iBusiness, 2013, 5, 142-145
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ib.2013.53B030 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ib)
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of
Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
Agglomeration Development of Public Sports
Service in China*
Luojing Zhu1, Xinsen He2
1The Department of P.E. of Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China; 2The Department of P.E. of
Nanchang Institute University, Nanchang, China.
Email: zhulj97@sina.com.cn, pockman@tom.com
Received July, 2013
The paper analyzed the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service in China. There are
many influence factors about Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service. As follows: 1)
The complexity of Administrative districts restricted balance development of the sports public services in the Chang-
sha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Dual economic structure of urban and rural areas result in imbalance of
city and countryside development; 3) The single outlay source of sports funds has restricted the development and af-
fected the increase of quality of sports public service. At the same time, I put forward the corresponding countermea-
sures and Suggestions: 1)T Choose compound administration model to be administrative model of Chang-
sha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Promoting urban and rural integration to realize equalization of sports
public service; 3) Improving sports public service system of the community; 4) Actively exploring multi-channel fi-
nancing of sports and optimizing sports funds structure; 5) Establishing fairly detailed Assessment system associated
with sports public service.
Keywords: Urban Agglomeration; Public Sports Service; Development
1. Introduction
Sports public service system is the one of the important
parts of the public service system. As the provider of
public social product, the government should meet the
public service of public sports wants to conform to the
trend of social development. The government has a re-
sponsibility for building the public sports service system
[1]. "Sports public service" is made of sports and public
service. "public sports service" has two kinds of structure
as follows: "public + sports serv ice" and "public sports +
service". "public sports + service" responds to "private
sports + service". The former highlights the service of the
public sports field [2]. However, this paper refers to the
sports public service. Constructing Changsha-Zhuzhou-
Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service sys-
tem can promote the health of people, improve people's
quality of life, cut down medical cost and develop human
resources powe r.
2. The Situation of the Core City Sports
Public Service Resources of
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
There are three aspects to measure sports public service
as follows: the funds of sports for all, public sports facili-
ties and the number of social sports instructor per million
people. Because there are not special statistics of the
funds of sports for all from the national statistics bureau
to local statistics bureau, we can not ascertain specific
circumstance about the funds of sports for all. but we
could roughly estimate the number of the funds of sports
for all by some basic data. (The related statistical data
involves the number of employees, the situation of break
world records and international sports communica-
tion)(Table 1)
As is shown by the f igure in the table 1, th e propor tion
of sports in the GDP of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan
urban agglomeration is low. Even the official figures of
the national economic and social development of Xiangtan
*The fund of Hunan Province Department of Education in 2010.Fund
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IB
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
Agglomeration Development of Public Sports Service in China 143
Table 1. The statistical data of sports resource of Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan and China[3-7].
(RMB 1 billion) Zhuzhou
(RMB 1 billion) Xiangtan
(RMB 1 billion) China(RMB 1 billion)
GDP in 2010 (1 billion RMB) 454.70 127.48 89.40 39798.30
Gross output of sports,cul ture and
health in 2010 (1 billion RMB) 38.71 nullinformation nullinformation 2596
Sports, culture and health accounts
for the proportion of GDP
in the corresponding city 0.85% nullinformation nullinformation
0.3%sports production
value accounts for the
proportion of GDP
The number of p ub l ic
sports facilities
766 Fitness guidance
stations, 470 pub lic
sports facilities
1319 sports facilities,
involving15 gym,204
sports ground and 1 8
swimming po ol s ,etc.
More than1500 public
sports facilities,
1,060,000 m2
sports venue area
More than 850,000
sports facilities
Per capita sports venues
(㎡/person 1.20 1.20 1.49 1.03
(the data of 2009 year)
the Number of Social
Sports Instructor 7750 nullinformation 2600 700,000
the Number of Social
Sports Instructor per 1,000,000 11 nullinformation 9.50 5.40
city and Zhuzhou city are not reflects the ratio of the
culture, physical education and health to GDP in 2010.
We could roughly estimate that the proportion of sports
in the Changsha city’s GDP are less than 0.85% consid-
ering the proportion of culture, sports and health, which
account for 0.85% of Changsha city’s GDP in 2010.
The proportion of sports industry is very small in the
whole country level. Sports production value is only
0.7% of GDP in China. However, sports production
value is 11% of GDP in the United States . There are sig-
nificant difference between China and U.S.
3. The Factors of Influence Development
Public Sports Service of
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
3.1. The Complexity of Administrative Districts
Restricted Balance Develo pment of the
Sports Public Services in the
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
The administrative division of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiang
tan urban agglomeration involved Zhuzhou, Xiangtan,
Changsha, Yueyang , Changd e, Yiyang , Loudi, H eng yang,
etc. Administrative districts area is large. At present ad-
ministrative organization reform of Changsha-Zhuzhou-
Xiangtan urban agglomeration is brewing. The sports
administrative institution reform doesn’t respond to that.
Governments should establish unified sports administra-
tive agencies of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban ag-
glomeration to integrate all sports public service re-
sources and promote equalization of sports public ser-
3.2. Dual Economic Structure of Urban and Ru-
ral Areas Result in Imbalance of City
and Countryside Development
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration is
becoming “National Experimental Area of Comprehen-
sive Reform Package of Resource Conserving and Envi-
ronmental friendly Social Construction” through ap-
proval, which explore endogenous economic develop-
ment road, establish endogenous development mode
suitable for China’s national conditions and promote the
rise of Central China,by taking advantages of energy,
rich labor force resource, dense population and great
market potential. However, dual economic structure of
urban and rural areas result in imbalance of city and
countryside develop ment [8 ].
