Practitioners in Jamaica
Cerease Nevins-Bennett
School of Business and Entrepreneurial Studies, Excelsior Community College, Kingston, Jamaica
Received October 7, 2013; revised November 8, 2013; accepted November 16, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Cerease Nevins-Bennett. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In
accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2013 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intel-
lectual property Cerease Nevins-Bennett. All Copyright © 2013 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.
Human Resource Practitioners, like any other employees within organizations having different motivation styles, are
faced with various motivational problems, and are exposed to different working conditions that best motivate them. The
environment and factors greatly influence the motivational levels of these practitioners and thus job satisfaction and
engagement are affected. This paper outlines the motivation problems experienced by three persons in their work envi-
ronment and gives suggestions as to the strategies necessary to deal with them. The Pritchard Motivation Symptoms
Questionnaire, the Conner Motivation Style Assessment and the Spitzer Motivation Self Assessment Questionnaire
were used in the study. Results show that goal orientated and learning oriented motivation styles are best practiced by
participants neglecting the relationship motivation style. These Participants were either highly motivated or had ex-
perienced some motivation problems. They had major desires for power, achievement, ownership, and competence.
Inter-item correlation revealed a statistically significant relationship between desires for activity, competence, power
and achievement, which were highly correlated.
Keywords: Work Motivation; Motivation Styles; Motivation Symptoms; Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation
1. Introduction
Work motivation is a topic that has been the centre of
great debate and controversy over the past years; many
scholars have taken it seriously and written numerous
articles and books on the topic. However it is a difficult
concept to explain since different writers have used va-
rious terms and phrases to operationalize work motiva-
According to Moyniham et al. [1], “work motivation
has been operationalized in the literature as job satis-
faction, organizational commitment, and job involvement
which are all dependent variables”. It has also been
operationalized as job characteristics and employee en-
gagement [1]. Nevertheless, work motivation may be
defined as “a set of energetic force that originate both wi-
thin as well as beyond an individual being, to initiate
work-related behavior, and to determine its form, di-
rection, intensity, and duration”, Pinder [2].
Great organizations are built on the inherent value of
their human resources as motivated and committed em-
ployees almost always allow an organization to grow fa-
ster than similar competitive organizations, Mohsan et al.
[3]. Thus, employees can be motivated at work both
intrinsically and extrinsically.
Employee motivation may be a result of job satis-
faction, job involvement, and job commitment. Job satis-
faction has been defined as the “pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job
or job experience”, Locke et al. [4]. Employee commit-
ment indicates the sense of loyalty and obligation the
employee holds toward the organization, Allen et al. [5];
and organizational commitment helps to motivate indi-
viduals to pursue collective goals rather than individual
outcomes [5].
For the Human Resource practitioners, job satisfaction
contains positive influences on the performance of the
employees as it enhances job involvement, higher per-
formance, and makes them feel more satisfied and
committed to the organization, Saleem [6] despite of the
many motivational problems they experience. The prac-
titioners differ in their motivation styles, symptoms and
the environment most conducive to their motivational
This paper outlines the motivation problems experi-
enced by three persons in their work environment and
gives suggestions related to the strategies necessary to
deal with them. Three motivation assessment measures
were used to assess their levels of motivation within the
organization from which data was collected to generate
this report. These assessments are the Pritchard Motiva-
tion Symptoms Questionnaire, the Conner Motivation
Style Assessment and the Spitzer Motivation Self As-
sessment Questionnaire.
2. Methodology
2.1. Population and Sampling
Three human resource practitioners were selected from
different organizations representing the educational in-
dustry, the pharmaceutical industry, and the service
industry. The participants were selected by a purposive
sampling method and reflected employees from different
socioeconomic background, industry and demographics
within their respective organizations.
A mixed method approach was used to analyze the ef-
fects of participant’s motivation styles, motivation sym-
ptoms and the working condition that is perceived to mo-
tivate them on their motivation levels.
2.2. Data Collection Method
The data collection methods used were survey (ques-
tionnaires) and interviews. Three questionnaires were
administered to each participant assessing their moti-
vation styles, symptoms and the working condition that
motivates them.
