C. Y. ZHANG ET AL. 979

The planning results of the 18-node system show that,

for a practical system, the proposed multi-objective dis-

tribution network expansion method can effectively en-

hance the distribution capacity by adding specific new

lines under the variety conditions of future uncertainties.

Considering efficiency, reliability, and economic, the

best planning schemes can be put forward by the pro-

posed two-phase multi-objective PSO, which shows its

superiority as well.

Further research can focus on the multi-stage and mul-

ti-objective model, which should consider the uncertainty

of the bidding parameters and other uncertain factors in

distribution expansion problem.

6. Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial sup-

ports and the strategic platform for innovation & research

provided by Danish national project iPower.

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