International Journal of Geosciences, 2011, 2, 1328 doi:10.4236/ijg.2011.21002 Published Online February 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ijg) Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG On the Wind and Turbulence in the Lower Atmosphere above Complex Terrain George Jandieri1, Alexander Surmava2, Anzor Gvelesiani2 1Georgian Techni cal Universit y , Institute of Cybernetics, Tbilisi, Georgia 2M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Tbilisi, Georgia Email: jandieri@access.sanet.ge, a as urm ava@yaho o.com Received November 18, 2010; revised December 20, 2010; accepted De c ember 23, 2010 Abstract Numerical modeling and studies of the wind fields at the junction of three continents: over the complex ter rains of the Southeast Europe, Asia Minor, Middle East, Caucasus and over the Black, Caspian and Medi terranean seas have been carried out for the first time. Traveling synoptic scale vortex wave generation and subsequent evolution of orographic vortices are discovered. Wind fields, spatial distribution of the coeffi cients of subgrid scale horizontal and vertical turbulence and the Richardson number are calculated. It is shown that the local relief, atmospheric hydrothermodynamics and airproof tropopause facilitate the genera tion of mesoscale vortex and turbulence amplification in the vicinity of the atmospheric boundary layer and tropopause. Also turbulence parameters distribution in the troposphere has the same nature as in the stratosphere and mesosphere: turbulence coefficients, stratification of the vertical profiles of the Richardson number, thickness of the turbulent and laminar layers. Keywords: Numerical Modeling, Complex Terrain, Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence, Wind Field, Mesoscale Vortex, Bulk Richardson Number 1. Introduction At present many hydrometeorologists are actively study ing mesoscale atmospheric processes above the complex terrains. The problem is complex and its solution is closely related to other important problems of dynamical meteorology, including a problem of atmospheric turbu lence of different scales in the mountainous regions. Boundarylayer studies of mountainous terrain have mainly focused on global characteristics, such as thermal stratification, boundarylayer growth rates, circulation patterns and valley winds. The relatively few studies devoted to the turbulence structure over nonflat terrain have mainly been restricted to comparatively gentle h ills. In [1], the nature of turbulent kinetic energy in a steep and narrow Alpine valley in Switzerland under fair weather summertime conditions was investigated for a detailed case study, in which the evaluation of aircraft data was combin ed with the ap plication of h ighresolution largeeddy simulations using the numerical model ARPS. Excellent correlation was established between surface heat flux and the upvalley wind speed. The measure ments and simulations show that despite the complexity of the terrain and the apparent differences from a classi cal convective boundary layer, the turbulence structure reveals reproducible patterns and scaling characteristics. Generalization of obtained results by [1] requires an in vestigation of other valley geometries and different to pographic orientations. In particular, further investigation of the functional dependence between upvalley wind speed and local surface fluxes. The authors of paper [2] studied vertical winds and turbulence in the troposphere in mountainwave conditions near Kiruna in Arctic Swe den. They show that the horizontal and vertical wave lengths of the dominating mountainwaves were ~10  20 km, the amplitudes in vertical wind 12 1 ms , and turbulence velocities below 5500 m height were about 40% of the time during winter months. This is a much higher rate than the Advanced Research and Weather Forecasting model (WRF) predictions for conditions of Richardson number 1Ri but similar to WRF predic tions of 2Ri . The cause of low Ri is a combination of windshear at synoptic upperlevel fronts and pertur bations in static stability due to the mountainwaves.
