Advances in Anthropology
2013. Vol.3, No.4, 237-239
Published Online November 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/aa) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aa.2013.34033
Open Access 237
The Arch Pattern Dermatoglyphics on the Toes of Hausa Ethnic
Group of Nigeria
A. D. Abue1*, M. Ujaddughe2, M. T. Kpela3
1Department of Anatomical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria
3Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Received July 14th, 2013; revised August 16th, 2013; accepted September 13th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 A. D. Abue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons At-
tribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited.
Dermatoglyphic has found application in establishing ethnic differences (Harlich et al., 2002). The plantar
Arch pattern dermatoglyhics of the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria has not been established, and a lot of
work had been done in southern Nigeria. This work attempts to look into the plantar arch patterns of the
Hausas in Northern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 357 subjects was collected from persons who
were truly of the Hausa tribe in Nigeria. 222 of the subjects were males while 135 were females. There
was a significant difference in the plantar arch pattern on both sexes as confirmed by the chi-square test.
There were differences on both feet. The percentage frequency of the arch pattern on the toes was greatest
on the females and on the right toe (63%). The frequency was least on females (9.9%). The frequencies
were greatest on the right toes of both sexes.
Keywords: Arch; Pattern; Toe; Hausa; Nigeria
Dermatoglyphic patterns are genetically determined i.e. they
are inheritable. It is believed that they follow a polygenic pat-
tern of inheritance, Adebisi (2008, 2009). Dermatoglyphics has
found application in establishing ethnic differences (Harlich et
al., 2002). The science of Dermatoglyphics involves the study
of epidermal ridges present on the surface of palms, fingers,
soles and toes. The following dermatoglyphic features in Fig-
ure 1 are found on the toes which include:
Starting with the big toes, the toes are numbered from big toe
(I) to the small toe (V).
Materials and Methods
A total of 357 subjects were collected from persons who are
genuinely of Hausa ethnic group in Nigeria, 222 were males
while 135 were females (Figure 2).
The Ink procedure by Cummins and midlo was used to col-
lect digital prints on the soles; the prints were counted with the
aid of hand lens and classified. The arches frequencies were
expressed in percentages and analyzed.
Results and Discussions
These were the most abundant dermatoglyphics features
found on the toes. They possess no tri-radius. Table 1 shows
that the arches were more distributed on the hallux of the toes.
The percentage frequency showed a significant difference in
both sexes. A significant difference was also observed on the
right and left feet. The percentage of distribution of arches on
the toes was greatest in females and on the right toe. It was least
in females (9.9%) in equal proportion.
ARCH LOOP LOOP WHORL
Dermatoglyphics patterns on the toes.
Shows percentage frequencies of archs on the toe of hausa ethnic
Sample I II III IV V
L 222 43.2%36.5% 26.6% 20.3%11.7%
R 222 45.5%29.7% 29.3% 29.3%12.2%
L 135 61.5%41.5% 41.5% 35.6%9.9%
R 135 63.0%50.4% 44.4% 44.4%9.9%
A. D. ABUE ET AL.
The map of Hausa speaking states in Nigeria.
Shows numerical distribution of arches pattern on the toe of hausa
Sample I II III IV V
L 222 96 81 59 45 26
R 222 101 66 65 65 27
L 135 83 56 56 48 22
R 135 85 68 60 60 22
In the males, the percentage frequency was 45.5% on the
right toe. The frequency was greatest on the right toes of both
sexes. It was least on the hypothenar distal of the left toe in
males (11.7%). In females, the percentage frequency was high-
est on the right hallux (63%). It was least on the little toe of
both feet (9.9%). The 3rd and 4th toe had equal percentage fre-
quency on the right foot (44.4%). The 2nd toe had (50%). The
observations in this research tallies with Ekanem et al. 2009 on
the Annang ethnic group of Nigeria. This also tallies with Ig-
bigbi et al. on the Malawians population.
Significant differences existed on both sexes and feet in the
Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria as shown in Table 2 above.
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