International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2013, 4, 561-570
Published Online December 2013 (
Open Access IJCM
Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore
Population of South India*
Mohammed Salman1,2#, Shruti Dasgupta1,3, Cletus J. M. D’Souza1,2, D. Xaviour1, B. V. Raviprasad1,
Jayashankar Rao1, G. L. Lakshmi1
1Anthropological Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre, Mysore, India; 2Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of
Mysore, Mysore, India; 3Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Mysore, India.
Received October 24th, 2013; revised November 20th, 2013; accepted December 5th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Mohammed Salman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Obje ctive: The study aims to explore the prevalence of hypertension and its impact on Type 2 diabetes in a Mysore
population of the Indian subcontinent. Methods: 636 participants volunteered for the study. Anthropometric measure-
ments and blood pressure were recorded while plasma was analyzed for biochemical markers. The IDF and JNC 7 di-
agnostic criteria were followed to define diabetes and hypertension. Statistical Analyses: One-way an alysis o f v aria nce,
χ2-test and Logistic regression analysis were performed to assess differences of the mean, proportion and the independ-
ent effect of hypertension on the development of type 2 diabetes. Results: Hypertension was observed to be prevalent in
37.1% of the studied population with an insignificant gender difference. Rate of occurrence of hypertensives was found
to be significantly higher in type 2 diabetes (51.9%), obese subjects (45.2%), long-term smokers (49%) and alcohol
addicts (48%) than control groups. The risk of development of diabetes was significantly higher in hypertensives than
normotensive. However, when creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were included in the model, the significance was nul-
lified. Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension is increasing at an alarming rate. This study
reveals that the significance of hypertension as a parameter in predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes was influenced by
the renal function and lipid profile.
Keywords: Hypertension; Type 2 Diabetes; Prevalence; Kidney Dysfunction; Mortality; Mysore Population; India
1. Introduction
The incidence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is increasing
globally from 2.8% in 2000 to 4.4% in 2030 [1]. The
prevalence of T2D in Asian Indians ranges from 2.7% in
rural India to 14% in urban India. India has the highest
number of diabetes in the world [2,3]. The National Ur-
ban Diabetes Survey reported 12.1% of diabetes and 14%
of impaired glucose tolerance [4]. The prevalence of hy-
pertension (HTN) among adults is expected to rise by
60% resulting in a total of 1.56 billio n affected individu-
als by 2025. Approximately 70% of diabetics are hyper-
tensives, as diabetics are pr one to HTN twice more likely
than normoglycemic individuals [5]. Similarly, the pres-
ence of HTN precedes the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM)
[6,7]; and among diabetics, HTN develops into diabetes
nephropathy and retinopathy. The co-occurrence of HTN
and T2D affects up to 60% of patients leading to higher
risk of developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortal-
ity [8]. Though cardiovascular risks are common in both,
in conjunction they accelerate cardiac, cerebral and renal
dysfunctions [9]. The United Kingdom Prospective Dia-
betes Study (UKPDS) revealed that blood pressure con-
trol helps to avoid cardiovascular complications in pa-
tients with T2D [10]. The decrease in mean systolic
blood pressure by 10 mm/Hg reduces the risks of devel-
oping complications in diabetes by 12%, mortality by
15%, myocardial infraction by 11% and microvascular
complications by 13% among diabetics respectively [11].
The prevalence varies across different ethnic and reli-
gious groups in Asia; the co-occurrence of diabetes with
HTN shows an increasing trend and has become an epi-
demic of a great concern [12]. About 50% of diabetes
cases in India show the co-occurrence of HTN [13,14].
*Competing Interests: the author(s) declare that they have no competing
#Corresponding author.
Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India
Diabetes in other Asian countries such as Saudi Arabia
(53%) [15,16], Jordan (72.4%) [17], Oman (21.5%),
Turkey (32%), Bahrain (38%) and Taiwan (39%) [18-21]
also shows a similar trend. In addition, studies reported
higher tendency of HTN among UK Afro-Caribbean
(82%) [22], UK Caucasian (74%), Italian (74.4%) and
Spanish diabetes (7 3%) [23-25].
Few epidemiological studies asserting incidence rates
of T2D and HTN have been carried out in various sectors
of Karnataka. In the rural population of Davanagere,
18.3% of HTN has been reported, where males recorded
a higher prevalence rate (19.1%) than females (17.5%)
[26]. Heritability of HTN in families of Tumkur popula-
tion was reported, wherein the young normotensive with
a positive family history of HTN had significantly higher
blood pressure [27]. In Karnataka, the prevalence of T2D
has been observed to be 3.77% of Suttur population [28],
10.0% in Kolar popu lation [29], 16% of the Udup i popu-
lation [30] and 17.3% in Dharwad urban population [31].