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 14 Comparison with radiosondes suggests that WRF under estimates windshear and the occurrence of thin layers with very low static stability, so that vertical mixing by turbulence associated with mountain waves may be sig nificantly more than suggested by the model. A statistical correlation between enhanced turbulence and gravity waves was noted in [3]. The authors [4] investigating turbulence of a neutral atmosphere at different heights obtained the following results: 1) Radar observations of the mesosphere, air crafts smoke trails into the stratosphere, radar observa tions of thin layers in the troposphere and lower strato sphere show that layered and stratified phenomena are common in the atmosphere. It was shown that “cat’seye” structures are not uncommon in the atmosphere as a pre cursor to turbulence breakdown and such structures are often associated with KelvinHelmholtz (KH) billows. Authors of [5] have indicated that other mechanism, such as the Holmboe instability, can also generate such struc tures. KH instabilities are only dominant in weak ly stra tified flows, whereas the Holmboe instability is more likely in strongly stratified flows. There can be occasions when other mechanisms of breakdown can be responsi ble for the turbulence. The formation of cat’seye struc tures is only one possible mechanism. Cat’seye struc tures are visually impressive, so they tend to dominate the literature, but it is not clear whether they are in fact the main mode of turbulence breakdown at all. 2) By using radars and various specialized techniques they have also obtained information at smaller scales (~1 m  100 m).Turbulence is considered here to be generally the result of a nonlinear breakdown of larger, more organ ized structures which have become unstable, with scales comparable to or larger than the buoyancy scale. A number of remotesensing windmeasuring instru ments such as LIDAR and radar wind profilers [6] have been used for monitoring of lowlevel wind shear and turbulence. Data collected in a field experiment of the radio metering conducted in Hong Kong in February 2006 were used to obtain the Richardson number profile up to 1.5 km above ground. The Richar dson number pro files are found to capture the turbulence events reasona bly well. The atmospheric condition was favorable for the generation of turbulence when 0.25 c Ri Ri . It was also noted that, at the above four times, the Ri number could be less than 0.25 below 400 m or so, espe cially the occurrence of negative Ri value. This feature is mainly related to turbulent airflow associated with thermodynamic instability near the ground. Downstream of the airflow, there are a number of waves/vortices be tween 700 and 1600 m high with the dimensions of sev eral hundred meters in height and a couple of kilometers horizontally. A possible reason of turbulence is the shear instability associated with quick veering of the wind with height. Meteorological researchers have made efforts to im prove the stability description of a moist atmosphere by using variations of the Richardson number [7]. The Richardson number is often used as an important index for judging shearing instability and symmetry in stability: the conventional baroclinic instabilities dominate if 0.95Ri , symmetry instabilities dominate if 0.25 0.95Ri , and KelvinHelmholtz instabilities dominate if 0.5Ri . A new Richardson number is defined for describing the stability of a mo ist atmosphere (* Ri ). The results show that convective instability is co ncentrated in the lower troposphere while instability determined by *1Ri is mainly located in the middle and upper tro posphere above the rainfall areas, may be used to indi cate and estimate the rainfall occurrence and develop ment. Richardson numbers in the three thermodynamic states of the atmosphere can be obtained when potential temperature, (of dry atmosphere), equivalent poten tial temperature, e (saturated moist region), and gen eralized potential temperature, * , are applied to calcu late BruntVäisälä frequency, respectively. In [8] spectral and structure function analyses of hori zontal velocity fields observed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the Severe Clear Air Tur bulence Collides with Air Traffic (SCATCAT) field program, conducted over the Pacific, were carried out to identify the scale interactions of turbulence and small scale gravity waves. In the presence of turbulence, tran sitional power spectra from 2 k to 5/3 k were found to be associated with the gravity waves and turbulence, respectively. The secondorder structure function analy sis was able to translate these spectral slopes into r and 2/3 r, consistent with MoninYaglom conversion law, in physical space, which presented clearer pictures of scale interactions between turbulence and gravity waves. The thirdorder structure function analysis indicated the exis tence of a narrow region of inverse energy