Thirty minutes (30 minutes) in-depth interviews were
conducted with all three employees (separately) about
their motivation issues. A content analysis was then
conducted for the interview data based on preconceived
and emerging themes. The findings were then interpreted
for each person followed by strategies to deal with the
problems arising.
2.3. Instrumentation
The motivation symptoms questionnaire, the Spritzer’s
motivation assessment and the Connor motivation style
questionnaire were the instruments used to collect data
for this study. All three instruments were administered to
the participants to determine their motivation levels.
The Pritchard motivation symptoms questionnaire was
used to assess whether or not a participant or person
working in their immediate work groups had motivation
problems. The questionnaire consists of 21 statements
ranked on a scale of 1 to 3 with 1 being “rarely or never”,
2 being “sometimes” and 3 being “often”. The rankings
for the three categories were added independently and
compared against a range of scores. Scores falling within
the 21 - 30 range means “green light” and signifies that
the participant being assessed is highly motivated; 31 -
45 is the yellow light range which means that participant
have some motivation problems; and 46 - 63 is the red
light range which means that they have serious motiva-
tion problems.
The Spritzer’s motivation assessment questionnaire is
a self assessment questionnaire that is used to determine
the working condition that best motivates an employee. It
consists of 32 statements which are ranked on a scale of
1 to 4. From 1 being “not very important” to 4 being
“very important”. Scores are then transferred to a table,
summed and divided into 8 categories A to H. Category
A consists of scores obtained from items 1,9,17 and 25)
labelled “Desire for Activity”; Category B is the “Desire
for Ownership” (items 2, 10, 18 and 26); and categories
C-H are Desires for power, affiliation, competence, achieve-
ment, recognition and meaning respectively. The two ca-
tegories which participants scored the highest were
identified and interpreted.
The Conner motivation style questionnaire was used to
assess how participants were motivated to learn. The
questionnaire consisted of 10 stem items that were ma-
tched individually against statements placed into three
columns that best characterized the participants. Columns
1 to 3 were labelled goal, relationship and learning re-
spectively to reflect the three motivation styles according
to Conner. The numbers of selected responses were to-
talled in each category and the highest score was used to
determine the participant’s primary motivation style. The
second highest score reflected the participant’s secondary
motivation style.
2.4. Data Analysis
Information from the questionnaires were analyzed using
the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS
16.0), while the interview data were analyzed using con-
tent analysis. The researcher used inter-item correlation
to determine the relationship between the eight desirable
working conditions that best motivated an employee.
3. Case Profiles
3.1. Laketa Davis
Laketa is a 30-year-old Human Resource Administrative
Assistance at Sewell Jamaica Limited, a manufacturing
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entity. She has been employed there for five years in the
current position and is required to provide office-based
administrative support to the Sewell Human Resource
Directors. The job description of the Administrative As-
sistant includes coordinating and scheduling day-to-day
activities including meeting and training programmes for
employees; room bookings for training and meetings of
staff, conference registration; research and compile data
for special projects; develop and maintain print docu-
ments and files of employees. She also provides office
services by implementing administrative systems, pro-
cedures, and policies; and monitoring administrative
projects; contribute to the yearly report writing; attend
meetings and or focus group discussions and prepare mi-
nutes and generating mailings, just to name a few.
3.2. Samantha Blackwood
Samantha is a 37-year-old Training and Development
Officer who has been employed at a Teachers College for
eleven years and reports to the Director of Human Re-
source Development and Administration. She currently
trains staff in the areas of manpower management, hu-
man relation skills, and customer service. The job de-
scriptions of the Training and Development Officer are
to conduct appraisals; evaluate training and development
programmes; devise individual learning plans; and en-
suring that statutory training requirements are met. Other
responsibilities include researching new human resource
and workforce technologies, research new management
trends; and implement budgetary systems and controls
for the department.
3.3. Noel Davis
Noel is a 26-year-old male Human Resource Officer at a
hospital, and has been in the position for three years. His
key responsibility is to provide advice and assistance to
staff, coordinate the recruitment process and aid in the
selection process of new employees. His main response-
bilities are to ensure that proper job descriptions of staff
are prepared and in files, monitor daily attendance of
employees, provide advice and recommendations on dis-
ciplinary actions; and filing of employee records.
