Advances in Anthropology
2013. Vol.3, No.4, 188-192
Published Online November 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/aa) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aa.2013.34026
Angular Photogrammetric Analysis of the Facial Profile of the
Adult Bangladeshi Garo
Mussammat Afsana Ferdousi1, Abdullah Al Mamun2, Laila Anjuman Banu3*, Sudip Paul4
1Department of Anatomy, Tairunnessa Memorial Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Department of Microbiology, North Bengal Medical College, Sirajganj, Bangladesh
3Department of Anatomy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Received May 22nd, 2013; revised June 25th, 2013; accepted July 21st, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Mussammat Afsana Ferdousi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Crea-
tive Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any me-
dium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The analysis of facial soft tissue from the photographic records gives information about the standard nor-
mative values of different facial parameters of a specific population group, helps in the diagnosis of any
abnormalities of face and also helps for the treatment plan of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment or
facial plastic surgery. The aim of the present study was to measure some craniofacial angles of the Bang-
ladeshi Garo males and females on standardized facial profile photographs and compare them with each
other and with norms of different ethnic group proposed by the other investigators. The study was carried
out with a total number of 100 Christian Garo adult male and female subjects. Statistical analysis showed
that the females had significantly higher values than the males in three facial angles (p < 0.05): the na-
sofrontal angle (G-N-Pro, females = 137.97˚ ± 4.80˚; males = 129.57˚ ± 7.96˚), the nasomental angle (N-
Prn-Pg, females = 132.79˚ ± 5.10˚; males = 129.75˚ ± 7.32˚) and the angle of facial convexity (G-Sn-Pg,
females = 169.26˚ ± 4.43˚; males = 158.65˚ ± 12.17˚) but no differences between the nasofacial (G-Pg/
N-Prn) and nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls). Findings from the present study might help to establish a dis-
tinct facial profile trait for the Garo population.
Keywords: Photogrammetric Analysis; Facial Angle; Garo Population
The face is the most attractive and variable part of the human
body. The variability and beautifulness of the face are express-
ed by different sizes and shapes of individual features of diffe-
rent parts of the face and also by different facial angles. As face
is the entity which gives us the perception of individuality of
human being and of gender differences, different craniofacial
parameters help in identifying people having different physical
characteristics, diagnosing people having craniofacial abnorma-
lity related to congenital or genetic cause and differentiating be-
tween males and females. Various methods have been used to
evaluate facial characteristics such as craniofacial anthropome-
try (Kolar & Salter, 1997), photogrammetry (Fernandez-Riveiro
et al., 2003; Kale-Varlik, 2003; Anicy-Milosivecy et al., 2008;
Malkoc et al., 2009; Anibor & Okumagba, 2010; Reddy et al.,
2011; Wamalwa et al., 2011), cephalometric radiography (Mc-
Intyre & Mossey, 2003), stereophotogrammetry (Sforza & Fer-
rario, 2006), computed tomography and laser scanning (AlK-
Anthropometric measurements on photographs are called
photogrammetry. Stoner (1955) and Fernandez-Riveiro et al.
(2003) standardized the photographic technique and record
taking in natural head position (NHP) and gave average values
for White adults, whereas Arnett and Bergman (1993) also took
records in NHP and described the facial profile using the angle
of facial convexity.
Craniofacial photogrammetry is a new field in Bangladesh. It
is simple to be applied and is relatively noninvasive and low
cost method. It avoids inconvenience of the participants and also
saves valuable time. It provides a permanent record for the
actual appearance of the participants. As the outline of the pho-
tographs do not change and the soft tissue becomes income-
pressible on the bone, so the data obtained from the analysis of
angular photogrammetric profile can provide the maxillofacial
and plastic surgeons, orthodontists and other clinicians with a
way of understanding problems associated with various soft tis-
sue segments of the facial region and also can help in setting
aesthetic treatment plans for the patients.