cascade from the scales of turbulence up to the gravity waves scales. This inverse energy cascade region was linked to the occurrence of KelvinHelmholtz instability and other waveamplifying mechanisms, which were conjectured to lead to the breaking of smallscale gravity waves and the ensuing generation of turbulence. The multifractal analyses revealed further scale breaks between gravity waves and turbu len ce. In [9 ] it is shown with a numerical simulation that a sharp increase in the vertical tempera ture gradient and BruntVäisälä frequency near the tro popause may produce an increase in the amplitudes of internal gravity waves propagating upward from the tro posphere, wave breaking and generation of stronger tur bulence. Turbulent diffusion coefficient calculated nu
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 15 merically and measured with MU radar are of 1  10 21 ms in different seasons in Shigaraki, Japan (35˚N, 136˚E). These values lead to the estimation of vertical ozone flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere of 14 (110) 10 21 ms which may substantially add to th e usually supposed ozone downward transport with the general atmospheric circulation. Therefore, local en hancements of IGW intensity and turbulence at tropo spheric heights over the mountains due to their oro graphic excitation may lead to the changes in tropo spheric and total ozone over different regions. In [10] high resolution (150 m) wind measurements by Meso sphereStratosphereTroposphere (MST) radar and by Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiler (LAWP) have been used to study variation of turbulence intensity. Layers of higher turbulence are observed in the lowe r stratosph ere. The heights of the turbulent layers in the lower strato sphere do not correlate with the levels of minimum Richardson number. During the shortperiod gravity wave activity (~7 h) the high frequency convectively generated gravity waves breakdown generates the ob served turbulence layers. A nonlinear interaction be tween the waves of different scales might be responsible for the breakdown and generation of turbulence layers. It should be noted that different mechanisms of wave breaking can coexist and complement each other. From the above it follows that there are many unresolved problems related to the hydrodynamic interaction of air with a complex terrain. The objective of this paper is theoretical investigation of the features of hydrodynamic interaction of the at mosphere with complex terrain at the junction of three continents: Sou theastern Europe, Asia Minor and Africa, where there are located several large seasthe eastern part of the Mediterranean sea, the Black, Azov and Caspian seas, etc, many high mountain ranges, forests, steppes and deserts stretched a hundred kilometers. The evolu tion of the wave of cyclonic and anticyclonic vortices and the obtained mesoscale air flow for the considered complex terrain is modeled for the first time. We use a regional model of the atmospheric processes elaborated at the M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics [11]. 2. Formulation of the Problem 2.1. Basic Equations Basic equations of the model describing variations of the meteorological fields are: 1) for the tropospher e [12,13]: 2 d1 10.61 d uPz u lv gqu txx h , 2 d1 10.61 d vPz v lu gqv tyy h , 10.61 gqh RT , 1d 0 huhvhwh wh txy dz , 2 1con p L uvwSw txyC t h , 1con qqqqq Q uvw q txy t , 22 y , con mmmmm N uvw m txy t , (1) zzz wuvwh txy , zh , duvw dt txy , 2) for the active layer of soil [14,15]: EC CC DC tzz z , 2 2 oil soil soil TT K tz at 0 oil zZ , (2) 3) for the layer of sea water [14]: 2 2 1 sea sea sea sea sea TT K tCz z , at 0 ea zZ , (3)
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 16 where t is time; x, y, and z are the axes of the Cartesian coordinate directed to the east, north and vertically up wards, respectively; zh is the dimensionless vertical coordinate; 0,50xy m is the surface layer height; 0 is the height of the relief; ,, txy is the height of the tropopause; hH ; u, v, w, and w are the wind velocity components along the axes x, y, z, and , respectively; TT , and PPz are the analogues of temperature and pressure, respectively; 300TK; T and P are the devotions of tempera ture and pressure from the standard vertical distributions ,,, ,,,,,,TtxyzTtxyz TzTtxyz , ,,, ,,,,,,PtxyzPtxyzPzPtxyz ; T and P are the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, re spectively: Tz and Pz are the standard verti cal distributions of the temperature and pressure, respec tively; is the standard vertical temperature gradient; T and P are the background deviations of the tem perature and pressure from standard vertical distributions; and are the mesoscale and background compo nents of the analogue of temperature, respectively; ; q and Q are the mass fraction of water va pour and the background mass fraction of water vapour, respectively; qqQ ; m and M are the mass fraction of cloud