2013. Vol.4, No.10A, 61-71
Published Online October 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ce) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.410A010
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 61
Continued Education to Integrate the Educational Laptop:
Reflections on Educational Practice Change
Shirley Takeco Gobara1, Dirce Cristiane Camilotti2
1Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cam po Grande, Brazil
2Núcleo de Tecnologias Educacionais Regional, Secretaria de Educação do Mato Grosso do Sul,
Campo Grande, Brazil
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received August 28th, 2013; r evised September 28th, 2013; accepted October 5th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Shirley Takeco Gobara, Dirce Cristiane Camilotti. This is an open access article distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the ori gin al work is properly cited.
This paper presents the analysis and reflection of continuous formation for the use of educational laptop
by teacher, and is held in the context of the implementation of the Project one computer per student
(PROUCA), a pilot project-phase-II, in one of the public schools of the city of Terenos, MS, Brazil. This
is a qualitative research of a case study type conducted from the analysis of the plans lesson made by two
teachers throughout the training provided for the use of educational laptop, of the interactions with the
tutor during training and information obtained in interviews semi-structured realized after training. The
results suggest that the training contributed to the appropriation of the knowledge concerning the use and
handling of the laptop features related to technical and pedagogical aspects and promoted the reflection on
practice. The analysis showed that there was an increase in teachers’ planning, related to the content
worked in the Modules and in the interactions with the tutor, but it was not enough to cause significant
change in the pedagogy of theirs classroom practices, highlighting the need for continuing training with
situations that prioritize the discussions of teachers’ pedagogical conceptions.
Keywords: Continuing Education; Educational Laptop; Reflective Practice
The use of computers in primary and secondary education
has been happening in Brazil since the 1980’s and the purpose
of its inclusion was, and still is, to promote student interaction,
help the teaching and learning process, promote digital inclu-
sion and democratize the access to information.
In this sense, the computerization program of Brazilian pub-
lic schools reaches to most basic education schools, because
they have at least one computer lab provided by the initiative of
the Ministry of Education—MEC. After several years of in-
vestment in projects for deploying technology rooms in public
schools, in April 1997, MEC created the National Educational
Technology—Proinfo, regulated by Decree 6300, of December
12, 2007, to promote the pedagogical use of Information and
Communication Technology—ICT, at public primary and sec-
ondary education networks (Adams, 2000: p. 139). To partici-
pate in this program, MEC has established an agreement with
State governments offering computers and installing computer
labs in public schools of basic education and, in return, local
governments are responsible for the infrastructure of schools,
installation and opera ting equi pment.
Besides the presence of computers in technological rooms, in
2005 the project One Computer per Student—OCS was pre-
sented to the Brazilian Government and, in 2006 the first phase
began, which was Pre-pilot, and developed in five public
schools from five Brazilian states. After this stage, in 2010 it
moved to the second phase, Pilot Project, with the participation
of several public schools in every state of the country and pro-
ject OCS became One Computer per Student—PROUCA1,
coordinated by MEC, which besides maintaining the purpose of
integrating students in the information society, brings to the
Brazilian educational context the ability of each student, from
public schools participating in this program, to have an educa-
tional laptop, which causes significant changes in the school
and in the classroom. As a consequence, these changes require
re-planning actions and developing new strategies that involve
the whole school and local community, not only teachers and
The presence of these laptops in schools enables the inte-
grated use of technological resources by the student, articulat-
ing global and local situations with access to new cultural con-
texts. In addition, this feature contributes to the construction of
new knowledge and new opportunities for the majority of stu-
dents who were practically restricted to using only textbooks.
Brazilian public schools generally have only one computer lab,
limiting the use of this feature by many students.
However, using these resources in the school context does
not mean an improvement on the teacher practice or in the
educational activities. It is necessary to integrate these tech-
nologies into the school curriculum, providing support for in-
novative and meaningful educational experiences (Almeida &
From the point of view of the learning process, the insertion
1Program’s abrevia ti o n in Portuguese.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
of computers in school can be influenced by different ap-
proaches, among which Almeida and Prado (2011) highlight in
the constructionist ideas discussed by Papert (1984, 1990). In
this first approach, the learner builds knowledge when he uses
the computer to produce a performance of his interest, actively
participating in his learning. Opposed to this approach, there is
the instructional approach that maintains a teacher-centered
pedagogical practice, in which the computer is used only as a
way to convey information to the student (Valente, 1998).
For the implantation of technologies in education, following
the perspective of construction in knowledge, that is, construc-
tionist, two aspects should be observed according to Valente
(2005): aspects related to technical and pedagogical knowledge,
that should grow together, and aspects related with knowledge
of specificities of each technology in educational contexts,
demanding from teacher’s pedagogic experiences using those
This paper aims to present a reflection on the contribution of
continuing education undertaken to use educational laptop from
the analysis of the planning, assessments of lessons, interviews
with the two teachers and the interactions between the tutors.
The participating teachers of the training initiated in October
2010 to December 2011 in one of the schools of the city of
Terenos. Evidences of innovating planning prepared by the
teachers were also investigated.
