Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 945-949
doi:10.4236/epe.2013.54B181 Published Online July 2013 (
An IEEE 1547-Based Power Conditioner Test System
for Distributed Energy Resources
Azen Y. Liu, P. H. Lan, H. H. Lin
Renewable Energy Laboratory, Taiwan Electric Research and Testing Center, Taoyuan, Chinese Taipei.
Email:, lawrence,
Received March, 2013
Power conditioner, that is responsible for electric power conversion, is a critical component used in many renewable
energy power generation systems. Most of the electric power produced by distributed energy resources cannot directly
import to utility network witho ut power conversion. Meanwhile, power conversion may includ es several d ifferen t types,
for example AC/DC, and DC/AC, which is realized by a variety types of power conditioners in the electric power sys-
tem. Currently, many concerns are focused on the operation of these power conditioners used in distributed energy re-
sources due to the worse designing may cause the terrible influence on safety and performance characteristic of distrib-
uted energy resources. The power quality and reliability of interconnected electric power network may be affected as
well. In the view of this, IEEE standards board provides a uniform standard for interconnection of distributed resources
with electric power systems. It provides requirements relevant to the performance, operation, testing, safety considera-
tions, and maintenance of the interconnection. Based on the IEEE 1547 standard, this paper presents a test system for
power conditioners that are used in distributed energy resources or other renewable energy applications. Some of the
test items that described in IEEE 1547.1 relevant to interconnection issues can be realized by proposed test system.
Keywords: Power Conditioner; Distributed Energy Resource; IEEE 1547
1. Introduction
The techniques of energy conversion are commonly used
in distributed energy resources (DERs) and renewable
energy applications. Meanwhile, the balance-of-system
component power conditioner is the most striking one.
Although power conditione rs currently in many countries
are not products need mandatory inspection. But manu-
facturers and operators are still much concerned on the
mechanism operation and performance characteristic of
power conditioner. IEEE 15 47 series of standa rds presen t
the technical requirements that recommend the power
conditioner products should meet before enter to the
market. These series of standards are also significant for
many countries to develop smart grid techniques since
lots of interconnection DER systems are included. In this
paper, a power conditioner test system be constructed b ased
on IEEE 1547 and IEEE 1547.1 standard is presented [1,
2]. Framework of the proposed test system is shown in
section II. Section III gives some test cases that relate to
the test items in standard. The status of certificate of ac-
creditation for proposed test system is described in sec-
tion IV, and section V addresses conclusions.
2. Framework of Proposed Test System
In the study, the proposed power conditioner test system
mainly includes DC power source, equipment under test
(EUT), AC power source, RLC load and monitor system,
as shown in Figure 1. The requirements of above-men-
tioned components are summarized as follow:
2.1. DC Power Source
DC power source is used to simulate the output DC
source come from PV system or the certain of DC source
that is converted by rectifier such as wind turbine system.
The DC power source used in the study is a DC power
supply. Requirements relevant to the DC power source
are described in Table 1.
2.2. AC Power Source
In general, the voltage, frequency and phase angle of AC
power source should be adjusted so as to different test
conditions can be performed. A programmable AC
power supply is thus used to simulated electric power
system (EPS) which is connected by the power condi-
tioner. Table 2 shows the requirements of AC power
2.3. RLC Load
In the proposed test system RLC load is in parallel
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Figure 1. Framework of proposed power conditioner test system.
between EUT and AC power source, the accuracy of
RLC load may therefore be concerned. A non-inductance
resistor bank with low resistance temperature coefficient
is considered for R; an inductor with low-loss and low-
resistance is used for L. C requires a low-inductance ca-
pacitor bank.
2.4. Monitor System
Lots of test results from proposed test system are ob-
tained by recorded raw data calculation or waveform
capture from oscilloscope. The monitor system may
therefore include power recorder, CT, PT, data acquisi-
tion card, digital oscilloscope and power analyzer. The
sampling rate, bandwidth and accuracy of these appara-
tus should be determined carefully since the deviation of
test results may be cause from an unfavorable setting.
