Modern Plastic Surgery, 2014, 4, 1-4
Published Online January 2014 (
Surgical Correction of Bifid Nose Due to Tessiers No. 0
Hiroki Shibayama1, Takatoshi Yotsuyanagi2, Tamotsu Saito2, Ken Yamashita2, Makoto Yamauchi2,
Tetsuya Suda3
1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Fujisawa City Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Plastic and Recon-
structive Surgery, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan; 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive
Surgery, Sunagawa City Medical Center, Hokkaido, Japan.
Received October 18th, 2013; revised November 15th, 2013; accepted November 23rd, 2013
Copyright © 2014 Hiroki Shibayama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
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Bifid nose is a rare congenital abnormality and its surgical correction is difficult. We represent a case of bifid
nose with mild nasal deformity without cerebral or lip deformity. We performed rhinoplasty with a kind of the
forked flap at one year of age and the appearance improved.
Bifid Nose; Rhinoplasty; Forked Flap; Tessiers No. 0 Cleft
1. Introduction
Bifid nose is one of the features of Tessiers No. 0 or No.
14 craniofacial clefts [1], and is caused by the failure of
the medial and lateral nasal processes to achieve contact
with each other during the first eight weeks of fetal life.
There are few reports of the surgical correction of bifid
nose, and we describe here our experience of bifid nose
due to Tessiers No. 0 cleft. We performed rhinoplasty
with a type of the forked flap [2] at one year one month
of age and achieved relatively good results.
2. Case Report
A one-month-old boy presented with congenital nasal
disfigurement and a subcutaneous tumor on the dorsum
of the nose. He had no anomalies of other organs, and his
delivery was normal. His close relatives had no conge-
nital anomaly. Grooving of the nasal tip and columella
was observed. His nose was relatively short. The width
of the columella was increased and the distance between
the nostrils was long. Canthal index was 47. There was
an elastic soft subcutaneous tumor on the dorsum of the
nose. Median cleft lip, cleft palate and duplicated labial
frenulum were not present (Figure 1). Computed-tomo -
graphy revealed that the nasal bone was flattened but the
nasal septum was normal. No central nervous system
anomalies such as cranium bifidum or a frontonasal en-
cephalocele were recognized. The tumor was suspected
to be a lipoma (Figure 2).
Figure 1. First visit to our hospital. There is a groove at the
nasal tip and the dorsum of the nose and the columella were
Surgical Correction of Bifid Nose Due to Tessier’s No. 0 Cleft
We perfomed rhinoplasty and tumor excision at one
year one month of age under general anesthesia. The
design was similar to a forked flap, to elevate the nasal
tip (Figures 3 and 4). After elevation of the columella,
we found that the anterior nasal spine was wide and both
alar cartilages were displaced laterally (Figure 5). The
cartilages were moved medially and sutured to each other
after excision of redundant subcutaneous tissue, then the
flap forming the philtrum was fixed. Lastly, the flaps
forming the columella were trimmed and sutured (Fig-
ures 6 and 7). Pathological examination of subcutaneous
tissue showed lipoma, with no malignancy. Six months
after the operation, the appearance of his nose was rela-
tively improved and all scars were inconspicuous (Fig-
ures 8 and 9).
3. Discussion
Bifid nose has been called by several names for a long
time. In 1889, Trendelenburg [3] was described this fin-
dings as Doggennase, and this is re cog nize d as the first
report about bifid nose. In 1910 Wilkinson [4] firstly
used the term bifid nose. In 1967 DeMyer [5] sug-
Figure 2. Computed-tomography showed the flattened nasal
bone, however the nasal sept um was normal.
Figure 3. Design: We performed rhinoplasty with a kind of
forked flap”.
Figure 4. Lateral view before surgery.
Figure 5. The anterior nasal spine was wide and the alar
cartilages were separated. There was redundant tissue be-
tween the cartilages.
Figure 6. Immediately after the surgery: Front view.