4. Report
The motivation assessment, style, and symptom ques-
tionnaires were assessed and Table 1 was generated.
Based on the results, two out of three participants had the
disposition to achieve through direct and obvious routes
(goal orientation) with secondary propensity to search for
knowledge. The desire for achievement was strongest
among Noel and Samantha with Laketa having a strong
desire for ownership.
Table 1. Findings of the Motivation assessment, style, and
symptoms questionnaires for the three Human Resource
Laketa Samantha Noel
Goal oriented
Goal Oriented
Goal oriented
Scores obtained40 30 27
31 - 45
(Yellow light)
problems exists
31 - 45
(Yellow light)
problems exists
21 - 30
(Green light)
Highly motivated
Conditions that
best motivates
Highest Desires
4.1. Respondent #1—Laketa Davis
4.1.1. Content Analysis of Interview
When asked what success meant to her career, Laketa
responded by stating that success means getting a good
salary, perquisites, having autonomy, and being pro-
When asked what goals, including career goals, she
has set for her life, she responded by saying “I want to
return to university and finish my degree in Business
Administration, because an associate degree is not al-
lowing me to earn as much money as I want and I have
bills to pay, in fact without that degree I will never be
When asked about staying motivated despite failure,
she shook her head and stated “that’s a hard question, in
this organization it’s difficult to stay motivated because
of the organizational culture, and I usually try not to
think about the failure and just move on hoping not to
make the same mistake again”.
4.1.2. Interpretation
Based on the questionnaires and the interview it is clear
that Laketa is a goal oriented individual with motivation
problems. Having a high desire for ownership, she is
most motivated to work in an environment where she
feels apart of the organization, have a stake in its success,
able to make choices at work, and have a feeling of
responsibility for the work she does.
Laketa’s secondary desires for competence, achieve-
ment, recognition and meaning gives her the desires to
work in an organization where she is given learning
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opportunities; is allowed to set goals for herself and en-
couraged to improve; be shown appreciation; feel re-
warded for success; and where she can relate her ob-
jectives to the bigger picture and get a sense of meaning
from her job.
As an Administrative Assistant in the Human Re-
source Department, the job allows for some level of con-
trol, coordination, organization of activities, research and
compiling data that fits Laketa’s style, level and desires
of motivation perfectly; however, other extraneous fac-
tors are playing a role on her level of motivation.
4.1.3. Rec ommendations
As a goal oriented person who has strong needs for
achievement and competence, Laketa should seek em-
ployment elsewhere because the motivation symptoms
questionnaire revealed that she has little loyalty to the
unit or organization. Job satisfaction affects job in-
volvement and thus job performance. If she is uncom-
fortable in her work environment, makes the least possi-
ble efforts at work, and frequently reports stress and fa-
tigue then it is highly recommended that she receives
counseling or seek a job elsewhere. Counselling will help
to unveil some the factors that are affecting her motiva-
tion level and suggestions will be given to deal with
those problems.
4.2. Respondent #2—Samantha Blackwood
4.2.1. Content Analysis of Interview
When asked what success meant to her career, Samantha
responded by stating that success means doing her job to
the best of her ability and getting quality results. She
stated that “my role as a training and development officer
is not an easy one but I feel a sense of accomplishment
when I can depart knowledge and employees learn”.
When asked what goals, including career goals, she
has set for her life; she responded by saying “well I have
every intention to become a better training officer. I be-
lieve if I enroll in a postgraduate degree in education, not
only would I become a better trainer but also a facilitator
and program evaluator”. She stated that currently she is
not comfortable as a trainer; she believes that a degree in
Human Resource Management provides her with suffi-
cient knowledge to build her craft, but a postgraduate
degree in education will be even more beneficial to her
intellectual capabilities.
When asked about staying motivated despite failure,
she stated “It is hard to stay motivated at times, but I re-
ceive strong social support from friends and family
members and it helps me to keep strong in times of dis-
appointments and failures”.