The incidence of obesity among T2D of Mysore popula-
tion was reported [32], while the awareness of diabetes
and their attitude to patients of Bijapur have been re-
ported [33]. But there is no known record of the preva-
lence of HTN among T2D or vice versa, implying how
frequent HTN exacerbate s T2D in southern India.
Currently, there are limited epidemiological studies
edifying the relationship between T2D and HTN in In-
dian context. There is an ongoing debate regarding the
consideration of high blood pressure over other meta-
bolic components (co njointly involved in T2D and HTN),
as a predictor of T2D in Indians. Further, social and cul-
tural diversity in India necessitates the exploration of the
mentioned relationship in various sections of this country.
Therefore we hypothesize that the risk of incidence of
T2D is higher in the subjects with HTN. The present
study aims to assess the prevalence of HTN among T2D
subjects and its contribution in the occurrence of T2D in
Mysore population of Karnataka in South India.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Population
This case-control study was conducted among partici-
pants in the diabetes health check-up programs organized
by Amrita Kripa Polyclinic and Lion’s Club of Mysore
(R) in Mysore district of Karnataka State, India, during
2010 to 2011 including both non-diabetes and diabetes
patients, without any mental impairment.
2.2. Sample Size
A total of 654 subjects volunteered and gave consent to
participate in the study, out of which 636 were included
in the study. The subjects including 343 males and 293
females, aged between 30 - 80 years were enrolled for
the study. Subjects with abnormal renal or chronic liver
dysfunction were excluded from the study.
2.3. Sampling Procedure
The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the
Institutional Ethics Committee, Kolkata and also the
Ethical Committee of University of Mysore. Informed
consents were obtained from each participant in the study.
The study was conducted according to the ethical guide-
lines for biomedical research on human populations
(, ICMR 7). Each par-
ticipant of the study was about 12 hours of fasting period
before the collection of blood. 5 ml blood sample was
collected in 10 ml BD vacutainer by a phlebotomist,
stored at 4˚C and transported to the laboratory immedi-
ately for further processing. Postprandial plasma glucose
was measured after 2 hours of administering 75-grams of
glucose to the subjects (OGTT, WHO, 1999).
2.4. Data Collection
Questionnaire: Data was collected on standardized
questionnaire that included personal information, life-
style, habitual behaviors (smoking and alcohol intake),
clinical history of associated complications and blood
pressure was recorded under the supervision of a physi-
Anthropometry: Height, weight, waist and hip cir-
cumference were measured by physical anthropologists
using anthr opometer (Ho ltaine, UK) and digital weighing
machine (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) as per WHO
international manual [34]. Waist circumference (WC)
was measured at the midpoint at the bottom of the rib
cage and the top of the lateral border of the iliac crest
during minimal respiration.
Laboratory Examination: Fasting plasma glucose
(FPG), Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c), High-density
lipoprotein (HDL), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Total
Cholesterol (CHO), Triglycerides (TRIG), Creatinine
(CRE), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Postprandial glu-
cose (PPG) were measured on Auto analyzer EM 360
(Transasia, ERBA Mannheim, Germany).
Operational Definitions: Body mass index (BMI)
was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the
squared value of height in meters (kg/m2). BMI was
categorized as normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (>25 and
< 30 kg/m2), and obese (>30 kg/m2) [35]. Blood pressure
(Systolic and Diastolic) of each subject was measured
using a standardized sphygmomanometer (Elko, India),
in supine position. An average of two readings of both
systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was
taken. HTN was defined following the criteria of the
Joint National Co mmittee on Prevention, Detection, Eva-
luation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7
Open Access IJCM
Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India
Open Access IJCM
criteria) [36]. Participants were divided (as per their
baseline BP) into, normotensive (SBP < 120 mmHg and
DBP < 80 mmHg), Pre-hypertensive (SBP 120 - 140
mmHg and DBP 80 - 90 mmHg) and Hypertensive (SBP
> 140 mmHg and/ or DBP > 90 mmHg), or presently
taking anti-hypertensive medication. Further, hyperten-
sives (presently taking anti-hypertensive medication or/
and with a history of HTN diagnosed by a medical phy-
sician) including the pre hypertensive were combined in
one group opposed to normotensive controls. Self re-
ported cases and individuals with FPG > 126 mg/dl and
PGLU > 200 mg/dl were defined as diabetes [37]. Dia-
betics under treatment and long term management of
blood glucose were defined as controlled diabetes with
HbA1c values 6% - 8%. On the contrary above 8% were
considered uncontrolled diabetes [38]. All self-reported
cases were further validated by medical record review
and supplementary questionnaires.
