Engineering, 2013, 5, 307-309 Published Online Octob er 2013 (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ENG
A Humerus Arterial Bleeding Simulation
Model for Hemostasia
Aijuan Ni, Qiuming Sun, Feng Tian, Gaofeng Wei, Jian Yang, Changjun Liu
Institute of Medical E quipment Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tianjin, China
Received July 2013
In our daily life, accident would happen with arterial haemorrhage, and death would be brought out by continuous ar-
terial bleeding for little time if emergency has not been implemented in time. This paper presents a humerus arterial
bleeding simulatio n model ( HABSM ) for he mostas ia, whic h has a hig h -fidelit y, prac tical model for the humerus arterial
hemostasia operation that is not only for the surgeons and nurses, but also for commons in urgent bleeding accident.
The functional components of HABSM are arm model, fluid circulated pipe line and circu it contro lli ng s ystem. T he ar m
model is made of elastic material a s human muscle. Fluid circulated pipeline contains wiggly pump, inlet pipe and o ut-
let pipe. And circuit controlling system has single chip micyoco system (SCM), keyboard, pressure sensor and vision
circuit. SCM controls pump and valve to realize humerus arterial blood circulation. Both surgeons and commons
thought well of HABSM which pr ovided a task trainer for humerus arterial he mostasia.
Keywords: Haemorrhage; He mostasia; Simulator; Humerus Arterial Pressure
1. Introduction
Hemostasia is one of the most important emergency
skills. If bleeding wound could be managed immediately
in effective hemostasia method, the death in bleeding
accident would have drop to a lower rate (Relation be-
tween cure time and survived percentage in Tangshan
earthquake, see Figure 1). Given the importance of val-
uable cure hu mans sho uld master e merge ncy hemo stasi a.
Hence, in the accident, prompt and proper operation
would be carried out by yourself or others beside you not
only by the surgeons and nurses faraway, so that we
would have gained precious time for the wounded. The
ability to hemostasia correctly is thought to master with
practical operation. To date, this training relies heavily
on the actual injured patients that commons couldnt
have practical opportunities to operate on [1]. Because
the act of emergency hemostasia is a separate and valua-
ble s kill, we would p resent an e quip ment of HABSM tha t
allows the arm humerus arterial hemostasia of high-
fidelity blood pressure. With such a simulator model,
hemostasia training could be accomplished without sub-
jecting a patient to possible discomfort and offering a
reduplicate e nvi ro n ment wi th b le ed ing ar m.
In this technical report, we describe our attempts to
create a simulator model with fluid circulated pipeline
and circuit contro lling system. We introduced arm mode l,
fluid circulated pipeline and circuit controlling system
respectively in detail and the relationship among them.
When developed as described the simulator model can
act as a high-fidelity HABSM that allows participants
even with no medical knowledge to learn the emergency
skill and to pr a c tic e the hemostasia.
2. Methods
As we can see configuration in Fig ure 2, there were an
arm model, a complex box and a fluid reservoir. First,
Arm model had arm, outlet pipe, pressure sensor and
Figure 1. Relation between cure time and survived percen-
tage in Ta ngshan earthquake.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ENG
Figure 2. Components of HAB SM. 1: arm; 2: fluid reservoir;
3: circuit controlling box; 4: displaceable wound; 5: outlet
pipe ; 6: inlet pipe; 7: pr ess ure detect or joined pipe.
pressure detector joined pipe. The arm model supplied
our elastic requirement as human muscle is developed by
agent factory with ep i spastic materials and technique.
Embedding a lower elastic pla stic pipe in the arm mode l,
wiggly pump in compl ex box outlet fluid through this
outlet pipe. The outlet pipe joined with complex box by
two access interface accessory. In the 1/3 of top arm,
Pressure sensor of ME501 (Metallux Electronic, 752
mmHg in measurement) could detect exactly to control
the inlet power of pump of the fluid circulated pipeline.
Second, in the complex box, there were single chip
micyoco system (SCM), vision circuit of circuit control-
ling system and wiggly pump, inlet pipe of fluid circu-
lated pipeline inside, keyboard front, interfaces of outlet
pipe, pressure detector joined pipe, power supply and
other accessorial functions (e.g. Interfaces of computer
and printer) back. As the core of SCM, the single chip
C8051f330 has AD module, amplified and lower filtered
pressur e sensor sig nal that was inlet simulate signal; The
wiggly pump outlet 2 - 3 L/min was direct current in
function and was controlled by C8051f330 outlet PWM
signal with photoelectricity isolation and power amplifi-
cation to realize pipe outlet 1 - 2 L/min [2]. The key-
board and vision was realized by I/O interface of
C8051f330. In this paper, we mainly introduced the si-
mulated blood circulation function referred to humerus
arterial pressure fidelity; keyboard and vision circuit
would n’t be presented in detail.