4.2.2. Interpretation
Samantha is goal orientated with some motivational
problems. Her desires for achievement, ownership and
meaning drives her to work in an organizational envi-
ronment where she feels motivated to succeed at her
work; has a stake in its success; and is able to relate her
objectives to the bigger picture and get a sense of mean-
ing from her job.
4.2.3. Rec ommendations
Samantha has some motivation problems which need to
be addressed. She is dissatisfied with her role as a train-
ing and development officer and has a strong drive for
achievement at the organizational and interpersonal lev-
els. To move forward Samantha needs to work hard and
overcome the fear of change by focusing on the certain-
ties and possibilities and not the uncertainties. She needs
to move forward with her career goals and aspirations.
4.3. Respondent #3—Noel
4.3.1. Content Analysis of Interview
When asked what does success means to his career, he
responded by stating that success means having job secu-
rity and stability, being promoted, and being able to con-
tribute to the bottom line of the organization.
When asked what goals, including career goals, he has
set for his life, he responded by saying “I want to further
my studies in the field of Human Resource Development
to become a better practitioner and self actualize—I want
to “call the shots” and make key decisions within the or-
ganization, but it’s only a matter of time”.
When asked about staying motivated despite failure,
he stated that he “usually draws on past experiences or
accomplishments” and this increases his self-efficacy for
accomplishing the task at hand. He stated that he also
tries “not to compare his successes or failures with that
of others, but to remember that each person is different”.
This speaks to the fact that Noel has experienced some
amount of intrinsic motivation, one which keeps him
focused on achieving his goals despite challenges, and
one which encourages him to press forward despite the
fact that he is not promoted at a faster rate.
4.3.2. Interpretation
Noel is learning oriented, highly motivated, and works
well in an environment that gives him power, ownership,
affiliation, competence and achievement. Noel’s goal
orientation style is consistent with his motivation for a
achievement, which was reported as being one of his
secondary motivation styles on the Motivation style as-
Noel’s desire for power, ownership, affiliation, and
achievement allows him to operate most efficiently in an
organizational environment where he is in control of his
own destiny make choices at work; feels apart of the
organization and have a stake in its success; given the
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opportunity to socialize, feels motivated and he can
succeed at his work; thus he is self-motivated to deliver
and achieve. His desires allow him to seek leadership
opportunities and feeling of empowerment to make deci-
Noel works most comfortably in an environment
where he uses his hidden strengths; given learning op-
portunities; and learns through mistakes; set goals for
himself; be encourage to improve; feels active and in-
volved, and having meaning from his job.
4.3.3. Rec ommendations
Based on the questionnaires and interview, Noel seemed
highly motivated, driven and goal directed. However,
there have been problems or factors that affect such
thrust to move forward which may affect his level of
motivation in the long run. Though the Motivation
symptoms questionnaire revealed that he was highly mo-
tivated it also revealed that he sometimes had low job
satisfaction, sometimes focus on rules rather than the best
way to get things done and fail to generate innovative
ideas. These problems he said was due to the nature of
his work environment. To make improvements in these
areas he needs to be given more control over his work,
encouraged to use his own initiative and be the generator
of new ideas that will move his organization forward and
cementing his desires for power.
5. Pair-Wise Correlation
When the Spitzer’s eight desires were correlated with
each other for all three participants, Table 2 was
produced. Noticeable results occurred between the
desires for activity, competence, achievement, power and
Desire for Activity was perfectly correlated with
desires for competence and achievement and statistically
significant. Desire for power was perfectly correlated
with the desire for meaning. The desire for competence
was perfectly correlated with the desire for achievement.
Cronbach alpha, α = 0.910 obtained was acceptable
and indicates good internal consistency of the items in
the scale, but this does not mean that the scale is unidi-
6. Discussion
The content analysis was done as a means of summarize-
ing the verbal content of the interview transcriptions and
to provide more objective evaluation of the participants.
A number of themes emerged from the interviews which
were consistent among the three participants such as the
need for achievement; the need for a satisfactory working
environment; the need to set clear and achievable goals;
the need for autonomy; the need for power; the need for
competence and relatedness.