2.5. Statistical Analysis
The analysis has been carried out after segregating the
cases and controls further into hypertensives and nor-
motensives, resulting into four groups in total. The re-
sults have been reported as mean ± standard deviation.
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
analyze the statistical differences in the mean of various
parameters between the groups. χ2-test was used to com-
pare the proportion of the subjects between different di-
chotomized variables. Logistic regression analysis was
performed to assess the independent effect of hyperten-
sive status on the odds of occurrence of diabetes, after
adjusting for confounders. Statistical analyses were per-
formed using SPSS version 12.0 software (SPSS, Chi-
cago, IL, USA). All the reported P-values were two-
tailed, and those less than 0.05 were considered statisti-
cally significant.
3. Results
Table 1 shows the distribution of HTN across sex, age
groups, diabetes status and addiction habits. The overall
prevalence rate of HTN was found to be 37.1%, 33.8% of
male and 41% in females. However, the intergroup dif-
ference is statistically similar (P > 0.05). Among differ-
ent age groups, the rate of HTN increased with age from
Table 1. Distribution of hypertension across age, gender, BMI, habits and clinical history.
Normotensive Hypertensive Total P value
Variables Category
N % N % N %
Type 2 Diabetes 142 48.1 153 51.9 295 100
Diabetes status Non Diabetes 258 75.7 83 24.3 341 100 <0.001
Female 173 59 120 41 293 100
Sex Male 227 66.2 116 33.8 343 100
30 - 39 79 86.8 12 13.2 91 100
40 - 49 141 76.2 44 23.8 185 100
50 - 59 67 50.8 65 49.2 132 100
60 - 69 70 47.6 77 52.4 147 100
70 - 79 34 50 34 50 68 100
Age groups
80+ 9 69.2 4 30.8 13 100
Normal (<25) 179 69.6 78 30.4 257 100
Overweight (25 - 30) 158 59.8 106 40.2 264 100 BMI groups
Obese (>30) 65 54.8 53 45.2 118 100
Yes 76 71.7 30 28.3 106 100
No 296 62.3 179 37.7 475 100
Quit 28 50.9 27 49.1 55 100
Yes 100 67.6 48 32.4 148 100
No 287 62 176 38 463 100
Alcohol intake
Quit 13 52 12
48 25 100
<6% 270 71.8 106 28.2 376 100
6% - 8% 87 50.9 84 49.1 171 100
>8% 43 48.3 46 51.7 89 100
haemoglobin A1c
Total 400 62.9 236 37.1 636 100
Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India
30 - 69 years and then gradually decreased in subjects of
70 years and above, and the trend was found to be sig-
nificant (P < 0.001). Unconventionally, HTN was sig-
nificantly less prevalent among smokers than non-
smokers whereas long term ex-smokers showed the
highest prevalence (P < 0.05). A similar trend was ob-
served among alcoholics but was found to be statistically
insignificant. Obese subjects were observed to have sig-
nificantly (P < 0.01) higher prevalence rate of HTN
(45.2%) than overweight (40.2%) and normal (30.2%)
subjects. HTN was found to be more prevalent (P <
0.001) among diabetics (51.9%) than non-diabetics
(24.3%). This was further substantiated by the signifi-
cantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence rates among uncon-
trolled diabetes (51.7%) and controlled diabetes (49.1%)
subjects than non-diabetic subjects (28.2%) as catego-
rized by the HbA1c levels.
The variables are described in Table 2 after classify-
ing the subjects into four groups based on clinical history
of diabetes and/or HTN. HTN was more prevalent in
subjects of the older age group, irrespective of the pres-
ence or absence of T2D. Both diabetes normotensive and
hypertensive subjects were observed to have a signifi-
cantly higher waist circumference than non-diabetic nor-
motensive subjects. Individuals affected by both of the
mentioned disorders had higher BMI and CRE levels
than normal controls. As anticipated, both systolic and
diastolic blood pressure was higher among hypertensive
groups than normotensive. Fasting glucose, postprandial
glucose, glycated haemoglobin and triglyceride levels
were significantly higher in the diabetes groups, irrespec-
tive of HTN. On the contrary, HDL levels were found to
be low in the diabetes subjects. Levels of BUN were
found to be significantly higher in diabetes hypertensives
when compared to diabetes normotensive. CHO and
LDL levels showed no significant difference between the
The influence of HTN on risk for development of T2D
was analyzed based on HTN status after adjusting the
probable cofounder and has been depicted in Table 3.