Context of Continuing Education for the Use of
In 2010, the phase II—Pilot, from the One Computer per
Student Program (PROUCA2) started with the distribution of
educational laptops for 300 Brazilian public schools, State and
Municipal. The main objectives of PROUCA relate to the need
for improving the quality of education, digital inclusion and
integration of the Brazilian production chain in the manufac-
turing process and equipment maintenance (MEC, 2010).
In the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) 19 schools are par-
ticipating in PROUCA, nine located in the Municipality of
Terenos (Total-UCA3), two in the State Capital Campo Grande
and one school in the inner cities of the State (Anastácio, Costa
Rica, Dourados, Ladário, Nova Andradina, São Gabriel do
Oeste, Paranaíba and Ponta Porã). Figure 1 shows the location
of the cities in the state.
In 2010, phase II, pilot, from the One Computer per Student
(PROUCA) began with the distribution of educational laptops
to 300 brazilian public schools, state and municipal. The main
objectives of PROUCA are related with the need of improving
the quality of education, digital inclusion and integration of the
Brazilian production chain in the manufacturing process and
equipment maintenance (ECM, 2010).
In the State of Mato Grosso do Sul—MS 19 schools partici-
pated in PROUCA, nine located in the Municipality of Terenos
(UCA—Total), two in the capital Campo Grande and schools in
the inner cities of the State (Anastácio, Costa Rica, Dourados,
Ladário, Nova Andradina, São Gabriel do Oeste, Paranaíba and
Ponta Porã). Figure 1 shows the location of the cities in the
One of PROUCA challenges is to promote the pedagogical
use of the educational laptop; it is imperative to train teachers
and administrators to focus on promoting their autonomy in the
use of the laptop resource in the context and integrated into the
pedagogical practice. Training for the use of the educational
laptop in each participating State of this program was proposed
and developed by Brazilian researchers and educators with
recognized experience in the field, and belongs to the Working
Group of Pedagogic Advi sory, WGPA4. According to PROUCA
overall project, responsibility for teacher training was given to
Local Institutions of Higher Education (IHE—Local) with the
collaboration of the linked State and Municipal Technology
Groups. In the State of Mato Grosso do Sul—MS, Federal Uni-
versity of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) was the institution re-
sponsible for training teachers who work in schools chosen to
participate in this program in this State.
The training was offered in distance mode, initially on the
platform eProinfo5 and after in UFMS-Moodle6 platform, with
a workload of 160 hours. The course was organized into four
The methodology of training encompassed the technological,
pedagogical and theoretical dimensions, with the proposed
lesson plans with laptop use, related to the content of the Mod-
ule, the implementation and evaluation of classes developed in
the last module.
The Module I was designed to the technological appropria-
tion of Linux Educational Metasys7, the applications of the
laptop and the virtual learning environment, with the propose of
exploring the applications and programs of the laptop and the
preparation of planning a lesson class. In Module II the use of
Web 2.0 was discussed with emphasis on the blog, email and
chat list and with a focus on interaction and the technical and
pedagogical aspects. Module III was designed for teacher’s ac-
tion in use of the laptop, with the goal of providing grants to
plan and develop innovative teaching practices and encourage
the structuring of networks of support and cooperation between
students and teachers, addressing possible uses geared to ques-
tioning, solving problems, challenges and collective writing. In
this Module the participants prepared a lesson plan using the
resources of the laptop from the pedagogical experiences dis-
cussed, and executed that lesson plan and evaluated their results.
In Module IV the proposed methodological work was planning
and developing an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary project
using the tools of the laptop.
Continuing Education of Teachers: What the
It is indisputable that any innovation in education involves
the training of teachers, which are a priority and strategic group
to improve the quality of education (Belloni, 2001). So, to en-
able the implementation of a program like PROUCA it is im-
perative that teachers and other segments of the school in-
volved (engineers and managers)—are trained before and dur-
ing their performance using a laptop (Almeida & Prado, 2011).
In order that the use of educational laptop occurs in a con-
structionist perspective, it is necessary for educators to take
4http://www.uca.gov.br/institucional/projeto.jsp, access 30-01-2013.
5http://e-proinfo.mec.gov.br, last checked 30-01-2013.
6http://virt ual.ufms.br/, accesse d 30-01-2013.
7The operating system is Linux Metasys Classmate with educational ap-
plications developed by the Brazilian company International Syst (http://
Last checked 30-01-2013.
2Program’s abrevia ti o n in Portuguese.
3On the initiative of the Federal, State and Municipal governments, six
Brazilian municipalities will have all their schools served, where they are
called UCA T o tal.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 63
Location of the cities participating in the PROUCA8.
ownership of the technical knowledge (how to use the features
offered by the machine) and of the knowledge about the educa-
tional potentials related to the use of this technology, in other
words, how to integrate these computer features in their every-
day teaching practices (Cox, 2003). This involves changing the
traditional role of the teacher, since it requires a transformation
in the way it operates, going to play a role of facilitator of
learning and environment organizer, real and/or virtual, to in-
dulge the student to “learn with” and “learn about the thinking”
(Almeida, 2000; Almeida & Meadow, 2011).
