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J ournal o f A pp Published Onli n http://dx.doi.or g Open Access A M Squee z ABSTRA C In this study w effects prese n tioned device s fectly vacuu m strate, which electro-static a To accurately eling squeeze p late elasticit y solve the cou p coupled with p roblem at h a ments of whi c evaluated for trostatic press single step, u s and publishe d Keywords: S q 1. Introdu c The wide sc a MEMS senso to increasing due to the thi n cally such d e b rating norm a trapped in- b e t sions of the height of the spring and a squeeze film nant dissipati o operating in * Corresponding a p lied Mathemat i n e November 2 0 g /10.4236/jamp . M onolit h z e Film Anis h 1 Depar t 2 Center C T w e describe a n n t in vibratory s often consis t m packed. Thi s behaves like a a lly, necessitat i model these d film effects f o y often use a p p led fluid elas t the 3D elasti c a nd, using onl y c h the lowest l a these nodes o n ure load on th e s ing only one e d experimental q ueeze Film D c tion a le applicatio n rs, using par a interest in th e n film of air t r e vices consist a lly to a fixed t ween (see Fi g plate happen air gap, the tr a viscous dam p effect. Squee z o n mechanis m the aforeme n a utho r . i cs and Ph y sics , 0 13 (http://ww w .2013.16005 h ic, FE M Proble Usin g h Roychowd h tment of Mech a for Nano Scien c n FEM- b ased m MEMS devi c t of a plate-li k s results in a t h a squeeze fil m i ng the thin ai r d evices the sq u o r rigid motio n p proximate m o t icity proble m c ity Equation . y one type of e a yer of nodes n ly. We also a e top surface o e lement type. data. D amping; Cou p n of electro- s a llel p late cap a e study of en e r apped in suc h of a plate li k substrate, wit h g ure 1). If th e to be much a pped air beh a p e r , a pheno m z e fil m dampi n m in Si based n tioned cond i , 2013, 1, 20-2 5 w .scirp.org/jour n M -Bas e m of a n g 3D 2 7 h ury 1,2* , Aru a nical Engineeri n c e and Enginee r Email: * anishr o Recei v m ethodology t c es, such as r e k e structure th a h in film of air m offering bot h r gap for impr o u eeze film eff e n for both per fo o de shapes as m , report iterati v . In this work e lement (27 n o is also treated a pply an elect r o f the structur e T he FEM res u p led Problem; s tatically driv e a citors have l e e rgy dissipati o h devices. Ty p k e structure, v h a thin air fil m e lateral dime n larger than t h a ves both like m enon known a n g is the do m MEMS devic e i tions [1]. T h 5 n al / jamp ) e d App r n Oscill 7 -Node p Nandy 1 , C n g, Indian Insti t r ing, Indian Inst i o y@mecheng.ii s v e d August 201 3 t o solve the c o e sonators, gyr o a t vibrates no r being sandwi c h stiffness an d o ving the effi c e ct must be in c fo rated as well input to the 2 D v e FEM- b ase d we present a o de 3D brick) . as the fluid d o r ostatic loadin e . Thus we sol v u lts show goo d 27- N ode Bric k e n e d o n p i- v i- m n - h e a a s m i- e s h e squeez e dynam i [2]. In sary to due to tems i n structu r main e Figure brating r oach fo ating E Eleme n C . S. Jog 1 , R u t ute of Science, i tute of Science , s c.ernet.in 3 o upled flui d -st r o scopes, and a r mal to a fixe d c hed between d damping. T y c iency of actu a c orporated. E x as non- p erfor D Reynolds E d solution stra t a FEM- b ased s . The structur e o main (2D) a n g to our mod e v e the couple d d agreement w k ; Micro-Plat e e film offere d i c characteris t order to corre c accurately d e the squeeze f i n volves coupl i r al and fluid. ffect is mode l 1. Schematic o elastic plate a n fo r the C E lastic M n ts u dra Pratap 1 Bangalore, Indi , Bangalore, In d r ucture probl e a coustic trans d d substrate, an the moving p l y pically, such s a tion and the s x tensive literat u ated plates. St u E quation. Rec e t egies for the 2 s ingle ste p so l e is modeled w n d the integral s e l by consider i d 2D-fluid-3D - w ith both existi n e d damping an d t ics of the vi b c tly model su c e termine the s i lm. Accurate i ng of three d Traditionally l ed using the l o f an air film n d a fixed subs t C ouple d M icro- P 1 ,2 a d ia e m due to squ e d ucers. The a f d is generally l ate and the fi x s tructures are ensitivity of d u re is present u dies which m e nt works whi c 2 D Reynolds E l ution for the w ith 27 node b s over fluid do m i ng an equival - structure pro b n g analytical s d stiffness cha n b ratory MEM S c h devices, it i s tiffness and d modeling of s d omains, elect r the squeeze l ubrication th e trapped betw e t rate. JAMP d P late e eze film f oremen- not pe r - x ed sub- actuated d etection. on mo d - m odel the c h try to E quation coupled b rick ele- m ain are ent elec- b lem in a s olutions a nges