water and the background mass of cloud water, respectively; mmM ; oil T and ea T are the tem peratures of soil and seawater, respectively; C is the vo lume content of soil water; z and ea are the standard vertical distributions of the densities of dry air and seawater, respectively; 1;dp dz g is the gravitational acceleration; R is the universal gas constant for dry air; C and ea C are the specific heat capacities of dry air at constant pressure and seawater, respectively; S is the thermal stability parameter; L is the latent heat of condensation; con is the condensation rate; Nt is the intensity of prescription; cr Nt mmt when cr mm, and 0 when cr mm [14]; cr m is the critical magnitude of the mass fraction of a cloud water; t is the time of setting out of a surplus cloud water; D is the diffusion coefficient of water in soil; E is the filtra tion coefficient of water in soil; ea is the total solar radiation flux in sea water; oil and ea are the thermal diffusivity coefficients of soil and sea water, respectively; and are the horizontal and vertical turbulent diffusion coefficients. The set of Equations (1) and (2), (3) are solved in the coordinate systems ,,,txy and ,,,txyz , respec tively.The initial and boundary conditions, the values of background fields and methods of parameterization of the separate meteorological processes are selected in accordance with specific objectives of modeling. 2.2. Boundary and Initial Conditions, the Main Parameters of the Regional Problem The boundary and initial conditions for the set of Equa tions (13) according to [13,16,17] are: 2.2.1. Verti c al Boundary C o ndi ti ons 1) for the system (1): 1 0, 0,,,,,0,,wtxygRThtxy hxy , at 1 , 00 00 0 00 ,, ,, ,0, uv AV uhAV vh m AVhAV mh qAV qqhw at 0 , (4) 2) for systems (2) and (3): 00 e ee epeqee T CKC AVTTLAVqqI z 1 0 1 0 ,atd0 ,atd 0 por we CC Nt C DAVqq Nt z , at 0 z , (5) 0 e TC zz at 02zm ,
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 17 where 1/2 22 Vuv ; 1 is a given function of time and coordinate and shows the magnitude of the pressure in the tropopause; 0 is nondimensional thickness of the atmospheric surface layer; ,,, ,uvq m ; in dex “0” indicates the value of the function at the level 0 z ; 00 at qqq on the sea surface and 0 q 0 at por qqCC on the soil surface; or C is the po rosity of the soil, index “e” indicates either “sea” or “soil” for the sea and soil surfaces; oil C and oil are the specific heat capacity and soil density, respectively; A and 0 are constant parameters. 2.2.2. Later al B oundary Conditi on s ,,,uutxy , ,,,vvtxy , ,,hhtxy, 0qm if vector v has inward direction inside a modeling area; in other cases the Von Neumann condi tion 0nhn is used. Here ,uv, and h are the background values of the wind velocity compo nents and atmosphere thickness, respectively; n is a nor mal to the lateral boundary. 2.2.3. Initial Conditions At 0t we have: 3) for the system (1) 0qm , 0, ,,uuxy , 0, ,,vv xy ; and 0, ,9000,hh xyxy m, (6) 4) for Equations (2) and (3): 00, 0, , , ,, , ,, , , sea seasoil soil CCxyz TTxyz TTxyz (7) where u and v are determined by both geostrophic wind and quasistatic equations at the background components similar to the temperature and pressure at the tropopause level: ,,,63sin10568000sin568000288.150.065txyx tyYz 10.0120.0066sin10568000 sin568000xt y (8) 0 C, 0, ea T and 0, ea T are average monthly values for the June. Coefficient of vertical turbulence decreased in the ver tical direction from the value at the surface layer from 5 21 ms up to 0.001 21 ms at a height of 3  4 km above the Earth’s surface. At more high altitudes equals to 0.001 21 ms . Coefficient of the horizontal turbu lence is equal to 5 000 21 ms . Background value of the relative humidity is equal to 40%, the background value of the water content mass concentration zero. Other me teorological parameters are the well known values char acterizing middle latitudes. Numerical integration of Equations (1) and (2), (3) are carried out using [18] and the CrankNicolson schemes, respectively. Rectangular finitedifference grid with 96 × 68 × 17 grid points having 40 km horizontal steps and the nondimensional vertical step equals to 1/17 is used. In soil and seawater number of levels is equal to 20, vertical step is 10 cm, and temporal step equals to 4 min. From Equation (7) follows that the background fields of temperature, pressure and wind are selected modeling horizontal displacement of the cyclonic and anticyclonic vortices having synoptic linear scale 5680 km moving from the westeast direction with the phase velocity 10 1 ms . Figure 1 shows the fields of the surface back ground temperature of the air ,,,0Ttxy, correspond ing fields of the velocity at 0,t 48 hours and the surface pressure field at the level 0z and 0t calculating for a plane surface of the Earth 00 . It is the idealized picture of largescale wave slowly mov ing to the west usually observing in the atmosphere [19]. Temperature differences between the centers of anti cyclonic and cyclonic vortices equal to 6˚C. Maximum surface wind speed amounts to 18 1 ms . In 48 hours the vortex wave travels eastward at a distance equalling to 1400 km, and anticyclonic vortex generates in place of cyclonic vortex and viceversa. 