However, putting into practice new knowledge in continuing
education courses, leading to the reconstruction of pedagogical
practice is not a simple task and immediate (Almeida & Prado,
2011). Furthermore, it is necessary that the teacher do periodi-
cally reflect on their action (practice). Therefore, it is necessary
that the teacher, not initiated on the use of these technologies,
make a training covering the pedagogical, technological and
didactic dimensions (Belloni, 2001; Schön, 1992).
These dimensions include the necessary knowledge for the
integration of technological resources in school. The pedagogi-
cal dimension relates to the expertise of the teaching and learn-
ing processes, the technological dimension covers the use of
available technical means and implies the ability to make deci-
sions about their use and didactic dimension in relation to spe-
cific training and their implications in a given area of knowl-
edge (BELLONI, 2001).
8http://www.brasil-turismo.com/mapas/mapa-ms.htm, last checked 26-08-
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
For Schön (1992) the development of professional knowl-
edge is based on research and trial practice. The knowledge that
emerges in practical situations, characterized as the unique
uncertain ones and conflicting, can be described by observation
and reflection on the actions. The theory of reflective practice,
proposed by the author, is based on the ideas of reflection-in-
the-action, reflection-about-the-action and reflection on reflec-
tion-in-the-action. The reflection-in-the-action is triggered when
the known methods are not sufficient to meet the unexpected
situations that arise in this action and the teacher is urged to
create new strategies to resolve the problems. This reflective
process assists the creation of practical systematic knowledge in
the reflection-about-the-action, which is the mental reconstruc-
tion of the action to analyze it from observation, description
and analysis, resulting in a new perception of the action and
allowing the understanding of the practice and its reconstruc-
For the quality of the continuing education of teachers, ac-
cording to Nóvoa (1991), the personal aspects, professional and
organizational are considered fundamental. For him, for inno-
vations to occur, in the teacher formation it must be considered:
The personal development through critical-reflective training,
the professional development, from questioning the independ-
ence and professionalism of the teacher in front of the organs
and bureaucratic administration and school development, which
raises changes in school organization.
Continued education linked to reflexive action of the teacher
is only possible with the breakdown of traditional training
processes, from the proposition of situations that favor teachers
in training the awareness about the processes occurring in
teaching and learning, understanding its practice and its trans-
formation to the benefit of personal development, and profes-
sional students (Almeida, 2000). For this “we need to enhance
the knowledge and practices of teachers and work the implicit
theoretical and conceptual, often unknown to them, in addition
to establishing connections between pedagogical and scientific
knowledge” (Almeida, 2000: p. 47).
Thus, the formation of reflective teachers for computer use,
according to Valente (1993), should provide the experience of
situations where the computer is used as an educational re-
source for the purpose of bringing the teacher to understand its
historical role as an educator, to favor student learning with
computer use and the methodology that best suits his working
style. In this context, the formation capable of promoting the
integration of laptop and transformation in the teacher’s peda-
gogical action is one that is based in the articulation of theo-
retical knowledge with practice, leading to reflection, and ena-
bling research and contextualization of knowledge with a view
to promote a transformation in the pedagogical action.
Another important aspect of contextualized reflective train-
ing are the interactions established between teachers-students,
teachers-tutor and tutor-students. In reports of Prado and Al-
meida (2003) they highlight the need for interaction and col-
laboration between the subjects in training. In courses devel-
oped in online environments, in distance mode, the interac-
tions favor the development of “learning by doing” through the
exchange of experiences and dialogue with one another, allow-
ing participation in a constructive process that enables the rep-
resentation of ideas and context and/or recontextualization
practice (Prado & Almeida, 2009). In this process it is essential
the role of the tutor who must conduct the pedagogic mediation
towards the encouragement and motivation that drives the par-
ticipants to learn, by creating strategies that conduct to reflec-
tion on practice, clearance of actions taken and reconstruction
of pedagogical practice (Masseto, 2000; Prado & Almeida,
2009). This requires the tutor’s approach in the context of the
teacher in training in order to create situations for the use of the
educational laptop to promote the contextualization of theory
and reflection over the actions taken.
The ideas of construction of knowledge, which grow con-
tinuously in a “spiral of learning” and “virtual being together”,
proposed in Valente’s research (2009) show the importance of
the interaction between the tutor and the teacher participating in
the training, as the pedagogical mediation for the reflective
formation and contextual training. In the teacher’s training
context, the tutor acts as a more experienced person who cre-
ates circumstances for the construction of knowledge and for
the reflection about teaching practice using the educational
This is a qualitative research case study (Ludke & Adnre,
1986; Yin, 2010) held in a public school of the Municipal
Terenos/MS. According to these benchmarks, the case study
should address multiple sources of evidence, with a time of
study not necessarily long, being constituted, in this study, of
two cases, two teachers who are participants of this research.
They were identified as teacher A (TA) and teacher B (TB).
Teacher A has a degree with a specialization in pedagogy fo-
cused in special education, working with the early grades of
elementary school, she works as a teacher for 19 years and for
the past two years has been using the computer to teach, how-
ever sporadically. Teacher B has also a degree in pedagogy
with a specialization in special education. She works as teacher
of lower grades of elementary school for 16 years and works as
a professor at the computer lab for three years.