Surgical Correction of Bifid Nose Due to Tessier’s No. 0 Cleft
Figure 7. Immediately after the surgery: Lateral view.
Figure 8. Six months after the surgery: Front view.
Figure 9. Six months after the surgery: Lateral view.
gested median cleft face syndromefor congenital de-
formities of the medial area of the face. However Sedano
[6] rejected this suggestion because DeMyers definition
was inadequate, and presented a new concept, fronto-
nasal dysplasia. After that, the concept of congenital
deformities of the medial area of the face became com-
plicated. In 1976 Tessier reported a classification of cra-
niofacial cleft, and now, this classification is most widely
accepted. In the classification, bifid nose is associated
with No. 0 and No. 1 4 cl e ft s.
The cause of bifid nose is known to be the failure of
the medial and lateral nasal processes to achieve contact
with each other during the first eight weeks of fetal life.
Many theories and states such as central disorganization
of the neural crest, external pressure, oligohydramnios,
amniotic bands, and hematoma have been proposed as
etiological mechanisms of th is congenital anomaly.
Tessier’s No. 0 or No. 14 cleft often presents with bi-
fid nose, median cleft lip and hypertelorism. The degree
of disease is varies in each patient, and the associated
brain malformation generally limits the life span to in-
fancy. There are some reports of associated congenital
anomalies of other than the face, but their relationship
with these clefts is unclear [7]. In bifid nose, some ver-
tical skin grooves are generally observed in the nasal tip
or dorsum and lower nasal tip. The dorsum and root of
the nose are broad and flattened. The alar and lateral car-
tilages are displaced laterally, and the nasal bone and
septum become separated or thick. In No. 0 cleft, the
manifestations are deformities of the nose and nasal sep-
tum. This cleft is often associated with median cleft lip
and cleft palate, and some authors have reported patients
with lipoma, epidermoid cyst and teratoma [8]. The ma-
nifestations of No. 14 are deformities of the orbit, and
associated brain or cranial deformities such as holopro-
sencephaly or microcephaly are often found. In the
present case, the patient presented with nasal deformities,
hypertelorism and lipoma without brain or cranial defor-
mity, and we considered this to be Tessier’s No. 0 cleft .
The treatment of bifid nose was first reported by Jo-
seph [9] in 1931, who described composite grafting for
mild cases, a VY advancement flap for moderate cases,
and a forehead flap with free bone grafting for severe
cases. For mild or moderate cases, some authors sug-
gested modifications of Josephs technique. In 1949
Webster [10] described osteotomy of the widened nasal
bone and maxilla, and he replaced the nasal cartilage
medially by suturing them to each other. After bone
and/or cartilage surgery, soft tissue reconstruction was
performed, such as excision of the redundant skin or V-Y
plasty. In 1958 Peer [11] reported suture of the alar car-
tilages for mild cases. In 1987 Ortiz [12] suggested ac-
tive osteotomy in 59 cases in which the patient had a
bony cleft. However, in 2005 Tayfun [13] stated that
Surgical Correction of Bifid Nose Due to Tessier’s No. 0 Cleft
active ostetomy should not be perfomed, in order to
avoid an adverse effect on nasal growth.
In this case we planned replacement of the alar carti-
lages and designed a forked flap to narrow the columella
and heighten the nasal tip because the nasal deformity
was mild. After incision, we removed the redundant soft
tissue between the alar cartilages, and then sutured them
to each other. In view of the patients age, we did not
perform osteotomy or cartilage grafting. Although the
timing of surgery is controversial, we think it should not
be performed before one year of age in consideration of
the risk of general anesthesia.
4. Conclusion
We performed rhinoplasty with a type of forked flap for
bifid nose patient at one year one month of age and
achieved relatively good results. Patients with bifid nose
are classified into No.0 or 14 cleft by Tessiers classifi-
cation and we should plan a surgery for each patient in-
dividually because nasal malformations are different in
each case.
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