the S device i s neces- d amping s uch sys- r ostatics, film do- e ory, via e en a vi- A. ROYCHOWDHURY ET AL. Open Access JAMP 21 the Reynolds Equation [3]. With rigid plate assumption the Reynolds Equation can be decoupled from the elas- ticity Equation and, further, on linearization can be solved to obtain analytical expressions for stiffness and damping. Blech [3] studied the effect of squeeze film induced stiffness and damping for rigid plates with trivial pressure boundary conditions. Darling et al. [4] presented analytical solutions to the linearized Reynolds Equation for various venting conditions, using a Greens function approach. For flexible structures one has to account for the variable air gap, and the elasticity Equation has to be coupled with the Reynolds Equation for accurate model- ing. Hung et al. [5] presented a reduced order macro model based on basis functions generated from finite difference simulations. They applied this technique to model a pressure sensor as a clamped-clamped micro- beam to study the pull-in dynamics of the system using a 1D Euler beam Equation and the non-linear Reynolds Equation. McCarthy et al. [6] studied cantilever micro- switches using a transient finite difference method ap- proximating a parabolic pressure distribution along the length and non variance along the width and obtained good agreement with experimental measurements. You- nis et al. [7] studied the effect of squeeze film damping for an electrically actuated micro-plate, using the com- pressible Reynolds Equation. They used perturbation me- thods to derive analytical expressions for pressure distri- butions in terms of the structural mode shape. Pandey et al. [8] studied the effect of flexural mode shapes on the squeeze film offered stiffness and damping for a canti- lever resonator, they used Green’s function to solve the linearized compressible Reynold’s Equation and used the modal projection method available in ANSYS to solve the coupled fluid structure problem for several flexural modes of vibration. The analytical and numerical values of damping obtained were in good agreement with expe- rimental results. Li et al. [8] accounted for the static bias deflection for a fixed- fixed micro-beam and a cantilever under electrostatic actuation. They assumed a parabolic function for the pressure along the beam width and a cosine series along the beam length, and solved the coupled Reynolds Equation and the Euler Bernoulli beam Equation. Hannot et al. [9] presented an approach to solve the coupled elasticity Equation and Reynolds’s Equation for modeling a capacitive micro-switch. They employed a non-linear Newmark time integration scheme for the mechanical Equations and a trapezoidal rule for the fluid Equations. The above mentioned models at- tempt to solve the coupled problem, though not in a sin- gle step. The geometry modeled is also limited to 1D beam type structures. These methods, though accurate, are cumbersome and involve iterative or staggered approaches. We propose a single step methodology to solve the coupled fluid- structure squeeze film problem. We use the 3D elastic- city Equation, thus not restricting ourselves to any par- ticular geometry, and couple it with the 2D Reynolds Equation for squeeze film. A single step “monolith” ap- proach [10] is presented to solve the coupled problem. The numerical results show good agreement with pub- lished experimental data and existing analytical solutions. 2. Numerical Modeling The problem at hand involves solving for pressure on the vibrating plate due to the squeezed film, taking into ac- count the elasticity of the plate. Thus the problem in- volves solution of the Reynolds Equation for the fluid domain coupled with the 3D elasticity Equation for the structural domain. In our finite element model, the air gap is treated as a 2D layer and the structural domain is modeled in three dimensions. The element used for mod- eling the structural domain is 3D, 27 node brick element. The “wet” face of the 3D element is treated as the fluid domain. Thus the relevant integrals for the fluid domain are evaluated over the corresponding 9 noded “wet” sur- face of the 3D, 27 node brick element. 2.1. Variational Formulation for the Fluid Domain The linearized Reynolds Equation is given as follows [2], 322 00 22 a eff , 12 hh P PPH P ttxy (1) where μeff is the effective viscosity, 0 h is the initial air gap, a P is the ambient air pressure, P is the fluid pres- sure (perturbed about a P) and H is the air gap (perturbed about 0 h). The last term on the right hand side of the above Equation couples the structure and the fluid do- main. Substituting for harmonic solution j t P pe and jt z Hue in Equation (1) and considering p as varia- tion of p in a weighted integral sense we have, 3 2 00 eff a 0. 