Procedure: Materials and Data Collection
Data collection was carried out from monitoring, systemati-
cally observing the plans prepared by these two teachers and
interactions occurring with the tutor throughout the training
offered by UFMS. The training took place from November
2010 to November 2011, in distance mode, in virtual learning
environment (UFMS Moodle).
At the end of each Module of the training, activities were
proposed that required the construction of a planning of one or
more classes using the laptop resources. In Module I this activ-
ity was optional, in II it was mandatory and on III besides the
planning it was required to run the class. The proposals were
accompanied by guidelines for the organization of planning on
items that included: objectives, methodology, resources and
evaluation. The guidance was that there was consistency be-
tween objectives and evaluation and that the methodology
should be centered in the construction of knowledge with active
students’ participation and achievement of activities exploring
the laptop features.
After the training an interview was conducted, semi-struc-
tured, in order to investigate teachers’ perception about the
contribution of training to use the laptop in their classes. These
interviews were done from a script with ten questions and were
audio taped and notes were taken during the interviews.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
Methodol og y for Data Anal ysi s
The analysis of the planning Module I, II and III were carried
out from the perspective of content analysis according to
Bardin (1979), seeking evidence: the consistency between ob-
jective and evaluation, in the proposed methodology with a
focus on construction of knowledge by students articulated
using laptop resources and innovation in the proposal and im-
plementation of the lesson. The criteria adopted for the analysis
of the lesson planning were based on the current proposals of
constructivist teaching and learning as opposed to traditional
The coherence between the objectives and the evaluation was
considered present on the analysis when the tools and evalua-
tion criteria proposed were enough to verify that the learning
objectives have been achieved. The methodology was ranked as
constructionist when the proposed actions have focused on the
construction of knowledge by the student using the laptop’s
resources. The planned activities were characterized as innova-
tive when they showed the reconstruction of pedagogical prac-
tice from the integration of the laptop with the existing practice;
this definition is derived from the interpretation of Belloni ideas
(2003) and the observation of the presence of constructionist
features (Valente, 1998; Papert, 1984, 1990).
Interactions between the teachers and the tutor were also
analyzed. For the analysis of the evaluation of the class’ devel-
opment (Module III) were considered teacher’s reflections on
possible changes suggested during the interactions between
them and the tutor, after the execution of this class.
After the training an interview was conducted, semi-struc-
tured, in order to investigate the teachers’ perception about the
contribution of training for using the laptop in their classes.
These interviews were done from a script with ten questions
and were audio taped and notes were taken during the inter-
The results of the analyzes are presented in the same order in
which the actions took place during the formation and study:
planning, interactions with the tutor, evaluation of the teachers
on the school run in Module III and interviews with the teach-
Analysis of the Planning
To determine the categories of analysis, summarized in Ta-
bles 1-3, the items proposed in the planning guidelines were
observed. In the Module I planning TA shows no consistency
between objective and evaluation because the evaluation pro-
posal was insufficient to investigate whether the initial objec-
tives of the lesson were achieved. The proposed methodology
prioritizes activities of repetition, instructionism.
In Module II it has been possible to observe elements that
indicate a methodology focused on the production of the stu-
dents and activities other than those traditionally held by it. In
the context of the activities proposed by this teacher, the use of
the blog, stated in the planning of Module II, is an innovative
element, since it is an innovative resource in their practice prior
to training. However, according to the criteria used in the anal-
ysis, only this does not guarantees innovation in the proposed
class, since their use is geared for access to information and not
for the production and interaction of students.
In Module III, all the evidence found, summarized in Table 3,
suggests that there has been progress in scheduling, with con-
sistency between objectives and assessment and a methodology
that encourages students to seek knowledge in virtual and non-
virtual sources and to apply it in concrete activities.
The planning of teacher TB also shows an evolution, how-
ever, this occurs precisely in Module III and not gradually as
noted in the planning of TA. In Module I, the planning does not
bring the description of the assessment, but proposes a method-
ology centered on the student, through its active participation in
Analysis of the planning of Module I of the teachers A and B.
(categories) Teacher A Teacher B
Objective: “To i d entify
each letter by name.”
Evaluation: “I t is
necessary to assess
the progress of children
in different forms
(of the game).”
Objective: “To i d entify,
demonstrat e and
explain the fights
know by the class;
Recognise t h e
and tactics; compare
There was no mention
of the evaluation form.
A game was used
where children typed
the letters ap pearing on
the screen. “Identify the
alphabet in a fun way.”
“... prepare a short
the most used
techniques and tactics.”
“... students can
socialize their findings,
registering them as
a modality that
the proposed classNo. No.
Analysis of the pla nning from Module II of teachers A and B.
(categories) Teacher A Teacher B
Objective: “Learn the
proper writing of the
with the observation
of correct words by the
teacher and group
Objective: “ T o
identify al ph abet letters
and short words”
Evaluation: “It will
be done individually
approach methodolog y
“... to access the
and record in the
notebook the figures
“... students will see
the alphabet and short
words and will have
to type them correctly . ”
Innovation in the
proposed class No. No.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 65
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
Analysis of Module III planning of teachers A and B.