2.3. Boundary and Initial Conditions, the Main Parameters of the Mesoscale Problem 115 km × 105 km territory is selected for investigation of the wind field spatial distribution and atmospheric tur bulence, located on the east coast of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Batumi. It covers part of the Black Sea, Col chis plain, Guria and Pontic ranges. The height of the ranges attain to 2  3 km (Figure 2). Mesoscale task is solved by the set of Equations (13) and conditions (47) in which the solutions of the regional task are obtained for the mesoscale domain as background meteorological fields. Vertical turbulent flows of momentum, heat and humidity at 0 and the meteorological parameters are defined in a surface layer hz using the wellknown formulae [20,21]:
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 18 (a) (b) (c) Figure 1. The background distributions of the wind veloc ity (m · s1), temperature (solid lines) (˚C) at t = 0 h (a) and t = 48 h (b), pressure (solid lines) fields (mb) at t = 0 h (c). Boundaries of the seas are show n by bold lines; horizontal and vertical gr ids steps are equal 40 km. (a) (b) Figure 2. The background wind field distribution of the atmosphere surface layer for t = 72 h (a), and the topography of the mesoscale area around the Batumi port (b). The red circle show s the location of the Batumi por t. Thick lines show the coastal lines of the seas; horizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 40 km (a) and 5 km (b), respectively. 22 2 22 uuv v xy yx y ; 22 2 0.05 2 uvg zzzz , when zh, (9) where h is the height of the surface layer. If zh , then the value of is determined by the parameterization method [22], based on the MoninObukhov similar ity theory and solution of the following equations: *, u u zz u *, p p z ,pq , , z L 2 * 22 * u L *,, uu uf u 0* 0 ,pp pf , , u u z L 0 0, z L if ur zz, * ii uz , * ihih uh ,iu , h h L , (10)
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 19 where 0.5 22 uvu is the wind velocity; * u is the friction velocity; * and * q are the scales of the po tential temperature and mass fraction of water vapor, respectively; is the von Karman constant; 0 z and u z are the parameters of roughness for wind and tem perature, respectively; L is the length scale; T is the parameter of convection; u , , , uu f and 0 ,f are universal functions [22]. The background values of the meteorological fields for each time step were obtained in the process of modeling of the vortex wave propagation along the largescale territory in the time interval of 96 h t 120 h. Southeast surface background wind is obtained at 96t h in the vicinity of Batumi. The modeling is carried out by numerical integration of the set of Equations (1)(5) and (9), (10) on the finitedifference grid 23 × 21 × 50 with the grid points along the x, y and respectively. Horizontal steps were taken as equal to 5 km, vertical nondimensional stepequal to 1/50 in the atmosphere, vertical step equal to 10 cm in the soil and sea water (with a number of levels equal to 20). Temporal step equaled to 1 min. 3. Simulation Results 3.1. The Results of Regional Model Calculations showed that in the barotropic approximation (in the absence of heat exchange between the underlying surface and atmosphere, 0T and 0S), in case of the flat surface of the earth synoptic wave is stable and propagates eastward without perceptible variation with initial phase velocity of 10 1 ms . In baroclinic ap proximation and at flat surface of the earth synoptic wave varies in shape and size in the process of traveling to the east, at the same time separate mesoscale (500 1000 km) vor tices of the wind v elocity ( Figure 3) gener ate and disappear. Life period of existing of these vor tices is about 2436 hours. Vortices are obtained not only at the surface of the Earth but also in the middle and up per troposphere. This indicates that there is an energy transfer from the largescale vortex to the mesoscale vor tices. The considered process takes place only in case of baroclinic atmosphere and is absent in barotropic case. As follows from the Figure 4(a), complex relief sig nificantly varies the general picture of largescale move ment of the air in the lower troposphere. Along with a dynamic baroclinic effect a kinematic effect of the relief lay on the motion of air. The mesoscale wave perturba tion occurs at 0t in the vicinity of the Carpathians as a result of the influence of orography. A zone of wind speed divergence is obtained in the Caucasus and north ern Iran. The mesoscale cyclonic vortices generate in the vicinity of the eastern Black Sea and Mesopotamia. Strong northwest, north, northeast and east winds are obtained over the