Journal of Materials Science and Chemical E ngineering, 2013, 1, 23-27 Published Online October 2013 (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. MSCE
The Polymeric Heterogemeous Matrix for Ca rb o n and
Glass Reinforced Plastic
Galina Malysheva1, Lianhe Liu2, Xiao Ouyang3, Oleg Kulakov1
1Department of Special Machinery, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia
2Qingdao Advanced Marine Material Technology Co., Ltd, Qingdao, China
3Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China
Received August 2013
Copyright © 2013 Galina Malysheva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article presents the results of deformation -strength properties measurement and microstructural analysis of hetero-
geneous polymer matrix consisting of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. Thermosetting material is a diamino-di-
phenil sulfon -cured epoxy oligomer. Polysulfone was used as thermoplastic material. Two different technological proc-
esses were used to obtain heterogeneous polymer matrix: the material was mixed in the block, or layered material was
produced in which a layer of thermoplastic material alternated with a layer of epoxy oligomer.
Keywords: Heterogeneous Matrix; Polysulfon; Epoxy Olygomer; Interphase Bou ndary; Microstructure; Polymer
Composite Materials
1. Introduction
Polymer composite material (PCM) matrix ensures the
material solidity and uniform load distribution between
the reinforcing elements, resulting in the growth of
cracks deceleration, as well as stress transfer and distri-
bution. The most widespread matrix used in production
of PCM construction products is epoxy-based binding.
The main advantages of epoxy bindings are high adhe-
sive durability, good technological effectiveness, small
swelling levels and very good technological properties.
This allows creating materials which can be cured at the
room temperature (cold-curing binding) and at increased
temperatures (hot-curing binding). However, epoxy po-
lymers are rather fragile, generally, their stretch ratio
does not exceed 1%, so the search of effective ways of
their modification for the deformation properties increase
is needed.
The purpose of this work is the development of the
epoxy binding with improved deformation properties. To
achieve this goal, thermoplastic polymers were used as
2. Experimental Process
Traditional epoxy plasticizers, such as dibutylphthalate,
active diluents or rubbers, ensure molecular plasticization
and allow increasing the characteristics of impact strength
and crack resistance, yet their input results in elastic
modulus and gla s s-transition temperature decrease.
One of modern methods of drastic increase of epoxy
binding deformation characteristics that does not result in
deterioration of their heat resistance and other operating
specifications, is use of thermop lasts which relate to type
of structural plasticization. Using the se polymer mixes as
basis makes it possible to create new type of hybrid ma-
trix with high deformation, strength, thermal and physi-
cal properties, offering high chemical resistance and
good fabricating characteristics.
The most prevailing thermoplasts are polyetherketones,
polyest e ri mides an d polysul fones.
In this work the microstructure of the polymer mixes
prepared by two different technologies was researched:
first, epoxy oligomer and polysulfone mix was prepared,
second, the multilayered material consisting of alternat-
ing layers of epoxy oligomer and polysulfone was pre-
In accordance with the first technology, epoxy oli-
gomer and polysulfon mixing were performed using a
mechanical mixer at +180˚C. Afterwards this polymer
mixture was cooled, injected with a curing solution and
repeatedly mixed by the same mechanical mixer. Curing
was held at +180˚C during 3 hours. The produced ma-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. MSCE
terial was used for producing standard test samples.
Samples were used for bending (σbend
3 layers (2 polysulfone layers, 1 epoxy olygomer
, GOST 9626-90),
stretching (ε, GOST 11262-80) and impact strength (A.
GOST 14235-69) testing.
3. Results and Discuss ions
Values for polymer deformation and strength properties
in relation to the polysulfon amount injected are given in
Table 1.
As seen in Table 1 , thermoplast injection to the epoxy
matrix increases the bend durability and impact strength
more than twice. Also the stretch ratio shows magnitude
increase thus indicating fundamental positive influence
of thermoplast on deformation properties of system.
However, the value of adhesive power slightly decreases
depending upon the thermoplastic polymer increase. This
phenomenon probably occurs due to the overall viscosity
growth, resulting in the lbinding layer thickness being
slightly higher than the optimum. Yet such an insignifi-
cant reduction of adhesive power is not fundamental and
will not lead to the deterioration of fabricating chara cter-
istics of PCM based on this polymer matrix.
In accordance with the second technology, epoxy oli-
homer and polysulfone joint mixing was not performed.
Multilayered material with epoxy oligomer and polysul-
fone layers alternated among themselves was made.
This multilayered binding production technology in-
cludes several stages. Compression-molded polysulfone
thin films were produced. The film thickness reached 100
- 140 microns. The epoxy oligomer preliminarily mixed
with a curing compound was manually coated on the
polysulfone film surface. Afterwards the next polysul-
fone layer was coated. Three types of multilayered sam-
ples were produced:
5 layers (3 polysulfon e layers, 2 epoxy olygomer lay-
7 layers (4 polysulfon e layers, 3 epoxy olygomer lay-
ers) (see Table 2).