(categories) Teacher A Teacher B
Objective: “To allow
the contact with different
text styles in order to
understand its structure
Evaluation: “It will be
continued, noting the
placement of the students,
considering the oral and
written produc t ion.”
the taste for reading
and writing”. There
was no mention of the
Evaluation: “…will be
observed and written
and text production and
the participation in the
of text on the l aptop
using the text
of productions to other
on the teacher’s blog
about the productions .”
“The students will
make their own
productions using th e
text editor and image;
from their draws and
will make a collective
production ; th ey will
all present their
production in the blog
Innovation in the
proposed class No. No.
the activities. In Module II the elements that characterize the
evolution of planning were not observed, but in Module III this
teacher presents all the elements that indicate the improvement
of the planning quality.
Although the methodology observed in the planning of the
Module III, from both teachers, encourages the search for
knowledge in virtual sources using the laptops, their practice
continues with strong instructional influences, with research
activities, typing, copying text from the internet and games that
emphasize repetition. Justified practice because, according to
Moran (2007), the innovation occurs in a third stage of the
technological learning, with the disruption of the traditional
practices and full appropriation of the pedagogical, mainly in
the implementation of new technologies in schools, for example,
the laptop. Several authors claim that the use of these technolo-
gies provides only significant changes, from innovative prac-
tices, when promoting intentional change in the school to ease
the curriculum organization and the teaching and learning
process (Moran, 2007; Almeida & Valente, 2011).
According to Belloni (2003: p. 4):
“Innovation is driven by a desire, a willingness to change,
the details of which will be drawing during the process to
reach a finalized action, subject to observation and eval-
uation. So, to better understand what pedagogical innova-
tion is, it is necessary to consider it as a process that leads
to an intentional completed action.”
The stimulus to the production of individual and collective
texts, the use of the blog to register the student’s activities and
reviews of colleague’s productions are elements that were pre-
sent in the teacher’s actions. However, during training, those
activities were only proposed to meet a requirement of training,
therefore, these are actions that didn’t exceed the initial pro-
posal, indicating that there was indeed no innovation in the
teaching practices. But it was observed that there was inten-
tionality in the search for change during and after the training
of these teachers, which consists in an important element to
innovation, according to Beloni (2003).
Analysis of Interactions of the Teachers with the
Analyzes of interactions made by the tutor were restricted to
the planning of Module II and III, that were mandatory training
activities. In Module I, in which the posting of planning was
optional, mediations were not conducted. Interactions between
the tutor and teachers were conducted using the tool “Tasks” at
the course environment and tutors were advised, initially by the
staff, to conduct mediations throughout the course. Analyzes of
tutor’s interactions about the plans were made following the
same categories of analysis used in planning.
In both modules, the plans prepared by teachers were posted
and only later, after being checked by the tutor, interactions
were carried out with suggestions of amendments, when neces-
sary, to align them with the objectives of the training, without
the requirement of posting a new planning. Due to the time for
the development of the class proposed in the planning, it was
not required to post the reworked plans. A new posting was
only required when the initial proposal did not contemplate the
use of laptop. In this way, to each planning there was an inter-
active dialogue, except for the planning of Module III by TA
for which there were three interaction moments.
Interactions with Teacher TA
During the interaction performed by the tutor on planning
Module II, the positive aspects of coherence between the objec-
tives and evaluation present in planning were emphasized, ac-
cording to excerpts 1 and 2. Aspects of methodology and use of
laptop resources and blog were prioritized pointing out the need
to use the blog with emphasis on the active participation of the
student and to stimulate production, highlighting the benefits of
this type of activity for learning. Suggestions of activities char-
acterized as constructionist were also made.
“... Another important point is the evaluation process, which
in your case has the participation of the students. This is very
positive because from questioning and guidance they may real-
ize the mistakes and you will check if your initial goals were
reached”. (Excerpt 1, answer from the tutor about planning
Module II from TA).
“... consider focusing your method in the production per-
formed by the students using the blog, this way, instead of reg-
istering posts (simple) and make comments to the pictures.
“(Excerpt 2, answer from the tutor about planning Module II
The influence of this interaction can be seen in the evolution
of the planning of Module III (Table 1), with the proposal of
conducting activities that stimulated the production and interac-
tion of students according to the guidelines of the tutor. Al-
though TA has not responded to the tutor in the environment,
their response occurred through actions in the preparation of a
new plan that demonstrates that the interaction facilitated re-
flection on pedagogical practice and rescheduling of classes
with the laptop. In this sense, the training provided to the
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
teacher the contextualization and de-contextualization of the
pedagogical practice, which favored the occurrence of reflec-
tion and to establish new understandings (Prado & Valente,
2002), resulting in a changing practice of her action.
There were analyzed three feedbacks in the process of inter-
action with the teacher about the planning of the Module. In the
first it was asked to post a new planning in which the method-
ology propose the use of the laptop resources from the guide-
lines for the realization of the activity, as there was a need for
modifications in relation to the planning initially posted, which
did not include the use of laptop as it can be seen in excerpts 3
and 4. These changes were part of the conditions to conclude
the planning and to begging the development of the class of
Module III, who proposed the execution of activities using the
laptop from a constructionist methodology with emphasis on
“... although you mention the blog and the internet as a re-
source to be used, in your methodology there are no actions/
activities with the use of this tool. Thus, consider reworking the
activities using the laptop” (Excerpt 3, first response to the
planning of the Module of TA).