Caspian Sea, hilly areas of Iran and the Anatolian peninsula. A cyclonic circulation of wind was obtained over the relatively small territory to the east of the Caspian Sea. In general it is evident that the relief of the western and central parts of the region strengthens anticyclonic vorticity of th e background mov ement of air. Figure 4(b) shows that as the background vortex propa gates to the east, the surface flow varies significantly to the instant of time 24t hours. Over the western re gion the anticyclonic vortex splits into mediumscale anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices with the centers in the vicinity of the Carpathians and the Crimea, respectively. Over the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea wind was divided into two oppositely directed flows. Two counter current flow of air in the vicinity of Mesopotamia con verge and form a strong southeast wind, which reaches the South Caucasus. During the time interval of 48 72t hours anti cyclonic vortex in the vicinity of the Carpathians gradu ally defuses (Figures 4(с,d)). In the vicinity of the Ana tolian peninsula, the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea there are anticyclonic and cyclonic wind vortices. A cyclonic air movement over the Mediterranean Sea becomes stronger. After t = 96 hours the process of propagation of largescale wave vortex recurs with some quantitative differences of the meteorological fields. In general, the obtained wind fields at the level of the atmospheric sur face layer qualitatively reproduce the fields that were constructed via the analysis of synoptic maps at the pas sage of largescale pressure formations [23] over the Caucasus. The differences of the wind speeds and tem peratures were calculated for the quantitative estimation of the relief influence effect, obtained taking into account the influence of orography irregularities and without taking it into account at the moment 24t hours It was found that the influence of relief on the surface layer is manifested in reduction of largescale cyclonic and anti cyclonic vorticities. The wind speed in some parts of separate territory can vary by the value of the order of background wind speed, and th e temperatureup to 10˚C. Thus, we can assume that the roughness of orography in the lower troposphere facilitates a development of mesoscale vortical turbulence followed by smoothing of the wind speed fields and temperature. 3.2. Mesoscale Fields of the Wind Speed and Turbulence in the Troposphere Figure 5 shows spatial distributions of the wind field obtained at modeling of mesoscale circulation in the vi cinity of city Batumi. From the figure it follows that the
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 20 Figure 3. The surface wind fields in the baroclyne approximation for a flat relief calculated at t = 0 h (a), 24 h (b), 48 h (c), 72 h (d), 96 h (e), and 120 h (f), respectively. Horizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 40 km.
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 21 Figure 4. The surface wind at t = 0 h (a), 24 h (b), 48 h (c), and 72 (d) h. Horizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 40 km. calculated field of wind speed in the lower and middle troposphere differs significantly from the background wind both by direction and magnitude. Northern, north west and west winds were obtained at the surface layer (z = 50 m). A closed mesoscale vortex is generated at the level z = 1000 m above the Black Sea. At the height of 2000 meters this vortex travels to the southwest. The wind direction varies gradually in the middle and upper troposphere. The wind direction approaches the back ground direction with removal from the Earth’s surface. The analysis of the calculated wind field shows that the influence of relief is significant in the lower atmospheric layer having thickness 34 km. Here the relief can substantially vary the direction and magnitude of the wind speed. The influence of tro popause dominates at the levels of the upper troposphere, where the wave disturbance lies on the background wind field. Figure 6(a) shows the diagrams of dependence of the vertical turbulence coefficient on the height above the earth’s surface calculated at five nodal points of the modeling region. It is evident that the coefficients of the vertical turbulence are high in two regions: in the at mospheric boundary layer and in the upper troposphere (except for the item 5). Coefficients of the vertical tur bulence are relatively small in troposphere at the heights 2.3  7 km from the earth surface. The values of the horizontal turbulence coefficient are minimal at the heights of 500  1 500 m above the earth
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 22 Figure 5. The topography and the wind fie lds at the altitudes z = 50 m, 400 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, and 8000 m, respectively. Ho rizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 5 km.
