Applied Mathematics, 2014, 5, 16 Published Online January 2014 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/am) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/am.2014.51001 OPEN ACCESS AM Exact Solution to Nonlinear Differential Equations of Fractional Order via (Gʹ/G)Expansion Method Muhammad Younis, Asim Zafar Centre for Undergraduate Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Email: younis.pu@gmail.com, asimzafar@hotmail.com Received August 16, 2013; revised September 16, 2013; accepted September 23, 2013 Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Younis, Asim Zafar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribu tion License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2014 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intellectual property Muhammad Younis, Asim Zafar. All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian. ABSTRACT In this article, a new application to find the exact solutions of nonlinear partial timespace fractional differential Equation has been discussed. Firstly, the fractional complex transformation has been implemented to convert nonlinear partial fractional differential Equations into nonlinear ordinary differential Equations. Afterwards, the (Gʹ/G)expansion method has been implemented, to celebrate the exact solutions of these Equations, in the sense of modified RiemannLiouville derivative. As application, the exact solutions of timespace fractional Bur gers’ Equation have been discussed. KEYWORDS Exact Solutions; Complex Transformation; (Gʹ/G)Expansion Method; Nonlinear BURGERS’ Equation; Fractional Calculus Theory 1. Introduction Nonlinear partial differential equations have shown a variety of applications in almost every field, such as in electromagnetic, acoustics, electrochemistry, cosmology, biological and material science [14]. Fractional dif ferential equations can be considered as the generalization form of the differential equations, as they are in volved with the derivatives of any real or complex order (for details see [3]). In literature a lot of work has been done on nonlinear partial differential equations [58] rather than nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) of fractional order. Recently, some new techniques have been introduced, by different authors, to find traveling wave solutions for NPDEs of fractional order [911]. In this article, the GG expansion method [5] has been applied in the sense of modified Riemann Liouville derivative to find the exact solutions of spacetime fractional nonlinear Burgers’ Equation, which has the following form [12]: 2 20, 0, 0, 1, uuu ut txx (1) The rest of the letter is organized as follows, in Section 2 the basic definitions and properties of the fractional calculus are considered regarding to modified RiemannLiouville derivative. In Section 3, the GG expan sion method has been proposed to find the exact solutions for NPDEs of fractional order with the help of frac tional complex transformation. As an application, the new exact solutions of nonlinear Burgers’ Equation have been discussed in Section 4. In last Section 5, the conclusion has been drawn. 2. Preliminaries and Basic Definitions In this section, the method has been applied in the sense of the Jumarie’s modified RiemannLiouville derivative
M. YOUNIS, A. ZAFAR OPEN ACCESS AM 2 [13,14] of order . For this, some basic definitions and properties of the fractional calculus theory are being considered (for details see [3]). Thus, the fractional integral and derivatives can be defined following [13,14] as: Definition 2.1 A real function ,>0fss , is said to be in the space ,CR , if there exists a real number > such that 1 p ssfs, where 10,fsC , and it is said to be in the space m C if , m C mN. Definition 2.2 The Jumarie’s modified RiemannLiouville derivative, of order , can be defined by the following expression: 0 1d 0d, 01, 1d ,1,1. s sn n sff s Dfs fsn nn Moreover, some properties for the modified RiemannLiouville derivative have also been given as follows: 1, 1 , . rr s sss sgss r Ds s r Dfsgs fsDgsgsDts DfgsfgsDgsDfgsgt 3. The (Gʹ/G)Expansion Method for Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations In this section, the GG expansion method [15,16] has been