Open Journal of Forestry
2013. Vol.3, No.4B, 4-6
Published Online October 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojf) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2013.34B002
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Current Status of Reproductive Management in Bali Cows in
South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia
Sudirman Baco, Muhammad Yusuf, Basit Wello, Muhammd Hatta
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Received July 2013
The objective of this study was to elucidate the current status of reproductive management of Bali beef
cows in south Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This study was conducted in Bantaeng Regency, South Su-
lawesi Province, Indonesia. Purposive sampling was used to choose the location where the study was tak-
ing place with consideration that this region has potential place for Bali cows. Data collection both pri-
mary and secondary data was done through observation and interview to obtain both quantitative and qua-
litative data. The results of this study showed that reproductive management applied to Bali cows in this
region was very low. However, knowledge of the farmers regarding reproductive management such as es-
trus and its signs were much better, although the time of insemination to the estrous cows sometimes was
too late. Mating system of Bali cows in this area were two different methods; natural mating and artificial
insemination (AI). To adopt AI technology, the farmers should follow the standard operation of this
technology. This study also showed that most of the farmers had good knowledge about estrus synchro-
nization; however, they are still having difficulty to obtain or to access this technology, especially the
price of the hormones used for estrus synchronization.
Keywords: Bali Cows; Reproductive Management; Estrus; Mating System
Reproductive efficiency has long been recognized as the
most important aspect of commercial beef production (Dyer,
2009). For a cow-calf operation, good reproductive rates are
critical to operational success and profitability (Parish, 2010).
Furthermore he stated that cows that do not produce calves on
at least annual basis use resources that could be better used to
support more productive cattle. Therefore, closely monitor cat-
tle reproductive efficiency to identify and address reproduc-
tive problems quickly. This means that it is necessary to man-
age the reproductive cows to achieve high level of profitability.
However, to manage the reproductive rate of beef cattle, it is
important to assess or measure the reproductive efficiency of
the cattle as well as reproductive management that applied in
In South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, Bali cattle are the
type of beef cattle that are commonly raised by the farmers.
This type of beef cattle has many advantages in rising accord-
ing to the farmers’ perception in this region. For example, this
cattle has better reproductive performance, high tolerance to the
heat stress, and having dual purpose for draught and for beef.
These reasons make the farmers to maintain this type of cattle
with them. However, since this type of beef cattle used for
draught in the field, in which affecting their reproductive per-
formance to produce many offspring during their lifetime, for a
few last years their reproductive performance was decreased.
This is probably caused by low level of reproductive manage-
ment applied by the farmers. However, to our knowledge, there
was no study to describe the reproductive management of Bali
beef cows in this region. Therefore, this study tried to elucidate
the current status of reproductive management of Bali beef
cows in south Sulawesi Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods
Animals and Management
A total of 130 cows from 25 farmers in Bantaeng Regency,
South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia were involved the present
study. The Bali cows were raised in a small holder system
without any modern technology involved. The housing system
for the animals was in the simple house during nighttime and
free during daytime for grazing without any additional feeds
such as concentrate, mineral, and feed additive. The cows are
usually sent out in the morning time to the field for grazing and
return back in the late afternoon. During grazing, some owners
of Bali cows sometimes observe their animals for estrous signs.
Animal showed signs of estrus were naturally mated with the
bull if available at the time of estrus or inseminated by insemi-
For reproductive management and the development of Bali
cattle population, both primary and secondary data were used in
the study. Primary data was collected with the help of a ques-
tionnaire to the 25 farmers that included raising management
and reproductive management. While secondary data was col-
lected from related institution such as local government and
livestock service. Clinical examination was implemented by the
authors with the help of local technician and/or management
staffs of the herd. All cows were subjected to trans-rectal palpa-
tion for pregnancy status and/or the genitalia to assess uterine
conditions and ovarian structures. Trans-rectal palpation of the
S. BACO ET AL.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
uterine was performed to determine the consistency of uterine
including contraction, elasticity, tonicity, symmetry of uterine
horns, and the presence of any fluid in the uterus (Gauta m et a l.,
2010). The presence of any palpable ovarian structures, ovarian
cysts was defined as one or more follicle-like structures >25
mm in diameter without a concurrent corpus luteum (CL). Ova-
ries without palpable structures (i.e. ovarian follicles > 10 mm
in diameter and/or a functional CL) were considered inactive
(Yusuf et al., 2010).