Populations vary genetically and geographically in their cra-
niofacial features. Therefore, a single standard of anthropomet-
ric variables is not appropriate for being applied to diverse ra-
cial and ethnic groups. Though Bangladesh is a relatively small
country, people of different religions and ethnic groups live
here and these different groups have differences in their physi-
cal characteristics. The Garo community is one of the major
tribes in Bangladesh. The people from the Garo tribe have dif-
ferent physical characteristics from those of the Bengali popu-
lation. Broadly speaking, they carry the racial characteristics of
the Mongoloids (Banglapedia, 2011). Study on Angular photo-
grammetric profile analysis of the Garo tribal population is
M. A. FERDOUSI ET AL.
scanty, especially on the measurements like facial profile an-
gles and sexual differences.
Measurement of the different craniofacial variables is being
considered as important for studying human growth because
facial proportions change with age, for studying sexual differ-
ences as sex differences are presented by variations in skeletal
dimensions and muscle development and also for clinical treat-
ments as normative value of craniofacial dimensions help in
determining abnormality and thus treatment planning (Kolar &
Salter, 1997). So, the results of this study were expected to be
useful for the anatomists, physical anthropologists, genetic
counselors, forensic scientists, beauticians as well as plastic and
Materials and Methods
Study Participan ts
A total of 100 adult Bangladeshi Christian Garo (50 males
and 50 females) participants aged between 25 and 45 years re-
siding at Dhaka city were enrolled in the study and the analysis
of the data were done in the Department of Anatomy, Banga-
bandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka
from July 2010 to June 2011. They were without any history of
acquired or genetic craniofacial anomalies. Participants were
considered to be the “Garo” if there two grandparents were of
Garo origin. Among the Garo, only Christians and adults were
decided to be selected for avoiding possible differences with
age or those arising from habits related to specific religions. The
research proposal was approved by the Ethical Review Com-
mittee (ERC) of BSMMU. Then consent was obtained from
each participant by taking her/his signature on the written con-
Photographic Se tu p
All right profile photographs were taken with a Kodak Easy
Share Z 710 digital camera, with 10 X optical zoom and at a 7.1
megapixel resolution. A blue color curtain was used as a back-
ground, and flash mode was also used.
To take a good image, the camera was positioned approxi-
mately 1.0 - 1.5 meter distance from the participant and was
raised to the ear level of the participant to provide good quality
of image and to prevent distortion of the face (Ozkul et al.,
2009). All the photographs were taken with the participants
sitting in a relaxed position with their heads held in the natural
head position (Fernandez-Riveiro et al., 2003).
Photograph Analys is
Analysis of the facial photographs was done by a computer
software program named Adobe Photoshop CS 4 Extended (Fi-
gures 1-6). All the measurements were taken twice and recor-
ded in the corresponding data form.
Computer assisted analysis of the right lateral facial photo-
graphs was done by using a computer based software program
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-version 17.0).
Landmarks used in this investigation: G, glabella; N, nasion; Prn, pro-
nasale; Cm, columella; Sn, subnasale; Ls, labial superior; Pg, pogonion.
Nasofrontal angle (G-N-Prn).
The ranges and mean ± standard deviations (SDs) were calcu-
lated for each angle and unpaired Student’s t-test was calculat-
ed to find out the differences of facial angles between the Garo
males and females. A p value ≤ 0.05 was set as being statisti-
cally significant. Index of sexual dimorphism was also calcu-
lated (Hwang et al., 1995).
Descriptive statistical data including mean, maximum, mini-
mum, and standard deviations for the photogrammetric angular
measurements together with the results of the Student’s t-test
comparing male and female measurements are shown in Table 1.
Statistically significant sex differences were found in three of
the five angles analyzed: all angles that suggested gender diffe-
rences were wider in females: the nasofrontal angle (G-N-
Open Access 189
M. A. FERDOUSI ET AL.
Data of craniofacial angles for the males and females of Garo population.