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 23 (a) (b) Figure 6. The profiles of the vertical ν (m2 · s1) (a) and horizontal μ (m2 · s1) (b) turbulence coefficients for the points of the modeling area, respectively. Series 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 correspond to the values of ν and μ over points 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respec tively. surface. The values of the horizontal turbulence gradu ally increase away from the middle troposphere, by 2.3  7 km from the earth’s surface. Qualitatively similar ver tical distribution is obtained also for the coefficient of the horizontal turbulence (Figure 6(b)). The atmospheric boundary layer near the tropopause approaches to the values obtained in the surface layer. Thus impenetrable for air tropopause has almost the same influence on the horizontal turbulence as the Earth’s surface. It should be noted that the calculated vertical turbulence coefficients are in agreement with the measurements data [9]. Figure 7 shows horizontal distribution of the vertical turbulence. Coefficient of the vertical turbulence is maximal in the surface layer in which they vary in the interval 048 21 ms . The values are minimal at the height of ~2 4z km from the Earth’s surface. At this level their values do not exceed 2.5 21 ms . At higher levels increases again and reaches peak values near the tropopause. Similar spatial distribution is obtained also for the horizontal turbulence (Figure 8). From these figures follow that atmospheric turbulence above the sea surface is less than above the earth surface. Figure 9 shows vertical profiles of the bulkRichardson number BRNg T 22 aTT zuzvz . The greatest values of this number are obtained in the at mospheric layer having thickness 36 km above the Earth’s surface. In this layer vertical gr adient of the wind speed is relatively small, the Richardson number is much greater than 45 and the atmosphere is stratified stably. Air flow in the mesoscale region is a part of the  mesovortex (Figure 4(a)) generated due to the interac tion of the Caucasus relief with the background wind. Vertical distribution of the meteorological parameters varies in the atmospheric boundary layer due to the thermal and dynamic influence of the Earth’s surface. BRN numbers in the narrow layers between the heights of 500 m and 2500 m take on the values in the interval 10  45. These values of the BRN correspond to the vor tex generation conditions [24,25] and formation of the β mesoscale vortex (Figure 5, z = 1000 m and 2 000 m). From the analysis of the Figure 10 follows that changing of the Richardson BRN number in time at different heights of the surface layer (50z m) is periodical with a period of 12  26 hours. At cer tain hours (50 60 h) the BRN number substantially decreases and can become less than 0.25 at which smallscale turbulence should generate. The obtained picture of the temporal depend ence of the BRN is qualitatively consistent with the re sults of [2] (see Figure 9). 4. Discussion The performed calculations showed the peculiarities of the influence of largescale relief on formation of the wind fields and vortex turbulence. In particular, it is shown that the influence of relief on the synoptic scale movement help generate of orographic vortices. The ob tained orographic vortices are generated in the lower troposphere and their sizes can vary from a few hundred
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 24 Figure 7. The horizontal distribution of the vertical turbulence coefficient ν (m2 · s1) at the altitudes z = 50 m, 2000 m, 4000 m, and 8000 m, respectively. Horizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 5 km. kilometers up to 1000 km and more. Analysis of the Figures 3 and 4 show that evidently the largescale per turbations become smoother due to the energy transfer from the largescale perturbations to the smallerscale ones. The main territories favorable for the generation of orographic vortices are mountainous areas adjacent to seas. High mountain ranges of the Caucasus, Anatolian peninsula and Asia Minor facilitate formation of me diumscale zones of the wind speed divergence. The bands of relatively narrow and long zones in which the wind speed exceeds 20 1 ms are generated above the flat grounds between the mountain ranges. Due to these airflows the warm air of the Asia Minor can propagate far to the north up to the main Caucasian range (Figure 4(b)). The relief of the Caucasus is a natural barrier to the southern wind. However, the north wind may flow around the Caucasus from the Caspian Sea and propagate to the south, reaching the shores of the Medi terranean Sea (Figure 4(a)). Such picture is often ob served in the Caucasus, above the Black and Caspian seas, especially in summer [2628].