The crude odds of occurrence of T2D due to HTN was
3.349 (P < 0.0001). Although the odds ratio was reduced
after adjusting for the confounders; age, sex, smoking,
alcoholism, BMI yet the level of significance was con-
stant. The significance levels were reduced to P < 0.05
after the inclusion of FPG, PPG and HbA1c to the pre-
viously mentioned models. Though the inclusion of CRE
and BUN in the model distorted the significance, but the
significance completely disappeared when adjusted for
TRIG, CHO, LDL and HDL. When possible confounders
were controlled, the odds ratio was found to be 1.45 and
was observed to be insignificant. The confounding vari-
ables that were found to be significant on inclus ion of all
variables in the model were Age (OR = 1.053, P =
Table 2. Characteristics of the subjects gr ouped based on presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension.
Biomarker Diabetic hypertensive Diabetic normotensiveNondiabetic
hypertensive Nondiabetic
Mean ± S.D Mean ± S.D Mean ± S.D Mean ± S.D
N = 153 N = 142 N = 83 N = 258
Age (years) 59.04 ± 10.50*# 54.26 ± 12.49* 56.34 ± 11.65* 48.33 ± 12 .81
Waist (cm) 92.83 ± 11.45*^ 89.98 ± 12.51* 88.44 ± 11.18 86.21 ± 11.05
Body mass index (kg/m)2 27.37 ± 4.51* 26.04 ± 4.25 26.71 ± 5.18 25.48 ± 4.55
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 152.51 ± 15.68*# 120.86 ± 12.97^ 153.88 ± 19.25* 110.87 ± 12.11
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 92.48 ± 12.13*# 82.56 ± 10.79^ 96.07 ± 11.71* 80.08 ± 9.93
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 142.56 ± 59.19*^ 145.44 ± 58.93*^ 90.20 ± 11.17 88.45 ± 9.97
Postprandial glucose (mg/dl) 228.16 ± 97.34*^ 228.57 ± 93.62*^ 115.71 ± 24.45 109.39 ± 22.71
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 184.13 ±111.94*^ 186.65 ±105.48*^ 149.05 ± 85.89 143.86 ± 91.58
Cholesterol (mg/dl ) 175.18 ± 45.78 174.06 ± 51.09 171.78 ± 49.75 168.58 ± 47.08
High density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 44.74 ± 9.95*^ 47.09 ± 10.72*^ 50.49 ± 7.95 50.08 ± 8.31
Low density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 101.79 ± 23.63 102.70 ± 22.15 100 ± 21.76 98.05 ± 20.42
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.05 ± 0.49* 0.99 ± 0.32 0.98 ± 0.36 0.95 ± 0.32
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl ) 10.30 ± 4.1# 9.12 ± 3 9.78 ± 3.24 9.43 ± 3.32
Glycated haem o g l o bi n A 1 c (%) 7.45 ± 2.09*^ 7.25 ± 2. 1 3*^ 5.11 ± 1.36 4.95 ± 1.06
*P < 0.05 as com pared to nondiabe tes normotensi ve. ^#P < 0.05 as compared to diabetes normotensive. P < 0.05 as compared to nondiabetes hypertensive.
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Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India 565
Table 3. Logistic regression analysis for assessing risk of diabetes according to hypertension status.
Models Odds ratio (Hypertensive vs. normotensive) CI interval P value
1 3.349 2.392 - 4.690 <0.0001
2 2.940 2.057 - 4.203 <0.0001
3 2.953 2.058 - 4.236 <0.0001
4 2.589 1.789 - 3.746 <0.0001
5 2.220 1.225 - 4.024 0.009
6 1.862 1.007 - 3.444 0.048
7 1.830 0.984 - 3.403 0.056
8 1.431 0.723 - 2.831 0.303
9 1.452 0.732 - 2.881 0.286
Model 1: Unadjusted. Model 2: Adjusted for Age and gender. Model 3: Adjusted for model 2 + smoking + Alcoholism. Model 4: Adjusted for model 3 + BMI.
Model 5: Adjusted for model 3 + FPG + PPG + HbA1c. Model 6: Adjusted for model 5 + BMI. Model 7: Adjusted for model 6 + CRE + BUN. Model 8: Ad-
justed for m odel 6 + TRIG + HDLC + LDLC + CHO. Model9: Adjusted for model 8 + CRE + BUN.