Craniofacial angles (degree) Sex Ranges Mean (±SD)
P value Index of sexual dimorphism#
Female 127.80 - 146.10 137.96 (±4.79)
Nasofrontal angle Male 107.80 - 142.05 129.56 (±7.96)
Female 30.25 - 48.50 38.67 (±4.05)
Nasofacial angle Male 32.90 - 51.10 40.27 (±4.54)
Female 117.90 - 145.50 132.79 (±5.10)
Nasomental angle Male 99.50 - 142.50 129.75 (±7.32)
Female 74.50 - 110.50 91.92 (±8.90)
Nasolabial angle Male 66.70 - 114.85 91.28 (±12.98)
Female 164.83 - 172.69 169.26 (±4.43)
Angle of facial convexity
Male 146.48 - 170.82 158.65 (±12.17)
Note: Unpaired Student’s t test was done to test the significance of difference between the males and the females; *Statistically significant; #Index of sexual dimorphism =
[(Male Mean − Female mean)/Male mean] × 100.
Nasofacial angle (G-Pg/N-Prn).
Nasomental angle (N-Prn-Pg). Discussion
Pro, females = 137.97˚ ± 4.80˚; males = 129.57˚ ± 7.96˚), the
nasomental angle (N-Prn-Pg, females = 132.79˚ ± 5.10˚; males
= 129.75˚ ± 7.32˚) and the angle of facial convexity (G-Sn-Pg,
females = 169.26˚ ± 4.43˚; males = 158.65˚ ± 12.17˚), whereas
nasofacial angle was wider in males without significant sexual
Photogrammetric analysis had advantages in facial profile
analysis especially on angular measurements, as they are not af-
fected by photographic enlargement, non-invasive and com-
monly used method to investigate pre- and post-operative chang-
es and provides a permanent record of patients (Sforza & Fer-
rario, 2006). Compared with other methods, photogrammetric
analysis does not require expensive or complex equipment and
offers digital results that are easily evaluated using computer
software. Furthermore, there is no radiation exposure, so it is
ethically more acceptable to develop population norms through
The relationship between the columella and the upper lip,
analyzed by the nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls), showed large va-
riability from 36.70 to 114.85 degrees for males and from 74.50
to 110.50 degrees for females. Large variability was also noted
in the angle of facial convexity characterized by high SDs.
According to the index of sexual dimorphism, the highest
level of sexual differences among the angles of the face was
seen in the angle of facial convexity and the nasofrontal angle.
This index was negative (–ve) when the mean value of the fe-
males was more than that of the males.
The higher values (Table 1) for the females in this study
could be explained by the fact that in general the facial contours
of female subjects were softer than those of males, especially in
the area of the nose, lips, and chin (Anicy-Milosivecy et al.,
M. A. FERDOUSI ET AL.
Nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls).
Angle of the facial convexity (G-Sn-Pg).
The nasofrontal angle (G-N-Prn) showed significant sex dif-
ferences in the adult Garo and the angle was wider in females.
This is in agreement to the findings by Reddy et al. (2011) in
the North Indian population (136.71˚ ± 3.64˚ in males and
144.33˚ ± 1.75˚ in females), Fernandez-Riveiro et al. (2003) for
Spanish (138.57˚ ± 6.81˚ in males and 141.98˚ ± 6.06˚ in fe-
males), Anic-Milosevic et al. (2008) for Croatian (136.38˚ ±
6.71˚ in males and 139.11˚ ± 6.35˚ in females) and Wamalwa et
al. (2011) for Kenyans (132.44˚ ± 6.91˚ in males and 137.97˚ ±
5.21˚ in females). However, Malkoc et al. (2009) found no sex
differences in this angle (146.03˚ ± 8.19˚ in males and 148.61˚
± 6.66˚ in females). Anibor and Okumagba (2010) found higher
mean male value than the female in Negroid population (132.0˚
± 7.50˚ in males and 137.70˚ ± 7.6˚ in females). The lower
mean value of nasofrontal angle may be attributed to prominent
glabella in the male (Mowlavi et al., 2004).