3.3. The Single Outlay Source of Sports Funds
Has Restricted the Development and
Affected the Increase of Quality of Sports
Public Service
At present the source of sports funds of Changsha-Zhu-
zhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration is single and inade-
quate. Government input and public welfare fund from
sports lottery are main source of sports public service. In
the way of government input there are different among
Changsha, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou because of the differ-
ence of three municipal government financial revenue
input. The sports financial exp enditure 3 cities in 2010 as
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IB
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
Agglomeration Development of Public Sports Service in China
1) The government input of cultural, sports and mass
media of Changsha city were 0.24 billion RMB in
2010[9]. 2) There were no show use of sports funds in
2010 budget performance document of Xiangtan city
municipal government. 3) There were not single out use
of sports funds in 201 0 budget performance document of
Zhuzhou city municipal government. As is indicated in
the document that aggregate financial expenditure in-
volving education, agriculture, social security, job, health,
environmental protection, culture and sports were 10.58
billion RMB [10 ].
Furthermore, the sport for all input of Hunan provin-
cial government were 43.01 million RMB in 2010 [11].
Above all, there are some features in the way of gov-
ernment input about sports public service as follows: 1)
There were not single out the expenditure of sports pub-
lic service in the financial expenditure of 3 municipal
government. Even the expenditure of sports was not exist
in the financial expenditure of Xiangtan municipal gov-
ernment. 2) The proportion of sport for all is to o small in
the whole sports expenditure. 3) The yearly average basic
sport for all funds standard is shortcut. As is shown in
“2006-2010 years sports development plan of Changsha
city” that the yearly average basic sport for all funds
were 0.2 RMB in 2010.
4. Recommendation
4.1. Choose Compound Administration
Model to Be Administrative Model of
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
The compound administration model is a cooperative
mechanism, which is realize the goal of public service
sharing across administrative districts and administrative
level between the government for promoting regional
economic integration. In addition, the compound admini-
stration model needs government participation[12]. The
main problem of public administration of Changsha-Zhu-
zhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration is boundary conflict
between administrative region and economic zone. The
border of administrative region is tangible and rigid. but
the boundary of economic zone is invisible and elastic.”
The tangible administrative region” shall restrict the de-
velopment of economic zone.
The administration model of sport public service of
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration
should adopt compound administration model. At the
same time,
There is a very important meaning for local govern-
ment's institutional innovation under the idea of com-
pound administration. It is demand of socialist market
economy developing, socialist harmonious society con-
structing and civil society growing. Government should
focus on sport for all rather than competitive spor ts.
4.2. Promoting Urban and Rural Integration to
Realize Equalization of Sports Public
Equalization of sp orts public service is not simple mean-
ing for everyone to get the same sports public service. It
includes two implications as follows: On the one hand,
reasonable distribution of public sports service resources
is based on population density. On the other hand, all
citizens will have access to basic public service of equal
opportunity and the approx imate results. Th e government
should respect free option of society members [13]. The
problem of the urban and rural dual structure can not be
soluted through abolishing the system of agricultural
registered permanent residence in China. Developing
economic foundatio n is the root of problem. Futhermore ,
the reasonable adjustment of industrial structure and the
corresponding system reform are keys.
4.3. Improving Sports Public Service System of
the Community
The development trend of China's urban is the commu-
nity becoming the basic component of urban develop-
ment unit in the future. Taking the community as the
basic units can effectively and reasonably configurate
basic sports public resources. Although there is a large
population flow in cities, the p opulation flow of commu-
nity will be relatively stable relative to the population
flow of the whole city. It can make up for shortage of the
sports field resource in cities through making full use of
the square, park, school sports facilities in the commu-
nity. Although at the current stage opening school facili-
ties will confront some management risk such as how to
obtain sufficient mainten ance fu nds of sports facilities, in
the long run it is the development trend when the urban
land resource is nervous.
4.4. Actively Exploring Multi-channel Financing
of Sports and Optimizing Sports Funds
Sports public service of government input is more abun-
dant than in the past in China. But it still has its short-
comings as follows: Low administrative efficiency, qual-
ity sports product and public service, etc. Under The
Circumstance of market economy, government couldn’t
provide as enough sports public service as it was in
planned economy era in China[14 ]. Ther efore, on th e one
hand, government should encourage private capital enter
the domain of sports public service. At the same time,
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IB
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban
Agglomeration Development of Public Sports Service in China
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IB
sports administrations have responsibility fo r supervising
private enterprise. On the other hand, it is a useful way
forward that government gradually increase sports
budget, and increase sport for all funds proportion for
optimizing funds structure in view of immense business
value of competitive sports.
4.5. Establishing Fairly Detailed Assessment
System Associated with Sports Public
Now government doesn’t establish fairly detailed As-
sessment system associated with sports public service.
There are a few researches about Assessment system of
sports public services in academic community. But re-
search achievement is few. There are many differences
with economy and cu lture of every city, so there are also
differences with the evaluation index and evaluation
method about sports public services among cities. Even
so, it is important that government establish sports public
service evaluation system. The evaluation system of
sports public service will be one of necessary system of
urban management in the future.
5. Concluding Remarks
Chinese government pays more and more attention to the
livelihood of people. With the rapid development of
economy in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban ag-
glomeration, an increasing number of people come to
realize that Perfecting public service system is key way
of improving the livelihood of people. Sports public ser-
vice is an integral part of public service system. In the
meantime, Perfecting sports public service system is a
gradual process.
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