“... Here are some suggestions: The texts can be transcribed
directly in the laptop’s editor, using the spell checker to review
the incorrect words (this can be done in a group); Instead of
publishing students’ productions in murals, use the blog as a
disclosure way, posting texts and encouraging comments from
students in the class or other classes. How are 1st year children,
if necessary, may act as a scribe in the comments posted to the
texts.” (Excerpt 4, first response to the planning of Module III
From these changes it was held the post of planning exam-
ined in Table 1, based on the guidelines contained in the first
and second responses.
In excerpt 5, still referring to the first interaction on the plan-
ning of the Module III, there is also a lack of elements that
indicate consistency between objectives and assessment in ac-
cordance with the observation pointed out by the tutor on the
items of the planning.
“... Also noticed that your planning does not follow the pro-
posed sequence (Identification, Content, Objective, Methodol-
ogy and Evaluation). This sequence is important for the reader
of our plan to understand the different steps of the proposed
work” (Excerpt 5, first feedback from the tutor to the planning
of Module III of TA).
In the second feedback, the tutor noted that TA had posted a
new plan that had been proposed by a colleague of the class and
after the questioning of her own, it was asked a new schedule
with the changes suggested in the first interaction, as shown in
the excerpt 6.
“... You did not have to post another plan, but just to make
the adjustments in this. Before evaluating, just a question: You
and the colleague developed the plan together (each with in its
own class)...” (Excerpt 6, according to feedback to the planning
of Module III of TA).
In excerpt 7, of the third feedback, it is observed that the tu-
tor emphasized the improvements in relation to the planning of
the first posting and the coherence observed between objective
and evaluation and a methodologies facing the use of the laptop
with a focus on active participation of students, showing that
the proposed changes were made in the first interaction.
“... it was worth to keep the previous plan. The activity is
quite interesting and the by the results already obtained, I be-
lieve it will be very positive for the learning process. The use of
laptop and your blog in activities that would previously have
been made with other features, make lessons more interesting
and encourages the participation of children...” (Excerpt 7, third
response to the planning of module 3 of TA).
The fact that none of the comments or suggestions forwarded
by the tutor in Module II was incorporated into the plan in the
first posting of the Module can be linked to the lack of habit of
the teachers to periodically check the course environment. It is
found in the records of the interaction Environment of this
teacher that the access to the message of the tutor on the plan-
ning Module II only occurred after the request of the posting of
a new planning of Module III. This occurrence reinforces the
idea that the guidelines contained in the interactions (feedback)
provide the reflection and change of teaching practice regarding
the organization of the planning and proposing activities focus-
ing constructionist with the use of the laptop.
In this context, the interaction provided the reconstruction of
the meanings of the teacher, with the tutor playing the role of
observer, mediator and organizer of the theory with the practice.
This activity is essential so the long distance interaction, in a
virtual environments, can have a meaning, from the monitoring,
constant observation and intervention in the development of the
teachers participating in the training (Almeida & Prado, 2009).
Interaction with Teacher TB
Two feedbacks were made for the planning of teacher TB, in
respect to the second and third Module. According to excerpt 8,
the feedback of planning on Module II, the tutor mainly em-
phasized aspects of the methodology, because in this planning
there is only the presence of activities in which students would
access information. According to this planning analysis, Table
1, there is inconsistency between objective and assessment and
the proposal does not present the innovative features of class.
This caused and excessive preoccupation by the tutor to ensure
the use of the laptop with constructionist approach, which
eventually left the pedagogical aspects related to other items
proposed on the planning in background.
“... Just one note, try to think of activities whose methodol-
ogy is centered on the production of the student using the tool
(laptop and blog) in order to facilitate their learning...” (Excerpt
8, the tutor’s response to the planning of Module II of TP).
It is important that the implementation of tutoring encom-
passes the pedagogical, technological and didactic dimensions
(Belloni, 2001), offering support for educational use and tech-
nical knowledge, integrated to the didactic knowledge, to use
the laptop resources. In addition to observing these dimensions,
it is important that the tutor’s pedagogical mediation is per-
formed with the purpose of creating conditions that favor the
production of knowledge, with the interactivity being poten-
tiating an interaction, embodied in action between people
(Prado & Almeida, 2003).
In excerpt 9, there is an emphasis on the feedback by the tu-
tor on improving the quality of the planning of Module III in
respect to the previous Modules, particularly in the methodol-
ogy that encouraged the pursuit of knowledge by the student,
which highlights the importance of guidelines contained on
interactions performed to promote teacher reflection and to
cause changes in their teaching.
Regarding the planning items, the tutor suggested to intensify
the use of the blog for interaction among students, beyond us-
ing it only to record, because the proposal to use it only as an
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S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
online space for registration of the student does not allow ex-
ploring the potential of this feature to promote interaction be-
tween students and teacher. Therefore, it is important that dur-
ing the training, teachers are encouraged to perform reflection
and discussion on the specifics of each technology related to the
pedagogical applications. According to Valente (2005) this is
an important aspect to be observed on the implantation of edu-
cational technologies, and “the educator should know what
each of these technological facilities has to offer and how it can
be explored in different educational situations” (Valente, 2005:
p. 5). This knowledge is essential when planning activities us-
ing the laptop, because depending on the content to be explored
and the didactic objectives there are different applications of
the laptop features.