discussed to obtain the solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. For this, we consider the following NPDE of fractional order: ,,,,,,,,,0, for 0,,1, tsx tttssssx PuDuDuDu DDuDDuDDuDDu (2) where u is an unknown function and P is a polynomial of u and its partial fractional derivatives along with the involvement of higher order derivatives and nonlinear terms. To find the exact solutions, the GG expansion method can be performed using the following steps. Step 1: First, we convert the NFPDE into nonlinear ordinary differential Equations using fractional complex transformation introduced by Li et al. [17]. The travelling wave variable ,,, 111 KtLx My utxy u (3) where ,KL and are nonzero arbitrary constants, permits us to reduce Equation (2) to an ODE of uu in the following form ,, ,,0.Puuu u (4) If the possibility occurs, then Equation (4) can be integrated term by term one or more times. Step 2: Suppose that the solution of Equation (4) can be expressed as a polynomial of GG in the form: , 0, i m im im G uG (5) where i s are constants and G satisfies the following second order linear ordinary differential equation. 0,GGG (6) with and as constants. Step 3: The homogeneous balance can be used, to determine the positive integer m, between the highest or
M. YOUNIS, A. ZAFAR OPEN ACCESS AM 3 der derivatives and the nonlinear terms appearing in (4). Moreover, the degree of u can be defined as Du m , which gives rise to the degree of the other expressions as follows: dd ,. dd s qq p uu mqDu mqsqm qq Therefore, the value of m can be obtained for the Equation (5). Step 4: After the substitution of (5) into (4) and using Equation (6), we collect all the terms with the same or der of GG together. Equate each coefficient of the obtained polynomial to zero, yields the set of algebraic equations for ,, ,,KLM and 0, 1, 2,, iim . Step 5: After solving the system of algebraic equations, and using the Equation (6), the variety of exact so lutions can be constructed. 4. Application of Burgers’ Equation In this section, the improved GG expansion method have been used to construct the exact solutions for nonlinear spacetime fractional Burgers’ Equation (1). 2 20,0, 0,1. uuu au bt txx (7) It can be observed that the fractional complex transform ,, 11 Kx Lt uxt u (8) where K and L are constants, permits to reduce the Equation (7) into an ODE. After integrating once, we have the following form: 22 0, 2 a CLUKUbKU (9) where C is a constant of integration. Now by considering the homogeneous balance between the highest order derivatives and nonlinear term presented in the above Equation, we have the following form 1 101 1 , 0, GG uGG (10) where 101 ,,,K and L are arbitrary constants. To determine these constants substitute Equation (10) into (9), and collecting all the terms with the same power of GG together, equating each coefficient equal to zero, yields a set of algebraic Equations. 22 11 2 1101 22 00111 2 110 1 22 11 10, 2 0, 1210, 2 0, 10. 2 aKbK LaKbK CL aKbK LaKbK aKbK After solving these algebraic equations with the help of software Maple, yields the following results. Case 1 For the values: 22 101 2 , , and 0. aC bLbK L KabLa aK
M. YOUNIS, A. ZAFAR OPEN ACCESS AM 4 Straightforward simplification of Equation (10) yields, the following equation 2. bK GL uaG aK (11) From Equations (6) and (11), we have the following travelling wave solutions. If 24>0 , then we have the following hyperbolic solution 22 2 22 cosh 4sinh 4 22 4. sinh 4cosh 4 22 AB bK L uaaK AB If 24<0 , then we have the following trigonometric solution 22 2 22 sin4cos 4 22 4 cos 4sin4 22 AB bK L uaaK AB and if 240 , then we have the following solution 2, bK BL uaABaK where 2 . 11 aCbLxLt abL Case 2 For the values: 22 22 01011 1 1 2 01 2 , , 1 and 0. bK bK Ca LbK a Straightforward simplification of Equation (10) yields, the following equation 1 2 12 , bKG uLbK aaG (12) From Equations (6) and (12), we have the following travelling wave solutions. If 24>0 , then we have the following hyperbolic solution 1 22 1 22 2 22 cosh4 sinh4 122 4. sinh4cosh 4 22 AB bK uLbK aaAB If 24<0 , then we have the following trigonometric solution 1 22 1 22 2 22 sin4cos4 122 4 cos4sin4 22 AB bK uLbK aa AB
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