The mean value of nasofacial angle (G-Pg/N-Prn) found in
the adult Garo population (40.27˚ ± 4.54˚ in males and 38.67˚ ±
4.05˚ in females) is more in comparison to the values given by
Reddy et al. (2011) (34.38˚ ± 1.77˚ in males and 33.69˚ ± 1.37˚
in females) but larger than Anicy-Milosivecy et al. (2008)
(29.53˚ ± 2.51˚ in males and 30.36˚ ± 2.38˚ in females). No sig-
nificant sexual dimorphism was observed. Higher nasofacial
angle suggests that the projection of the nose is more (Wamal-
wa et al., 2011).
The average value of nasomental angle (N-Prn-Pg) found in
the Garo (129.75˚ ± 7.32˚ in males and 132.79˚ ± 5.10˚ in fe-
males) is similar to the North Indian population (127.71˚ ±
1.97˚ in males and 127.11˚ ± 1.81˚ in females) and Caucasian
population (130.47˚ ± 3.73˚ in males and 130.19˚ ± 3.47˚ in
females) (Reddy et al., 2011; Anicy-Milosivecy et al., 2008).
Significant sexual dimorphism was also observed.
The nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls), evaluating the relationship
of the nasal base and upper lip, is one of the measurements with
greater clinical relevance during orthodontic diagnosis and
treatment planning because its magnitude depends on the ante-
roposterior position and inclination of the upper anterior teeth,
and it can be altered by orthodontics or orthognathic surgery
(Wamalwa et al., 2011). The mean value of nasolabial angle
(Cm-Sn-Ls) found in the Garo (91.28˚ ± 12.98˚ in males and
91.92˚ ± 8.90˚ in females) is less than that in North Indian po-
pulation (102.32˚ ± 4.69˚ in males and 101.50˚ ± 4.39˚ in fe-
males), Turkish population (101.09˚ ± 10.19˚ in males and
102.94˚ ± 10.43˚ in females), White European population
(105.2˚ ± 13.28˚ in males and 107.57˚ ± 8.5˚ in females) and
Caucasian population (105.42˚ ± 9.52˚ in males and 109.39˚ ±
7.84˚ in females) (Reddy et al., 2011; Malkoc et al., 2009; Fer-
nández-Riveiro et al., 2003; Anicy-Milosivecy et al., 2008). Sig-
nificant sexual dimorphism was not observed between the males
The average value of facial convexity angle (G-Sn-Pg) found
in the Garo (158.65˚ ± 12.17˚ in the males and 169.26˚ ± 4.43˚
in the females) is similar to that in the North Indian population
(168.54˚ ± 3.23˚ in males and 166.64˚ ± 4.09˚ in females) and
White European population (168.2˚ ± 4.96˚ in males and 167.0˚
± 5.36˚ in females) while slightly less than the values in Turk-
ish population (170.60˚ ± 6.15˚ in males and 168.78˚ ± 5.44˚ in
females) and Caucasian population (168.78˚ ± 4.97˚ in males
and 169.05˚ ± 4.69˚ in females) (Reddy et al., 2011; Malkoc et
al., 2009; Fernández-Riveiro et al., 2003; Anicy-Milosivecy et
al., 2008). Significant sexual dimorphism was observed between
the males and females.
It was assumed that a study on the facial angle measurements
on the Garo population of Bangladesh would contribute to the
establishment of standardized normal values for the population.
It would also help in understanding how this population stands
anthropometrically among the various populations of the world
indicating the variations it shows from different other popula-
tions. So, more research is needed for testing the accuracy of
photogrammetric method in Bangladesh.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Khondker Manzare Sha-
mim, Professor and Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Banga-
bandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University for his constant gui-
Open Access 191
M. A. FERDOUSI ET AL.
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