Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 1093-1096
doi:10.4236/epe.2013.54B208 Published Online July 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/epe)
Research on Numerical Simulation of 3D Leakage
Magnetic Field and Short-circuit Impedance of Axial
Dual-low-voltage Split-winding Transformer*
Yan Li, Longnv Li, Yongteng Jing, Fangxu Han
Research Institute of Special Electrical Machines, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, China
Received March, 2013
It is difficult to accurately calculate the short-circuit impedance, due to the complexity of axial dual-low-voltage
split-winding transformer winding structure. In this paper, firstly, the leakage magnetic field and short-circuit imped-
ance model of axial dual-low-voltage split-winding transformer is established, and then the 2D and 3D leakage mag-
netic field are analyzed. Secondly, th e short-circuit impedance and split parallel branch curren t distribution in different
working conditions are calculated, which is based on field-circuit coupled method. At last, effectiveness and feasibility
of the proposed model is verified by comparison between experiment, analysis and simulation. The results showed that
the 3D analysis method is a better approach to calculate the short-circuit impedance, since its analytical value is more
closer to the experimental value compared with the 2D analysis results, the finite element method calculation error is
less than 2%, while the leakage flux method maximum error is 7.2%.
Keywords: Split-winding Transformer; Short-circuit Impedance; Field-circuit Coupled; Current Distribution
Short-circuit impedance is the important technical pa-
rameter of power transformer [1,2]. The value of short-
circuit impedance can influence the cost, efficiency,
voltage regulation, mechanical strength, short-circuit
current of transformer, so the deviation between meas-
ured value and rated value when the transformer leave
factory is very strict. Split-winding transformer splits one
winding into two ones, wh en one winding is short circuit
it can increase the impedance, it’s the effective and
economy method to restrict the shot-circuit current. The
application of split-winding transformer is used more and
more widely following with the increase of unit capacity
and system capacity [3-6]. So calculation of short-circuit
impedance accurately in split-winding transformer is
important in transformer design.
2D and 3D calculation model are established for a ax-
ial dual-low-voltage split-winding transformer which
type is SFFZ10-88000 kVA/220 kV based on rational
simplification and assumption. Apply field-circuit cou-
pled method to compute and analysis the leakage mag-
netic field and short-circuit impedance, it could be used
as the starting point for studying the load short circuit
current and distribution of high voltage parallel road
current. At last, finite element, computing and experi-
mental values are contrastive analyzed, then the finite-
element analysis is verified to be proper and more verac-
2. Basic Parameter and Calculation Model of
The structure diagram of axial dual-low-voltage split-
winding transformer is shown in Figure 1.
*This work was supported by NSFC, under Project 51177103 and
Program for LN IRT in University (LT2011002) . Figure 1. Structure diagram of winding.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Y. LI ET AL.
The arrangement of winding is core---balanced wind-
ing---low voltage winding---high voltage winding
---regulating winding. Low voltage winding break up
into four equality rated capacity (LV1 , LV2, LV3, LV4).
High voltage winding adopt inlet line from central sec-
tion, the two parts (HV1, HV2) are in parallel then con-
nected in series with regulating winding (TV1, TV2).
Regulating winding all accessing is maximum tap, re-
verse accessing is minimum tap. The low and high volt-
age winding of transformer are all Y connection, a bal-
anced winding is needed to provide access of third har-
monic current for enhancing waveform quality. The basic
parameter of split-winding transformer is shown in Table
1. 3D calculation model of split-winding transformer is
shown in Figure 2.
The assumption cond itions are shown as follows:
1) The 1/2 model of whole transformer model is estab-
lished in order to reduce the computational time;
2) The eddy currents and their influence on windings
are neglec t ed;
3) The currents in the windings are equa lly distributed
along the cross section;
4) All field quantity sinusoidal variation with time, do
not consider the high-order harmonic.
The diagram of external circuit that calculating the short-
circuit impedance of transformer based on field-circuit
coupled method is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3(a) shows
the equivalent circuit diagram of crossing, Figure 3(b)
shows the equivalent circuit diagram of semi-crossing.
Table 1. Basic Parameter of Split-winding Transformer.
Rated current of high voltage winding 109.95 A
Rated current of low voltage winding 2419.4 A
Rated current of regulating winding 219.9 A
Rated current of balanced winding 936.5 A
Turns of high voltage winding 773
Turns of low voltage wind in g LV1,LV3(18),LV2,LV4(19)
Turns of regula ti n g w i nd i ng 40
Turns of balanced wi n d i n g 64
Figure 2. Model of split-winding transformer.
(a) Equivalent circuit diagram of crossing
(b) Equivalent circ u i t d i a g ram of semi-crossing
Figure 3. Equivalent circuit diagram.
i,Cis the three-phase symmetrical current source
with internal impedance at the secondary side of the
transformer. A, B, C is the secondary winding consist of
HV and TV. a, b, c is the primary winding consist of LV.