0.001), FPG (OR = 1.0 6, P < 0.0001) PGLU (OR = 1.043,
P < 0.0001), HbA1c (OR = 1.06, P < 0.0001), BMI (OR
= 1.099, P < 0.01), HDLC (OR = 0.863, P < 0.00 01) and
LDLC (OR = 1.033, P < 0.004).
4. Discussion
Several studies have reported the prevalence of HTN and
T2D in rural as well as urban India. However, studies
linking HTN to T2D in India are minimal. According to
Screening India's Twin Epidemic (SITE) study, the
prevalence rate of the co-occurrence of HTN and T2D in
individual of eight states was 20.6%, with 34.7% of T2D
and 46% of HTN. In Karnataka, the frequency of
co-occurrence of HTN and T2D is 17.4%, whereas HTN
and T2D occur alone at 32.1% and 34.5% respectively
[39]. In the present study, cooccurrence of HTN and T2D
was observed to be 24.1% of the Mysore population with
a higher prevalence rate of HTN (37.1%) and T2D
(46.4%) than reported by SITE study for the entire Kar-
nataka population. Our study shows a higher rate of in-
cidence of these disorders within Karnataka, more spe-
cifically in populations of Mysore district. The incidence
of HTN among T2D patients in the present study popula-
tion (51.9%) is comparable to T2D incidence in Kash mir
(42%) and varies from other populations of India [13-25].
The differences observed in the incidences of HTN in
T2D among different populations can possibly be attrib-
uted to ethnicity, population dispersion, physical charac-
teristics and the multiple definitions adopted for T2D/
HTN and surveillance procedu res in the previous stud ies.
Studies on the glycemic control stages marked by
HbA1c levels are limited in various populations. Studies
have shown that intensive blood sugar control is effective
in reducing the risk of HTN by approximately 25%. Our
findings are in conformity with earlier studies, where the
incidence of HTN among T2D subjects having glycemic
control (HbA1c < 8%) is lower than in uncontrolled
group (HbA1c > 8%) [40,41]. Customarily, hypertensiv-
ity in diabetes advances with age as reported in other
studies [42-45]. Contrastingly, we observed a lag in the
occurrence of HTN in subjects beyond the age of 70
years, which can be attributed to the lower levels of BMI.
In accordance with earlier findings higher BMI group
showed a high prev alence rate for HTN [44-46]. Further,
high prevalence of HTN among ex-smokers projects the
probable association of the disorder with the duration of
addictive behaviors. An unusual trend has been reported
in prior studies of higher prevalence of hypertensives
amongst former smokers and non smokers than smokers
which harmonize with our results [47,48]. The possible
answer could be the unwillingness of individuals to dis-
close their addictive behavior and also occurrence of
obese/overweight subjects under the smokers’ category.
It has been established that co-existence of T2D and
HTN accelerates the progression of metabolic abnormali-
ties more than their independent outcomes. Hence, there
is always a chance of significant variability in metabolic
characteristics between individuals suffering independ-
ently with both disorders or with th e coexistence [49]. In
our study the population is categorized into four groups
(Non diabetes normotensive, Non diabetes hypertensive,
diabetes normotensive and diabetes hypertensive) re-
ferring to four conditions, with significant observed dif-
ferences among the groups. Insulin resistance in T2D
causes inhibition of lipo lysis leading to hyperinsulinemia
and elevated triglyceride [50]. Our findings are in agree-
ment with the aforesaid inference, wherein elevated lev-
els of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycated
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Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India
haemoglobin, triglyceride levels of FPG, PPG, HbA1c,
TRIG and low levels of HDL levels were observed in
diabetes hypertensives and normotensive groups. Our
finding is in concordance with earlier studies, suggesting
the association of T2D with dyslipidemia, particularly
with high triglycerides accompanied with a simultaneous
decrease in HDL cholesterol [51]. Positive association
between HTN and abnormal lipid profiles in rural popu-
lation of Bagalkot in Karnataka [52] and among hospital
patients have been reported in previous studies on Indian
populat i on [ 53,54].
Elevated BUN has been reported to be a marker for
activating the sympathetic nervous system and an un-
regulated rennin angiotensin system. Thus increased lev-
els of BUN in T2D with HTN distinctly reveals the risk
of renal and atherosclerotic complications in diabetes
hypertensives than diabetes normotensive [55-59]. In the
present study, the co-incidence of T2D and HTN as de-
fined by higher BMI and CRE levels strengthens the no-
tion that obesity and renal dysfunction are predictors of
T2D associated with HTN.