“... This ‘to do’ (focused on the production of the student)
enables the development of autonomy and moments of collec-
tive activities, as proposed, the reflection and development of
attitudinal skills, as indicated in your goal... The last item of the
objectives could be removed, since the use of these resources
are forms/tools to achieve the goals listed previously; b) if you
have feasible time, encourage students to review and analyze
the productions of colleagues posted on the blog as a way to
complete the work.” (Excerpt 9, response to the planning of the
Module III of TP).
In summary, the analysis regarding the plans showed that in-
teraction between tutor and teacher resulted in improvements in
planning. Suggestions and guidelines dispensed in the interac-
tions of the tutor, feedback in Module II were considered at the
planning of Module III. The tutor’s role regarding TB supports
the idea that the primary role of the tutor is to guide the learn-
ing process through interaction (Prado & Almeida, 2003).
However, according to Prado and Valente (2002), it is essential
that these interactions are recorded in the spaces (environment)
of offline communication, as these records show the various
levels of reflection that occur during the learning process.
It can also be observed in interactions, the affectivity in the
tutor-teacher relationship, through the enhancement of success
and suggestions that stimulated a review of methodological
and/or inappropriate concepts, as well as clarification of any
doubts. According with La Taille and colleagues (1992) ideas,
affectivity can be interpreted as something that drives actions
and the interaction presupposes affection.
The comparison of analyzes of interactions performed with
both teachers and of plans elaborated shows that interaction
between tutor and teachers was a key factor in the contribution
of the formation and evolution observed. Especially in the
planning of Modules II and III, due to guidance and suggestions
of pedagogical use of the laptop and discussions of planned
activities, such as continued monitoring of teachers in training
in their locus of work: their school context.
Analysis of the Evaluations of Teachers on the
Implementation of the Lesson Plan in Module III
In Module III, besides the planning and execution of the les-
son, it was requested an evaluation of the developed class,
where they should mention the positives aspects, the difficulties
encountered and the changes made in relation to the initial
Analysis of the Evaluation of the Teacher A
According to excerpt 10, on lesson evaluation, the teacher
pointed problems related to the Internet and laptop and, from
these difficulties, reflected and suggested alternatives to miti-
gate them, making changes in the initial planning using the
image editor to replace the use of the blog. However, this fea-
ture does not offer the potential to perform the proposed activ-
ity using the blog.
“... difficulties in handling the laptop mainly because most
kids could not connect (the laptop) to the internet. I would not
use the internet, and would use another application, such as Tux
Paint. It was a class where all the children participated enthuse-
astically.” (Excerpt 10, evaluation class of the Module III of
Using a text editor, although relevant to not harm the class,
would make unviable to achieve the objectives of Module II
that proposes the utilization of Web 2.0 tools to promote the
construction of knowledge. It also demonstrates the weakness
in relation to pedagogical aspects inherent to the use of this
resource and shows the importance of the teacher to know the
potentialities and restrictions of the pedagogical resources of
the laptop, in addition to the technical aspects, as advocated by
The teacher mentioned as a positive aspect of the class the
enthusiasm of students when using the laptop resources, but did
not mention aspects related to the learning process. This dem-
onstrates the teacher’s view on the use of technological re-
sources toward the mastery of technique and that the construc-
tion of knowledge related to the pedagogical dimension of
training were not yet consolidated, indicating that the teacher is
still in the first stage of the technological learning cited by
Moran (2007), where technologies are used to improve the
performance of what was already done in the classroom.
The alteration proposal mentioned by the teacher for the
planning suggests that the performed formation is not enough to
bring to comprehension that the use of technological resources
should be associated and integrated to curricular contents and
not only to the knowledge of the laptop tools.
Analysis of the Evaluation of Teacher B
Excerpt 11 shows that on the evaluation of TB there were
difficulties mentioned about capturing the images produced by
students and problems with the internet. With regard to the
changes that she would do in relation to the initial planning, the
teacher mentioned the use of another application suitable for
her purposes to address the difficulties, which demonstrates the
appropriation of technological knowledge related to the use of
image editors from the laptop. The proposal of such modifica-
tions agreed with suggestions mentioned in answers to the tu-
tor’s interactive planning and demonstrates, as Valente (2005),
that teacher’s technical knowledge should be related to the
pedagogical knowledge, because without knowing the potential
of the resources it is not possible to warrant the decision mak-
ing in the classroom in respect to the teacher’s didactic objec-
Still, in excerpt 11, it can be observed that as TA, this teacher
also mentioned as a positive aspect of the class a largest student
interest, showing that the contribution of the laptop use for
learning was not evaluated, an important element for the plan-
ning of future activities by the teacher.
“... the downside was the runtime classes and not having
managed to capture the image of all laptops... The very slow
internet connection in that day, interfered in the research and
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
with the selection of the images of the tales. Choosing just one
tool of the laptop as an example, the Kolour Paint... Students’
interest was immense.” (Excerpt 11, evaluation class of the
Module III of TB).