The entity of proposed test syste m is shown in Figure
2. Table 1. Requirements of DC power source.
Item Requirements
Output power Sufficient power must provide to EUT.
Due to the loads may include 5% variation,
the response time of output voltage s h o u ld
less than 1ms and output current should not
less than 10% of ending current.
The stability of DC power source output
should maintain a l t h o u gh the variation may
be produced by loads. (variation less than
Fill Factor
(only for PV system) Control to 0.2 - 0.8
Table 2. Requirements of AC power source.
Item Requirements
Voltage Rated voltage ± 2%
Harmonics < 2.5%
Frequency Rated frequency ± 0.1 Hz
Phase Angle
(only for three-phase system) 120 ± 1.5°
Figure 2. The entity of proposed power conditioner test
3. Case Study
Some test cases carried on a 4 kW PV inverter is used as
EUT to assure the compliances of the operation and per-
formance of proposed test system can meet IEEE 1547
presented. The specifications of tested EUT are simply
summarized in Table 3.
3.1. Response to Abnormal Voltage Conditions
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A. Y. LIU ET AL. 947
The case of abnormal overvoltage condition is shown in
Figure 3. The output AC voltage of EUT is adjusted
from normal voltage 230 V to 10% of normal voltage
253 V (abnormal). It is found from EUT current, DER
ceases to energize the EPS within it required clearing
time (less than 1 sec).
3.2. Response to Abnormal Frequency
In IEEE 1547 section 4.2.4, for DR less than or equal to
30 kW in peak capacity, the frequency set points and
clearing times shall be either fixed or field adjustable.
For DR greater than 30 kW, the frequency set points
shall be field adjustable. Figure 4 shows condition of
under frequency. After the normal operation of EUT in
60 Hz, the frequency drop to 56.3 Hz. It is also found
from EUT current, DER ceases to energize the EPS
within it required clearing time (less than 160 ms).
Table 3. Spectral irradiance of LPSS and AM 1. 5G.
Input Data
Max. Input Power 4700 W
Nominal DC Voltage 360 - 400 V
Max. Input Voltage 500 VDC
MPPT Voltage Range 200 - 400 V
System Star-Up Voltage 100 V
Working Voltage Range 100 - 500 V
Max. Input Current 20 ADC
Shutdown Voltage 80 V
Output Data
Max. Output Power 4000 W
Nominal Output Power 4400 W
Operation Voltage Range 198 - 256 V
Nominal Output Current 230 VAC
Operation Frequency Range 59.3 - 60.5 Hz
Power Factor > 0.99
Figure 3. Measured abnormal overvoltage condition.
Figure 4. Measured abnormal under frequency condition.
3.3. Synchronization
The purpose of synchronization test is to demonstrate
that the EUT will accurately and reliably synchronize to
the EPS. There are two methods described in IEEE
1547.1 for synchronization test. Method 1 verifies that a
synchronization control function will cause the parallel
device to close only when critical synchronization pa-
rameters are within allowable limits. Method 2 deter-
mines the magnitude of synchronization start-up current.
The former is used for device that can generate voltage
independently of EPS (such as stand-alone type DER),
and the latter is used for devices that utilizes energy from
EPS (e.g. an induction generator). Figure 5 shows the
test results from method 1 and only the condition of fre-
quency synchronization is presents in this paper. EUT
still maintain well synchronous operation when the
working frequency varies from 59.3 Hz to 60.5 Hz.
3.4. Limitation of DC Injection
The requirements described in IEEE 1547 about the
limitation of DC injection is that the DER and its inter-
connection system shall not inject DC current greater
than 0.5% of the full rated output current at the point of
DER connection. Different EUT rated power conditions
should be considered in test; however, the case of EUT
operates at 33 % rated power is presented in this paper,
as shown in Figure 6.