Table 1. Influence of the thermoplastic material content on
the properties of heterogemeous matrix (epoxy resin + po-
Properties The content of polysulfone, %
0 5 10 20 30 40
Adhesive strength,
τ, МPа 24 24 25 26 22 17
Bending test, σbend., МPа 28 32 42 49 54 58
Elongation at stretching,
ε, % 0.2 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.8
Impact toughness,
А, Kj/m2 4.8 10.4 19.5 28.2 37.4 46.2
Table 2. Influence of the quantity of layers on the properties
of multilayer heterogemeous polymer.
Properties Polymer
Polysulfone Epoxy resi n
Quantity of layers 2 1
Elongation at stretching, ε, % 2,5
Impact toughness А, Kj/m2 32,4
Quantity of layers 3 2
Elongation at stretching, ε, % 1,3
Impact toughness А, Kj/m2 24,7
Quantity of layers 4 3
Elongation at stretching, ε, % 1,2
Impact toughness А, Kj/m2 25,3
Structure analysis of the produced hybrid bindings was
conducted by the means of scanning electronic micro-
scope FEI Phenom with the image resolution up to 50
The material of the samplessurface consisted of 30
polysulfone mass fractions and 70 epoxy oligomer mass
fractions produced in accordance with the first technol-
ogy. The frontal surface (Figure 1(a)) was initially
analyzed. Afterwards the surface of the same samples
was investigated at various magnifications after the
bending test was conducted (Figure 1(c)). The acquired
data analysis allows to draw a conclusion that the mate-
rial microstructure is not homogeneus and polymeric
phases are mutually distributed chaotically (epoxy matrix
is shown in white in Figure 1). Mixing mode change
towards the mixing duration increase did not result in
structure improvement. We assume that polymer mixture
inhomogenous structure is related to the errors in mixture
preparation technology, so its further improvement is
required. Nevertheless, even this imperfect structure de-
monstrated the fundamental increase in polymer binding
deformation parameters (see Table 1).
The structure of layered hybrid binding, produced by
the second method with 4 polysulfone and 3 epoxy oly-
gomer alternating layers is shown in Figur es 2-4.
On Figure 2 there are visible characteristic cracks that
always appear on a layer of an epoxy oligomer while
bending tests being performed. On Figure 2(a) the epoxy
olygomer layer destruction №1 (from the sample frontal
surface) took place. On Figure 2( b) the destruction of
the 3rd epoxy oligomer layer took place. The surface
distraction microstructure at bending tests (Figure 3) and
impact strength tests (Figure 4) is different, however in
both cases epoxy material destruction took place, while
polysulfone layers have kept the integrity.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. MSCE
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1. Fracture surfaces of epoxy matrix, content of 30% polysulfobe for different microscope approach ((a) ×800, (b), (c)
(a) (b)
Figure 2. Multilayer polymer consist of 4 layers of polysulfone and 3 layers of epoxy resin (a) and 3 layers of polysulfone and
2 layers of epoxy resin (b).
(a) (b)
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(c) (d)
Figure 3. Fracture surfaces of multilayer polymer consist of 3 layers of polysulfone and 2 layers of epoxy resin after bent test
((a), (b), (c), (d))—different samples).
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 4. Fracture surfaces of multilayer polymer consist of 3 layers of polysulfone and 2 layers of epoxy resin after impact
strength test ((a), (b), (c))—different samples).
After-destruction surface analysis indicates that frac-
ture pattern depends on binding fabrication techniques.
For the material manufactured via method № 1(mixing in
the block), despite nonuniform polysulfone mixture in
the epoxy material, interphase fracture does not happen.
For the material manufactured via the second method
(multilayered polymer) the layer of an epoxy material
and interphase boundary between polysulfone and epoxy
material layers destruct in the first place.
4. Conclusion
Results based upon this experiment indicate that injecting
polysulfone as plasticizer in the epoxy binding signifi-
cantly improves its deformation parameters. This devel-
oped material can be recommended as a matrix at pro-
duction of various three-layer sandwich panels for air-
craft interiors, such as catering blocks, fuselage trim
elements, various passenger luggage accommodation
equipment of various design which experiences impact
5. Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Chinese international
science and technology program (No. S2012HR0080L).
[1] A. Muranov, G. Malysheva and A. Pilyugina, “The Po-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. MSCE
lymeric Heterogeneous matrix for Composites,” ACM-
TAA-2012, Werxham, 2012. [2] M. Kerber and I. Gorbunova, “Binders for Polymeric
Composite Materials,” Plastics, No. 12, 2010, pp. 14-21.