6.1. Need for Achievement
The need for achievement was strong amongst the three
participants because they wanted to succeed at what they
did and accomplish greatness.
Because their needs were strong, they were motivated
to use appropriate behaviours to satisfy those needs
which are usually learned from the culture of the society.
Samantha and Noel scored the highest on achievement
when the Spitzer motivation self assessment was admin-
istered to determine the working conditions that best mo-
Table 2. Correlation of the eight desires of motivation that drives people in the workplac e.
Desire for
Desire for
Ownership Desire for
Power Desire for
Affiliation Desire for
Competence Desire for
Achievement Desire for
Recognition Desire for
meaning Mean SD
Desire for
Activity 1.00 12.672.31
Desire for
Ownership 0.94 1.00 14.671.53
Desire for
Power 0.50 0.19 1.00 12.332.31
Desire for
Affiliation 0.19 0.14 0.94 1.00 11.673.06
Desire for
Competence 1.00** 0.94 0.50 0.19 1.00 13.672.31
Desire for
Achievement 1.00** 0.94 0.50 0.19 1.00** 1.00 14.670.58
Desire for
Recognition 0.76 0.93 0.19 0.50 0.76 0.76 1.00 13.331.53
Desire for
meaning 0.87 0.98 0.00 0.33 0.87 0.87 0.98 1.00 14.001.00
*Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two tailed).
tivated them; and based on the interviews conducted it
was clear that they were both motivated to achieve mod-
erate goals at all costs.
6.2. Need for Recognition
Laketa has a low need for recognition according to the
results obtained from the Spitzer motivation self assess-
ment, but the interviews revealed otherwise. A need for
recognition is a social need where people feel good when
others acknowledge their existence and praise them.
Laketa, with a high need for recognition appreciates
guidance and support with frequent feedbacks. For Sa-
mantha and Noel, the need for recognition was not cap-
tured from the questionnaire but from the interview. Noel
stated that he likes when his customers are happy and
appreciate what he does as well as when they praise him.
Samantha commented on the fact that being recognized
is good as it builds one’s self esteem and confience
which will lead to job satisfaction over a period of con-
tinuous recognition. Recognition is close to Maslow’s
need for esteem, and plays to the need for a sense of
6.3. Need for Relationship
The need for relationship is associated with McClelland’s
Need for Affiliation, Spritzer’s Desire for Affiliation,
Maslow’s need for Belonging and plays to the need for a
sense of identity within the organization.
The need for affiliation means that people are linked to
other people or institutions thus infusing their identities.
This will allow the practitioners to feel a part of a greater
whole and increase work motivation. The results ob-
tained from the Spitzer motivation self assessment indi-
cated that Noel scored high on affiliation. This was con-
firmed in his interview as he stated that he loved his col-
leagues and felt a sense of belonging because they have a
very good relationship at work and he feels apart of the
organization; his motivation style questionnaire con-
firmed that to relax he loves to hang out and talk with
friends. Samantha’s questionnaire did not capture her
need for affiliation but it was captured from the interview.
To Samantha the organization is like a “provision
ground” where she feels that work is important and that
the company and colleagues have become a part of her.
In the interview she stated that “I often talk with my col-
leagues and discuss silly things as well as the job; we go
out for lunch and to have fun”, which shows a sense of
job satisfaction and comradre. According to the motiva-
tion style questionnaire she likes to be recognized for
being kind, thoughtful, and considerate to others.
6.4. Need for Increased Job Satisfaction
According to [1] job satisfaction is the pleasurable or
positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of
one’s job or job experience”; or it may be seen as a state
of emotional gladness, resulting from the achievement of
the goals that one get through performing his part of con-
tribution inside an organization [6]. When asked if they
are satisfied with their jobs, all three Participants stated
that they received some amount of satisfaction from the
job but the most satisfying encounters are those with
their supervisors in a comfortable setting as well as those
with customers who are warm, embracing and appreciate
the work carried out by the employees. Abubakar et al.
[7] states that a more inclusive and participatory styles of
management also foster increased job satisfaction. Sa-
mantha supported this fact by stating that she is most
satisfied on the job when her supervisor is able to give
inputs and feedback where necessary, as well as provide
her with guidance and materials to help speed up the
work process, but this is not always the case.