At last, the fluid reservoir was used t o ga t he r t he outle t
fluid from the interface access and to inlet the fluid into
the wiggly pump through inlet pipe of co mplex box
joined with fluid reservoir, so that fluid circulation was
developed. F igure 2 shows that to avoid any fluid lea-
kage into the interior compartment of the complex box,
reservoir and interfaces of inlet pipe and outlet pipe were
placed outside it.
To develop humerus arterial pressure fidelity, we in-
troduced that the three primary functional components of
the model were the arm model, fluid circulated pipeline
and circuit controlling system. The arm model has been
presented before. The fluid circulated pipeline was made
up of pump and fluid reservoir. Figure 3 shows that the
fluid in the r eservoir flowed into the pump, and out of the
altered flowing velocity. When it came into the arm
model participants played an operation on, the hemosta-
sia pressure was detected and the pump was controlled to
open in which size of power or close.
Though there was different arterial pressure among
huma n bein gs. Gi ven mo re re ferred conditions of ar terial
pressure [3], we choosed a range of standard curve of
humerus arterial pressure referred to the physiology in
Figure 4 [4]. According to the standard data of the curve,
Figure 5 shows that we produced simulation humerus
arterial pressure curve consulting with physiologist
teaching physiology in medical college. The cycle time
of arterial fluctuation was supposed to be 60 times/min
[5]. The correlatio n between voltage of y-axis and the
arterial pressure was linear, and linearity coe f ficient was
1. So that, the arterial pressure quantity was calculated
Above all, primary functions were accomplished and
humerus arterial pressure was performed well.
Press Sensor
Circuit Arm
Figure 3. Frame of fluid cycle pipe.
Figure 4. Curve of humerus arterial blood p ress.
Figure 5. Curve of outl et pip e.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ENG
3. Resul ts
This HABSM seems to perform well as a task trainer for
the humerus arterial hemostasia. Almost all participants
agreed or strongly agreed that the HABSM presented a
well work for them during their training. All simulation
participants enjoyed the method to practice emergency
humerus arterial hemostasia, whereas one common par-
ticipant of our rerearch institute was neutral.
The total statistic results are given in Table 1. All
emergency experts agreed or strongly agreed that emer-
gency humerus arteria l hemostasia was an import s kill to
practice during HABSM. Nine of 20 participants (4 ex-
perts and 5 common participants) strongly agreed that the
HABSM performed well. Ten of 20 experts agreed that
HABSM worked well in high simulation fidelity of hu-
merus arterial hemostasia and would be a wonderful
teaching task tra iner.
4. Discu ssion
Emergency hemostasia is one of the most important
skills of the emergency skills in accident or at war. Ac-
cident happened with arterial haemorrhage at 30% to
bring on death or deformity. At war, according to the
statistical data in the local war after Second World War,
death under shield are produced by plentiful haemorr-
hage at 30% - 60%; and 50% deaths could be saved [6].
However, the wounded are dead on arrival as a result of
no operation hemostasia in time. So that, we should
master the emergency hemostasia skill to save the hae-
morrhage wounded. This HABSM offer a unique oppor-
tunity to practice valuable procedures in a simulated en-
vironment that does not subject patients to potential dis-
comfort or harm. T his high-fidelity, practical model pro-
vides an opportunity to operate humerus arterial hemos-
Table 1. The proportion of answers to each response t o the
statement: “This model would be a useful teaching To ol to
learn the humerus arterial hemostasia”. (n = 15, 5 emer-
gency experts emergency experts in 120 of Tianjin, 10
common participants of our researc h institute).
Response Proportion of Response (%)
Strongl y Agree45(n = 9)
Agree50(n = 10)
Neutr al” 5(n = 1)
Disagree” 0(n = 0)
Strongl y Dis agree” 0(n = 0)
In an attempt to pro vide a high-fidelity arterial he mos-
tasia model, Laderal Medical develops broken limbs
(381550) which provide haemorrhage apparent wound in
fidelity, but it do esnt provide neither arter ial hemostasia
pressure in fidelity, nor the operation opportunity in
practice. Our simulation model has managed above limi-
tations and worked well according to the responses of
participa nts.
In futur e work, we ai m to exte nd mor e kind s of wound
to si mulate vario us inj uries conta ins ei ther gun wound or
earthquake wound etc. Given agreeable responses of the
participants, femoral arterial haemorrhage model can be
developed to extend the simulation task. The femoral
arterial haemorrhage would provide different simulation
models, different pressure parameters, but the element is
the same as HABSM.
Ultimately, we aim to provide simulation tasks to in-
duce the emergency haemorrhage wound or death, and
participa nts to operate humerus arterial hemostasia
without thinking of mistaken results of improper opera-
tion on patients. Hence, participants would advance the
arterial hemostasia skill at ease.
5. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the Tianjin Natural
Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos.
11JCZDJC16900 for support.
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