3. Calculation of Short-circuit Impedance
Calculation of short-circuit impedance percentage using
analytical method can be governed by following equa-
where t is every turn potential, e
is rated phase
current of winding, W is total number of turns, H is av-
erage reactance height of coil, K is additional reactance
is low-type coefficient, is leak-
age magnetic area. D
When calculate the short circuit impedance of trans-
former by the finite element method based on
field-circuit coupled, energy of magnetic field stored in
transformer is transformed from external source during
setting up the magnetic field. Calculate the distribution of
magnetic can obtain the energy of magnetic field stored
in transformer [7,8]. When there is the current
winding, energy of magnetic field is:
where is magnetic field energy, L is inductance of
is phase current.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Y. LI ET AL. 1095
When resistive component of the short-circuit imped-
ance can be ignored, the short-circuit impedance of cor-
responding rated current
is short-circuit impedance (leakage reac-
is angular frequency of power source.
Percentage of short-ci rcuit impedance is shown as:
U is percentage of short-circuit impedance,
is frequency, VA is capacity of single phase when
transformer working under rated operating condition.
4. Analysis of Calculation Results
The short-circuit impedance of axial dual-low-voltage
split-winding transformer is calculated and analyzed
though analytical method, 2D and 3D finite element me-
thod. The distribution of leakage magnetic vector when
the transformer is working under crossing and semi-
crossing condition are respectively shown in Figure 4(a)
and Figure 4(b).
The comparison of results about the short-circuit im-
pedance of split-winding transformer working under dif-
ferent conditions are shown in Table 2. In this table,
low-up is LV1 and LV2 in the structure diagram, low-
down is LV3 and LV4 in the structure diagram, Zd is the
short-circuit impedance of crossing, ZB is the short-cir-
cuit impedance of semi-crossing.
(a) Leakage magnetic vector distribution of crossing
(b) Leakage magnetic vector distribution of semi-crossing
Figure 4. 3D leakage magnetic field distribution (rated tap).
Table 2. Short-circuit Impedance Results of Split- winding
conditions Calculation MeasuredError/%
Analytical 9.92 0.7
2D 9.76 0.9
Analytical 18.5 0.27
2D 18.59 0.22
(high/low-up) 3D 18.63
Analytical 18.5 0.16
2D 18.65 0.97
(high/low-down) 3D 18.63
Analytical 10.08 0.5
2D 9.96 1.2
Analytical 18.87 0.53
2D 18.86 0.48
(high/low-up) 3D 18.8
Analytical 18.87 1
2D 18.9 1.18
(high/low-down) 3D 18.92
Analytical 9.61 3.3
2D 9.87 0.7
Analytical 17.36 7.2
2D 18.87 0.85
(high/low-up) 3D 18.82
Analytical 17.36 6.5
2D 18.78 1.13
(high/low-down) 3D 18.82
Figure 5. End winding magnetic flux density distribution
along circle direction.
The distribution of magnetic flux density along circle
direction of upper end of the winding under crossing
condition is shown in Figure 5. The distribution of mag-
netic flux density is uneven along the circle direction of
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Y. LI ET AL.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Table 3. Current calculation of HV parallel branch (-show
Calculation conditions High voltage
up/A High voltage
Zd 109.95 110.14
ZB(high/low-up) 111.02 -1.08
ZB(high/low-down) -1.11 111.02
Zd 104.62 104.88
ZB(high/low-up) 108.62 -3.66 Max tap
ZB(high/low-down) -3.67 108.62
Zd 129.13 129.67
ZB(high/low-up) 120.92 8.46 Min tap
ZB(high/low-down) 8.45 120.93
winding from the figure, the magnetic flux density in the
core window is larger than that out of the core window.
The comparative analysis of the analytical method, 2D
finite element method, 3D finite element method and
measured values shows that the 3D finite element calcu-
lation value is more close to the measured value. Due to
short-circuit impedance is decided by the value and re-
gularity of distribution of leakage magnetic field, ana-
lytical method can not calculate the leakage magnetic
accurately. 2D finite element method can not figure up
the uneven of the distribution of magnetic field along the
circle direction of winding. So the 3D finite element me-
thod is the best choice when calculating short-circuit
5. Analysis of Current Distribution
In this paper, the high voltage winding is connected in
parallel, then series connected with regulating winding,
current excitation is applied at high voltage side when
calculating short-circuit impedance from Figure 1. The
problem of current distribution is analyzed in different
conditions, the calculation results of 3D finite element
method are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 shows that the high voltage parallel branch
current in crossing is not much different and equal divi-
sion when in the three conditions; current in
semi-crossing is different and distribution uneven. The
reason for this phenomenon is that: under the
semi-crossing, the two low voltage winding impedances
are different in the up and down two parallel branches,
and the magnetic field is mutual affected. At last, a circle
flowing the two low-voltage winding is emerged to
counteract the imbalance of impedance.
In this paper, an axial dual-low-voltage split-winding
transformer is selected as the research object, calculation
model of the equivalent circuit and the leakage magnetic
field is established. Analytical method, 2D and 3D finite
element method are used to calculate the short-circuit
impedance of transformer in different conditions, then
get the following conclusions:
1) The error of 3D finite element and measured values
is in 2%. The maximum error of analytical method
achieves 7.2%. The 3D finite element method is more
accurate than the 2D one and analytical method.
2) The current distribution can be accurately obtained
by 3D field-circuit coupled finite element analysis me-
thod though the analysis of current distribution of high
voltage parallel branch, then the precise short-circuit
impedance is gained. All of these can be the reference
frame in the short-circuit design of split-winding trans-
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