Our study indicates that HTN plays a major role in the
development of T2D, after the confounding ef fects of age,
sex, BMI, glycemic index (FPG, PPG and HbA1c), lipid
profile, CRE and other relevant factors had been adjusted.
Our result concurs with the recent findings that aging,
obesity, dysglyceamia and dyslipidemia co-exist with
HTN and T2D [17,60,61]. Studies reported a precise and
prominent role of HTN in the prevalence of T2D with
crude relative risks of 2.34 (CI of 2.16 - 2.73) [62] and
2.65 (CI of 1.88 - 3.73) [63], relatively lower than the
ratio obtained in our study. This evidently suggests that
Mysore populatio n is at a higher risk of T2D due to HTN.
Previous studies on Asian populations proposed that
baseline hyperglycemia and BMI are potential covariates
determining the association of HTN with T2D. Thus,
baseline HTN may be a potential predictor for incident
diabetes, if the onset of diabetes is defined using pa-
rameters like FPG and PPG levels [61]. However, it has
been concluded that obesity and metabolic syndrome
does not explain the entire association between BP and
incidence of T2D [63]. Hence, besides BMI, lipid profile
and Glycemic index, we included CRE and BUN into
these models. Accumulation of BUN and CRE is a direct
indicator of renal dysfunction. Thus higher levels of
these are observed in hypertensives, more precisely in
untreated hypertensives and diabetes nephropathy cases
[64]. Furthermore, it has been reported that renal failure
rate is two to three times higher in patients of diabetes
hypertensives than in non diabetes hypertensives [65].
Therefore, inclusion of these predictors can ascertain the
association between T2D and HTN. Lack of correction
for the predictor variables related to renal dysfunction
can be one of the reasons for discrepancies in the earlier
studies [61,62].
5. Limitations and Strengths
This study is the first of its kind in South Indian popula-
tion. Glycemic index is defined more explicitly in this
study by performing OGTT and HbA1c estimations
compared to earlier studies, which failed to include glu-
cose tolerance [62,66]. Some of the major limitations of
this study are complete exclusion of the effects of resid-
ual confounding due to measurement errors, i.e. in the
assessment of confounding factors or unmeasured dietary,
social and economic factors. Data could not be stratified
gender wise because of small sample size. The sample
population was heterogeneous consisting of both urban
and rural inhabitants, thus findings cannot be generalized
to other populations of India. Although clinical data are
available, duration and history of diabetes and HTN was
not taken into consideration for the study. Some of the
salient markers like micro albumin, urea and insulin are
beyond the scope of this paper. Non availability of in-
formation regarding the treatment for HTN in subjects of
the hypertensive group, to see the effect of treatment of
diabetes, was one of the lacunae.
6. Conclusion
The high prevalence rate of T2D and HTN is major con-
cerns in Mysore population. HTN plays a key role in the
progression of T2D and is associated with vascular com-
plications. Among hypertensives, BMI, Glycemic index,
lipid profile and kidney dysfunction, markers are poten-
tial predictors of T2D. The assessment of nephropathic
markers besides analyzing metabolic components and
blood pressure management is better approaches to pre-
vent the risk of development of T2D in hypertensives.
7. Authors’ Contributions
MDS conceived and executed the study. SDG helped in
sample collection, laboratory work and statistical analy-
sis. CDS supervised the research, proof read the draft.
DDX , BVR, JSR and LGL contributed in formulation of
data collection. All authors read and approved the final
8. Acknowledgements
The authors express gratitude to the Director, Anthropo-
logical Survey of India, Ministry of Culture, Government
of India, Kolkata for sponsoring the project. We express
thanks to Deputy Director and staff of the Anthropologi-
cal Survey of India for extending technical and adminis-
trative support. We are grateful to all the participants of
the study. We are indebted to the Lions Club of Mysore,
Drs. Vikas Modi, Pushpa Jogihalli and Ramakrishna of
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Impact of Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes in Mysore Population of South India 567
Amritakripa Hospital, Rupanagar, Mysore for holding
medical camps in Mysore. We appreciate the assistance
provided by the paramedical staff in the collection of
blood samples. Thanks are also due to Abrar Alam, Ran-
jith, Pratiksha Bhat, Amith, Suprabha Samanta, Deepti
Lokanath, and Sanjukta Mukherjee for their coop eration.
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