12 hhj ppjupd z P (2) For the fluid domain we have 0p on the open borders and 0 ˆ p n on the closed borders. After doing integration by parts and implementing the above boun- dary conditions, we get the governing Equation for fluid domain as, 3 00 eff a . 12 0 z hhj p pd ppd P jupd (3) A. ROYCHOWDHURY ET AL. Open Access JAMP 22 2.2. FEM Formulation for the Fluid Domain For the FEM formulation we use 9 noded quadrilateral elements for 2D fluid domain. Pressure, its variation and z u at any point are obtained from interpolation of the corresponding nodal values using the following relation- ships. 1 2 12 9 9 ˆ, p p pNNN p p Np (4) ˆ,p p Np (5) 1 1 1 19 9 9 9 ˆ00 00. z u v w uNN u v w z u Nu (6) Pressure gradient can be expressed as ˆ p p Bp, (7) where 9 12 9 12 . N NN x xx N NN yy y p B (8) Similarly we have, ˆ p. p B p (9) where p N is (1 × 9), ˆ p is (9 × 1), ˆδ pis (9 × 1) p B is (2 × 9), z u Nis (1 × 27) and ˆ u is (27 × 1). Substituting Equations (4), (5), (6), (7) and (9) in Equ- ation (3) and using arbitrariness of ˆδ p we get, 3 00 a eff 0. ˆ 12 ˆ TT T hjh dd P jd z ppp p pu BBNN p NN u (10) 2.3. FEM Formulation for the Structure We have the variational statement for dynamic structural problem without anybody force as: :( ), t ddd uuuu u.t (11) where is density, u is displacement, u is its variation, τu is stress, t is prescribed traction over the boundary t and εu is given by 1 () . 2 T uuu Here, :( ):( ),ij ij uuu u with the summation convention over repeated indices. For coupled squeeze film damping problem with structural interaction, the wet surface (the surface which constitutes the 2D fluid domain) is subjected to prescrib- ed traction ˆ, p tn then Equation (11) can be written as wet t ˆ :( ) , ddpd d uu uuu.n u.t (12) where the last term on the left hand side signifies coupl- ing effect of the fluid over the structural domain. The standard FEM discretization for displacement and other quantities are ˆ, u uNu ˆ, u uNu ˆ () , u uCBu ˆ () , u uBu ˆ () . u uBu Substituting above relations in Equation (12) and using arbitrariness of u we have the discretized Equation for the structural domain as wet t ˆˆ ˆ. TT TT dd dd uu uu up u uu p BCBN N NnN Nt (13) 2.4. Coupled FEM Formulation For the coupled problem at hand the 2D fluid domain corresponds to the “wet” surface of the structural domain. Thus coupling the fluid and structure domains we have (combining Equations (10) and (13)) ˆ ˆ, uu upu pupp KK uf KK p0 (14) A. ROYCHOWDHURY ET AL. Open Access JAMP 23 2, uuu u K MK , Td uuu MNN , Td uuu KBCB wet , ˆ Td up up KNnN t , Td uu fNt 3 00 eff a wet wet , 12 TT hjh P dd pp ppp p KBBN N wet . T jd pu pp KNN We have used 27 noded brick element for the struc- tural domain, whose wet surface (consisting of 9 noded square face) is modelled as the 2D fluid domain. 3. Results and Discussion For validation of our FEM results we have compared our numerical results with analytical solutions reported by Siddartha et al. [11,12], as well as experimental results from work by Pandey et al. [8]. 3.1. Modeling a Varying Flow Boundary Elastic Microplate Siddartha et al. [11,12] studied the effect of varying flow boundary conditions on the squeeze film stiffness and damping for an all sides clamped micro-plate. The plate is considered to vibrate in its fundamental mode which imparts the flexibility effect. Analytical expressions have been derived for stiffness and damping forces on the plate (clamped at all sides) due to the trapped air film (subjected to different flow boundaries). We use 4 × 4 mesh for FEM modeling of the plate. We design two re- presentative flow boundary conditions with our numeri- cal scheme, namely the all four sides open (“OOOO”) and the two opposite sides closed (“OCOC”) cases. The plate is subjected to harmonic displacement boundary condition corresponding to its first mode shape. The re- sulting pressure distribution is integrated over the wet surface to get the force on the moving plate. The squeeze film spring (Fs) and damping (Fd) forces are obtained from the real and imaginary component of the resultant force respectively. The forces are non dimensionalised (see [11]) and plotted against a non dimensional parame- ter , directly related to the frequency of harmonic exci- tation as follows,22 eff0 0 12 L ph /, where μeff is the effective viscosity [13], ω is the harmonic excitation fre- quency, L is the plate side dimension, p0 is the ambient pressure and h0 is the initial air gap. Figure 2 shows the plots for Fs and Fd for the “OOOO” case and Figure 3 shows the same for the “OCOC” case. We see from these plots that the numerical stiffness and damping forces are in close agreement with the analytical results for both the flow boundary cases studied. We also note