Job satisfaction may also result from the work envi-
ronment or when an employee is highly motivated whe-
ther intrinsically or extrinsically. When asked what as-
pect of the job gave them the most personal satisfaction,
Noel stated that he gets a lot of satisfaction when he per-
forms the job well and receives a bonus, or something to
show for the work done. It is clear that job satisfaction
relates to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors
which are desirable to get the job done. Laketa says “I
get a lot of satisfaction when I am able to give ideas and
it is used to make key decisions. I am satisfied when my
work is completed on time with a great amount of accu-
racy”. Noel says “I get a lot of satisfaction when the cus-
tomers are happy and are appreciative about what I do, as
well as when they praise me”.
Job dissatisfaction is an indication of needed change
feeling of displeasure or being unsatisfied. Although the
three participants are satisfied with some aspect of the
job, there are other areas that need improvement. When
asked if there were aspects of the job they didn’t like,
Samantha states that “I hate when they give me task to
complete without fully explaining to me how it should be
done or the meaning behind it”. “Tasks may be given
outside my area of competency and I will have to do a lot
of research which is time-consuming and at times I have
to take incomplete work home—this should not be the
case”. This can lead to the worker becoming demotivated.
Noel’s source of dissatisfaction occurs when he has to
report to the Director of Human Resources and get re-
ports signed or budgets approved; he also stated that this
makes his job very difficult.
6.5. Need to Set More Appropriate Goals
The Conner Motivation Style Assessment and the inter-
views conducted confirmed that both Samantha and
Laketa have goal orientation as their primary motivation
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styles. They are persons who focus on tasks and the end
results of those tasks are most important to them. Goal
orientation advocates a focus on the end results instead of
the tasks themselves and how those ends will affect ei-
ther the person or the entire company. The researcher
could classify Noel’s primary style as goal orientation
instead of learning orientation based on the interview
results. In his interview he said that it’s the end product
of the process that is important to him and not the proc-
ess itself. He said “Anything I set out to do I just want to
achieve it at all cost, it’s the end product of my object-
tives that motivates me.” It is said that people with strong
goal orientation will be able to accurately judge the ef-
fects of reaching the goal as well as the ability to fulfill
that particular goal with current resources and skills.
For all practitioners goals serve a directive function
and as an energizing function; goals affect their persis-
tence; and goals affect their actions indirectly by leading
to the arousal, discovery, and/or use of task-relevant
knowledge and strategies as is evident in the writings of
6.6. Need for Social Support
Assistance and support are very important to Laketa,
Samantha and Noel as it relates to the carrying out of
their job functions within the organization. Getting the
desired support will increase productivity, job satisfac-
tion and by extension worker morale. Noel stated that
“My co-workers are very supportive of me in my en-
deavors. They often give encouragement and tell of their
own personal experiences and struggles in order to em-
6.7. Need for Increased Self Efficacy
Bandura (1986) viewed self-efficacy as the judgments of
individuals regarding their ability to organize and per-
form daily works required to obtain successful perform-
ance [7]. All three participants are efficacious.
6.8. Need for Autonomy and Empowerment
The need for autonomy is innate in all human beings and
a frustration of this need will lead to maladaptive behave-
ior. Self management and choice is important to all the
participants with Noel having a greater need for auton-
omy. Performance-mastery approach is important in this
case as to be autonomous within the organization the
workers must show a sense of task performance and
mastery before full task confidence is bestowed unto
these workers. Noel stated that “I am driven by the task
ahead and always want to do my best, trying to avoid
failure. I don’t need anyone to tell me what to do espe-
cially in my current job as I tend to use my own initiative
where necessary and if allowed to do so”. Laketa stated
that “They allow me to make decisions, they give me
some of the responsibilities and I like that. I feel moti-
vated, respected and feel that I can be trusted.” Samantha
is keen on autonomy based on the interview results as
she stated that she likes to do things on her own fre-
6.9. Intrinsic Motivation
Noel is intrinsically motivated and stated in the interview
that “Money by itself does not motivate me” “Self De-
termination Theory assumes that people are by nature
active and self motivated, curious and interested, vital
and eager to succeed because success itself is personally
satisfying and rewarding”, Deci et al. [8] “I am intrinsic-
cally motivated in the sense that I have the drive, passion,
determination and will power to carry out certain func-
tions within the work environment, as well as throughout
my daily life”. These strong statements obtained from the
interview suggested that Noel is determined and intrinsi-
cally motivated.