3.5. Unintentional Islanding
Distributed energy generation can potentially support
unintentional system islanding, isolated from the re-
mainder of the EPS. The islanding effect poses a signifi-
cant risk to safety and equipment, and need to be quickly
Frequency Between 59.3Hz ~ 60.5Hz
EUT Curre n
Figure 5. Measured frequency sy nc hr onization c ondition.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
EUT Current without
DC Component
Figure 6. Measured DC injection component at 33% rated
power of EUT.
detected and eliminated. Islanding in general can be de-
tected by sensitive under- and over-voltage and fre-
quency functions, sometimes aided by active islanding
destabilization techniques. In IEEE 1547, for an uninten-
tional islanding wh ere the DER en erg izes a portion of the
EPS through the PCC, the DER interconnection system
shall detect the islanding and cease to energize the EPS
within 2 seconds of the formation of an islanding . Figure
7 shows when the DER in go into the islanding status,
EUT take 70ms clearing time to disconnect the DER and
3.6. Open Phase
The purpose of open phase test is to verify that the inter-
connection system ceases to energize the EPS upon loss
of an individual phase at the PCC or at the point of DER
connection. EUT tested in this study is a single-phase
product when the phase is opened EUT cease to energize
the EPS after 15 ms clearing time.(Figure 8)
3.7. Harmonics
When the DER is serving balanced linear loads, har-
monic current injection into the EPS at th e PCC shall not
exceed the limits stated IEEE 1547 section 4.3.3. The
harmonic current injections shall be exclusive of any har-
monic currents due to harmonic voltage distortion pre-
sents in the EPS without the DER connected . The largest
harmonic current presents at 3rd harmonics (0.008%) is
found in this study, as shown in Figure 9. Total harmonic
current distortion (THDI) of 2.95% is indicat ed as well.
3.8. Reconnect Following Abnormal Condition
Reconnect test for power conditioner is to verify the
functionality of the DER interconnection component or
system reconnect timer, which delays the DER reconnect
to the EPS following a trip event. Figure 10 gives the
case that DER reconnects to EPS after 57 sec when a trip
event is occurred.
4. Certificate of Accreditation for the
Proposed Test System
Besides, the constructions of hardware and software in
proposed test system. The study also builds the relevant
technical/quality documents according to ISO/IEC 17025:
General requirements for the competence of testing and
calibration laboratories [3]. Now the proposed power
con-ditioner test system has already obtained Underwrit-
ers Laboratories (UL) and Taiwan Accreditation Founda-
tion (TAF) certificate of accreditation. The test standard
can be performed by proposed test system includes IEEE
1547 and UL 1741.
5. Conclusions
Power conditioner is responsible for energy conversion
on the applications of distributed energy resource and
renewable energy. It is important to estimate the per-
formance of such device used in the field. IEEE 1547
Islanding S t a tusEUT Disconnect
with EPS
Clearing T ime 70ms
Figure 7. Measured electric signal in islanding status.
Clearing T ime 15ms
Phase L Open
Figure 8. Measured open phase status.
Maximum: 3
Harmonic = 0.008%
= 2.95%
Figure 9. Measured harmonic current.
Normal Status
Abnormal Statu s
Reconnect Time = 57 sec
Figure 10. Measured reconnect time after a trip event.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
standard presents a guide for interconnecting distributed
energy resource with electric power system, and the test
procedures and requirements are described in IEEE
1547.1. This paper presents a test system for power con-
ditioner based on the technical requirements indicated in
IEEE 1547 standard. Some tests cases relate to the test
item in IEEE 1547 are presented as well. It is found the
proposed test system gives a well performance in test of
power conditioner produ cts.
[1] IEEE 1547: IEEE standas for interconneting distributed
resources with electric power systems , 2003.
[2] IEEE 1547.1: IEEE standar conformance test procedures
for equipment interconneting distributed resources with
electric power systems , 2005.
[3] ISO/IEC 17025: General requirements for the compe-
tence of testing and calibr ation laboratorie, 2005.