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 25 Figure 8. The horizontal distribution of the horizontal turbulence coefficient μ (m2 · s1) at the altitudes z = 50 m, 2000 m, 4000 m and 8000 m, respectively. Horizontal and vertical grids steps are equal 5 km. At investigation of mesoscale wind field structure with a horizontal 5km step of grid it has been found that the wind field can substantially differ from the largescale field if the back ground wind speed in the boundar y layer does not exceed 1 5m s . In particular, a closed vortex with a diameter of 25  30 km (Figure 5) is generated at the height of abou t 1000 m near the southe astern coast of the Black Sea. Evidently such vortex can facilitate gen eration of a whirlwind, which is often observed on the Black Sea coast of Georgia [26] in summer. Mesoscale roughness of relief exerts influence on the spatial distribution of the turbulence coefficients (Fig ures 7 and 8). It is obtained that in the atmospheric boundary layer over the sea surface the values of hori zontal and vertical turbulence coefficients are several times smaller than the values obtained over rough Earth’s surface. The more is the height of the area and slope of the earth surface the more is the difference. In the middle troposphere (2  6 km) the difference between them (over the sea and the earth) practically disappears and reappears again near the tropopause (8, 9 km) but to a lesser extent. Profiles of horizontal and vertical turbulence coefficients
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 26 Figure 9. The profiles of BulkRichardson number (BRN) over 3 points of the area modeling. 1, 2, and 3 correspond to points 1, 2, and 3 (see Figure 5 (a)), respectively. Figure 10. Time variability of BRN at the altitudes z = 2 m (series 1), 10 m (series 2) and 50 m (series 3) over point 2 of the Figure 5. have the minimums in the atmospheric layer having thickness 2 6 km (Figure 6). Qualitative similarity temporal dependence of the Richardson numbers (during three days) obtained above (Figure 10) and in [2] (Figure 9) is explained by the similarity of the relief and meteorological conditions (Figure 4) and (Figures 1 and 3 in [2]). This allows us to judge the validity of the obtained results. In the atmos pheric boundary layer the dynamic state of the environ ment becomes favorable (10 45)BRN for the gen eration of a vortex cell (Figure 5) at certain moments. The obtained vortex cell can not develop more and con vert into a damp convection system due to the low back ground relative humidity (40%). Multistratification of the obtained vertical profiles of the turbulent parameters of the medium (with a layer thickness of 0.13 km) is also observed in [1] for the complex relief, in the laboratory experiments modeling the process of convective instability in a stratified fluid [29] and at higher levels of the atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) [3032]. This means that there is much common in the turbulent features of the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere: the order of the turbulence coefficients, stratification of the vertical profiles of the Richardson numbers and alternation of the turbulent and laminar layers of the atmosphere. 5. Conclusions Numerical investigation of the largescale wind fields at the junction of three continents has been carried out for the first time: over the complex territories of the South east Europe, Asia Minor and Southwest Asia, Caucasus, Middle East and the water areas of the Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas. By the example of a traveling synopticscale (~6000 km) vortex wave generation and subsequent evolution of orographic vortices of the order of 1000 km are considered. The mesoscale structures of hydrodynamic fields in the eastern coastal part of the Black Sea are modeled. On the mesoscale area (~100 km) of the generated medium scale vortex flow in the vicinity of the western Black Sea coast, hydrodynamic structure of the wind is studied by the nested grids method. Wind fields, spatial distribution of the coefficients of subgrid scale horizontal and verti cal turbulence and the Richardson number (Bulk Rich ardson Number, BRN) are calculated. It is shown that the local relief, atmospheric hydrothermodynamics and airproof tropopause facilitate the generation of β me soscale vortex and turbulence amplification in the vicin ity of the atmospheric boundary layer and tropopause. Minimum values of the turbulence coefficients were ob tained at the heights between 2300 m and 4000 m above the earth’s surface. There is much in common in the nature of turbulence parameters distribution calculated for the troposphere and the wellknown results of the observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere: the order of the turbulence coefficients, stratification of the vertical profiles of the Richardson number and alternation of about 0.13 km thickness turbulent and laminar layers. Calculations showed the features of large and mesoscale terrains influence on generation of the wind fields and vortex turbulence:
G. JANDIERI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG 27 Large and high mountain ranges of the Caucasus, Minor and Southwest Asia facilitate formation of mediumscale zones of wind speed divergence and vortex structures; The main favorable territories for the generation of orographic vortices are the neighborhoods of the Carpathian Mountains and the Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas; The orographic vortices are generated in the lower troposphere and their sizes can vary from a few hundred kilometers to 1 thousand kilometers and higher; Atmosphere tends to a smoother distribution of the largescale meteorological fields due to the oro graphic vortices; Separate βmesoscale vortices can generate against the background of the αmesoscale vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer in the vicinity of the sealand at the low values of the vertical wind speed gradients; The underlying surface and impenetrability of tro popause equally facilitate turbulence amplification of the atmosphere; There are 0.13 km thickness turbulent stratifica tions in the troposphere similar as in 10 km layers of stratosphere and middle atmosphere; Vertical profiles of the Richardson numbers and the turbulence coefficients contain several (35) extremums. 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