Results and Discussion
Reproductive Ma n a ge m ent of Bali Cows
In the present study, the farmers were interviewed regarding
the simple reproductive management applied for their Bali
cows, such as cow and heifer management, knowledge about
puberty, estrus and its signs, reproductive disorders, mating
system, estrous synchronization, and calving management. For
cow and heifer management, mostly farmers did not pay special
attention to how efficient their cattle will produce as many as
calves during her lifetime. One main problem facing the Bali
cows after calving was the duration of anestrus (Yusuf et al.,
2012a). Prolonged postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows is
one of the main restrictions to obtain a calf every year (Miller
& Ungerfeld, 2008). Short et al. (1990), Stated that prolonged
suckling, nutritional deficiencie s, climatic stress, pa rity, time of
the year, and management practices were the main causes of
prolonged calving intervals. However, in many cases, the far-
mers did not realize this condition. Therefore, effort to reduce
this problem is necessary. The duration of anestrus in cattle was
usually shortened when cows exposed to bulls (Rekwot et al.,
2000; Landaeta-Hernández et al., 2004; Miller & Ungerfeld,
2008). Likewise, regular examination of postpartum cows in
order to achieve shortening the duration between calving and
first estrus seems to be one of solving the problems (Yusuf et
In heifers, there was no selection of replacement beef heifers
on genetic improvement and phenotype. Parish (2010) stated
that for cow and heifer management, it should be considered
indicators of reproductive performance when selecting re-
placements. In addition, it is important to have heifers cycling
before the first breeding season to ensure the highest possible
fertility at first service. The other thing that the farmers in this
region did not pay attention was the age of heifers at first
breeding and probability of heifers’ age at first calving.
In the present study, knowledge of the farmers regarding es-
trus and its signs was quite good. They knew both primary and
secondary estrus signs. When the signs of estrous occurred in
their cows, especially standing estrus, they had a good effort to
mate the cows with the bull or they inform to the inseminator to
inseminate their cows as soon as possible. However, in many
cases, it was often the time of insemination was too late. This
indicated when the authors asking the inseminator especially
uterine tone condition at the time of insemination was not in
contraction. This suggests that although the knowledge of the
farmers was much better about estrus signs but the time of in-
semination should also be improved.
For reproductive disorders, all farmers described no idea re-
garding this problem for their cows. Anestrus postpartum was
the main problem in this region. Long duration of postpartum
anestrus was t he major reproductive disorders facing their cows
(Yusuf et al., 2012b). In addition, there was no treatment con-
ducted for this problem. The authors tried to introduce repro-
ductive management for anestrus cows with the use of hormon-
al treatment to shorten the interval from calving to first service.
This was not accepted well since the farmers have difficulty to
buy such kind of hormones. For instant, introduction of GnRH
or progestin (CIDR) by authors for free to the farmers seemed
to be successful. However when authors stopped this program,
there was no more treatment conducted by the farmers for this
In the present study, we have tried to assess the reproductive
physiology of all the cows as shown in Table 1 (Yusuf et al.,
Based on clinical examination of Bali cows as shown in Ta-
ble 1, it indicated that in a population of these cattle, there were
37% cows become pregnant after repeating insemination or
natural mating. The remaining 63% cows were not pregnant
with various reproductive statuses. For these high non-pregnant
cows required special attention to increase the number of cows
to become pregnant. This means that it is necessary to improve
reproductive management in Bali cows to achieve the highest
level of pregnancy rate as well as to shorten the calving interval
among the cows. Therefore, an effort to increase the reproduc-
tive efficiency in Bali cattle in this region is necessary in order
to increase both population and profitability to the farmers.
Results of clinical examination of Bali cows.
Variable No. of cows Percentage (%)
No. of animal 111 100
Pregnant cow 41 37
Non-pregnant 70 63
Cyclic 15 14
Cyclic + nimpomania 1 1
Cyclic + metritis 1 1
Anestrus 52 47
Anestrus + metritis 1 1
Future Prospect to Improve Reproductive
Management in Bali Cows
Since potential good reproductive performance of Bali cows
in this region occurred in the past time, it is not difficult to im-
prove this potential in the future. Improvement in reproductive
management as well as nutrition especially micro-nutrient would
be the way out to increase the population of Bali cattle through
improvement of reproductive performance by conducting good
The present study concluded that the reproductive manage-
ment in Bali cows was very low. Farmers’ knowledge and li-
mitation to the skills to manage the cows were the major factors
for this problem. However, to improve the reproductive per-
formance of Bali cows, it is necessary to improve the farmers’
knowledge as well as skill in raising animals.
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S. BACO ET AL.
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