6.10. Extrinsic Motivation
[8] states that extrinsic motivation involves engaging in
an activity because it leads to some separate consequence.
“I do tasks outside of my normal duties based on the fact
that I may be compensated or somehow rewarded by
getting overtime”; and “I might push myself during cer-
tain periods because I need the bonus near Christmas and
during March” are arguments to suggest that Samantha
and Laketa are motivated extrinsically.
7. Possible Motivation Problems
Based on the administration of the Questionnaires and
the interviews conducted, it is clear that Laketa and
Samantha have motivation problems while Noel is highly
motivated. Laketa is high on ownership and low on
competence, achievement, recognition and meaning.
While it is desirable to have Laketa “owning” her object-
tives and her work, thus being self-motivated to deliver
and achieve, it may lead to problems in the long run.
People such as Laketa who crave ownership may ex-
perience what Spritzer calls a “psychoanalytic notion of
desire, with overtones of erotic possession”. Laketa’s
work environments is always placing her under pressure
to improve, this will put pressure on her desire for com-
petence which is already low.
Samantha is low on competence according to the
Spitzer motivation self assessment and scored in the yel-
low light category (31 - 45), which means that she has
some motivation problems. According to Oldham et al.
[9] low task competence reduces intrinsic motivation,
whereas attributions of personal causation and positive
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competence information enhance intrinsic motivation”.
This is further confirmed by the interview as she is more
extrinsically than intrinsically motivated. Being extrinsi-
cally motivated has its disadvantages and Samantha may
have problems with company loyalty, trust and job satis-
faction. Samantha is always given tasks that are outside
her area of competence as stated in the interview. Since
she has a high desire for “meaning”, this may lead to job
Noel has a high need for achievement which may be
problematic in the future. His need for achievement is
connected with a sense of success that can be quite
short-lived, leading into almost obsessive repetition of
achievement. While it is obvious that he is a good em-
ployee, his thirst to achieve at all cost and become highly
recognized may cause Noel to behave inconsiderably to
the needs of others. Noel is highly motivated and has a
strong desire for power. Power at work is often aligned
with position, expertise and personal charisma. The
problem which exists is that he is not empowered enough
on the job. Demotivators for Noel are the bureaucratic
redtape and organizational politics that hinders his per-
8. Strategies to Deal with Motivation
Employees must not indulge in self-limiting thinking,
but think empowering, expansive thoughts. This will
allow them to gain recognition
Choose to be happy. Commit yourself to happiness
and positive thinking because happy people are easily
motivated. Never quit when you experience a setback
or frustration. It is said that happiness leads to greater
wellbeing, low absenteeism, and increased job satis-
Identify and eliminate demotivators
Keep productively busy. In motivating organizations,
employees should leave work feeling that they ac-
complished something worthwhile. Ask your em-
ployers to delegate responsibility and authority which
is one of the fundamental ways to become motivated.
With more responsibility and authority, employees
will begin to act more like owners.
Don’t become passive within the organization, but
carry out self-improvement activities as a means of
improving your job.
Make work fun and enjoyable, but balancing such en-
joyment with increased productivity.
Job rotations, job sharing, and temporary work as-
signments are some of the ways to add variety.
9. Conclusion
In order to heighten motivation at work, all three em-
ployees must become more engaged, and dig in for their
inner strength, drive and will-power to carry on. The
most important aspect is to engage in work functions and
activities which are most important for them and makes
them happy, because well-being leads to greater organ-
izational productivity.
10. Future Research
For future research, the sample size of future studies may
be larger to determine how motivation in the work envi-
ronment is viewed by gender differences. Further re-
search could also look at the association of motivation
styles, symptoms and the motivation desired on per-
formance within the organization.
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