that the two methods show good agreement at both high and low values (thus high and low frequencies). The deviation between the numerical and analytical results have been found to be less than 2% for both the flow boundary conditions studied here. 3.2. Modeling a Cantilever In order to compare our results with experimental data we have modeled a cantilever beam as per dimensions Figure 2. Spring and damping forces vs sigma for “OOOO” configuration. Figure 3. Spring and damping forces vs sigma for “OCOC” configuration. A. ROYCHOWDHURY ET AL. Open Access JAMP 24 mentioned in the work of Pandey et al. [8]. We compare the numerically obtained Quality factors (Q) for the first three modes of vibration as well as the effect of aspect ratio on the quality factor of the beam for the first mode of vibration. The beam modeled is of length 350 μm, width 22 μm, thickness 4 μm, with an initial air gap of 1.4 μm. The beam material is polysilicon with density 2330 Kg/m3, Young’s Modulus 160 GPa and Poisson’s ratio 0.22. Air is considered to be the fluid medium with the relevant property values (under standard temperature and pressure ) as follows: density ρair = 1.2 Kg/m3, dy- namic viscosity µair = 1.8 × 10−5 N.s/m2, and ambient pressure pa = 1.013 × 105 Pa. In our simulations we have subjected the cantilever to a sinusoidal voltage of 1.5 V, which is well below the pull-in voltage of 6 V for the given cantilever. The input voltage has been applied as an electrostatic pressure load of magnitude 5.08 N/m2 to our FEM model for the cantilever beam, considering a parallel plate capacitor with small displacement approx- imation [14]. The beam tip velocities have been obtained from the simulations and normalized with respect to the applied voltage and plotted against frequency. The fre- quency response so obtained is shown in Figure 4. The plot shows three distinct peaks corresponding to the first three modes, and is in close agreement with a similar plot reported by Pandey et al. [8]. Q factors for different modes are obtained using half power method from the frequency response plot. Convergence study of the Q factor (Table 1) has been done using three levels of mesh refinement considering a very fine mesh (100 × 6 × 4) result as our benchmark. Q factors for sufficiently fine mesh (40 × 5 ×4 ) are compared with published results from Pandey et al. [8] in Table 2. We see that the data from the numerical simulations are in good agreement with published experimental and numerical results. We Figure 4. Frequency response of a cantilever beam of length 350 μm, width 22 μm and thickness 4 μm. further studied beams with varying aspect ratios. We considered beams with lengths varying from 150 µm to 350 µm, having a constant width of 22 µm and thickness 4 µm. Only the first mode of vibration is considered in this study. Comparative values of Q factors for the dif- ferent beams (40 × 5 × 4 mesh) are presented in Table 3. Our simulation results show a deviation of less than 10% from the reported experimental data. 4. Conclusion We have discussed an FEM formulation to solve the coupled fluid-structure squeeze film problem without resorting to iterative solutions. Our results show good agreement with experimental data available from the literature. Our numerical scheme is seen to give good results for varying aspect ratio structures with dimen- sions below 100 μm. The proposed scheme can be further used as a design tool for modeling and simulation of the dynamic response of vibratory MEMS devices such as capacitive microphones, RF (Radio Frequency) MEMS switches, etc., for which accurate knowledge of the Q Table 1. Convergence study for the first two modes of a cantilever beam of length 350 μm, width 22 μm. Modes Q factors for FEM Mesh (length×width×thickness) 100 × 6 × 440 × 5 × 4 30 × 3 × 2 20 × 3 × 2 1 1.097 1.095 1.093 1.10 2 5.842 5.849 5.891 5.908 Table 2. Q factor comparison for the first three modes of a cantilever beam of length 350 μm, width 22 μm. Modes Q factors comparison QEXP QANSYS QFEM 1 1.20 1.11 1.095 2 7.58 6.94 5.849 3 18.52 20.0 20.379 Table 3. Q factor comparison for beam of width 22 μm with varying lengths. Length (μm) Q factors % Deviation QEXP QFEM 150 7.04 6.83 2.98 200 4.0 3.66 8.5 250 2.49 2.26 9.24 300 1.56 1.53 2.05 350 1.2 1.09 9.17 A. ROYCHOWDHURY ET AL. Open Access JAMP 25 factor is critical for design. With this methodology one can directly couple the elasticity effect of the structure with the fluid flow and need not limit oneself to 1D geometries. 5. Acknowledgements This work is partially supported by NPMASS grant for computational micro-systems. The authors acknowledge the support from CoNE Lab of the Center for Nano Science and Engineering at IISC. 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