The analyzes of the evaluations performed by the teachers
TA and TB suggest that the formation caused no reflection
about the action on TA in relation to the objectives of the Mod-
ule because it does not put forward proposals to amend the
planning from the knowledge worked during the training. In
contrast, there was a reflection on the part of TB demonstrated
by the practical application of the concepts explored in the
The changes proposed on the initial planning made by TB,
suitable to difficulties for the development of the class and to
the didactic objectives proposed, reinforces the evidence that
there was reflection-in-action, while with TA this process did
not occur satisfactorily, since the proposed solutions for the
difficulties encountered were not appropriate to the lesson’s
objectives. For Schön (1992), when the teachers do not find
answers for unexpected situations, as the problems mentioned
by the teachers during the development of lessons, reflec-
tion-in-action is triggered, but knowledge from these responses
is not formally understood. So for the systematization of the
knowledge acquired during training activities conducted in the
classroom, it is necessary the reflection about the action,
whereby the teacher becomes aware, understands and recon-
structs its practice.
Analysis of the Interviews
According to the information obtained in the interview sum-
marized in Table 4, TA has a degree in pedagogy focused in
special education, working with early classes of elementary
schools, working as a teacher for 19 years and using the com-
puter in class for two years, with the implementation of
PROUCA and the beginning of training. TB has also a degree
in pedagogy with specialization in special education. She has
been acting as a computer teacher for 3 years and in the early
classes of elementary school for 16 years. Before the training
for the laptop use, TA had not participated in another training,
she only organized meetings in the city network of schools
where the monitor guided the exploration of laptop’s resources.
According to her, these meetings contributed with suggestions
of activities for the laptop with students, like games and typing.
TB only participated in a basic course of computing (Windows
applications) and after a few years began a course focused on
the pedagogical use of technology (Project Development/Pro-
info), but has not completed the course.
They report that before the training they had difficulty han-
dling the laptop by not knowing the tools, the classes being
restricted to activities with instructional characteristics, such as
typing ready texts, research based in copying information from
the internet and games who favored repetition and trial and
error. The use based in instructional activities may be associ-
ated with the little technological fluency of teachers and the
participation only in courses and workshops, which did not
involve technical and pedagogical aspects of computer use, an
important characteristic of teacher training (Belloni, 1998), as
the ones focused on the pedagogical use of educational tech-
When asked about the contribution of training to their peda-
gogical practice, improvements of the pedagogical aspects of
Summary of interviews with teachers TA and TB on training.
Items investigated Teacher A (TA) Teacher B (TB)
There was no
Attended a b asic
course in computer
science (te chnical
Instructions for use
before tr ai ning; -Use in gaming
and typing of words. -Using the internet
Difficulties in u sing
handling the laptop
and comput er.
handling the tools
of the laptop.
-Improved pla nn in g
and use of resources.
-Improved pla nn in g ,
-Knowledge of the
possibilities of using
the laptop and
the time of development
of the classes.
Laptop use after
Once a week for:
-Typing wo rds;
-Math games and
-Research on the
Use frequently in:
texts and problems,
-Notes from class
-Research on the
Difficulties for laptop
use after training.
-Difficulty in use in
math classe s f o cused
on the production of
-Lack of mastery of
Change in tea ching
practice after training.
Yes. Greater resources
area of the laptop and
went to work better
the noteboo k and book
are perform ed on the
laptop, such as research
and production of texts.
training for pla nni n g.
discussed in the
training were used in
planning items and loca-
tions to seek
pedagogic al use
of the laptop.
Aspects of training
to the acquisition
Informati on content o f
of the laptop.
carry out the
Help and encouragement
of responsible PROUCA
the municip ality.
Guidelines i n setting
the course and the tutor.
Interaction wit h
colleague s. Help and
the municip ality.
planning were pointed as well as the knowledge about the po-
tential of the laptop and its applications. TB also mentione d that
the training also contributed with knowledge that assists in
solving some of the technical problems during class. TA re-
ported that she struggles to work math content for not knowing
applications for this purpose; TB mentioned the lack of master-
ing some applications, such as KSpread and KLogo. These
difficulties show that there was no satisfactory appropriation of
knowledge of the Module I (technological appropriation) train-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 69
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
ing, associated with technical aspects of using the resources of
the laptop, widely discussed in this Module.
In the teacher’s speech and in the analysis of planning (Table
1) there is evidence that the pedagogical knowledge related to
planning was constructed from the proposed activities. How-
ever, only the pedagogical domain or only the technical
knowledge is not sufficient for the effective deployment and
integration of technology in school (Valente, 2005). It is neces-
sary that such knowledge are together fulfilling the demands of
each other so that all dimensions about the use of these re-
sources are sufficient for the teacher to understand their poten-
tial, as well as to incorporate them into their practice (Almeida,
Teachers said that there was a change in pedagogical practice
due to the acquisition of knowledge about the features of the
laptop to work the curricular content. TA stated that she uses
the laptop once a week, as agreed with the school board, in
productions of texts, typing, gaming and internet. TB said she
uses the laptop whenever it is needed, which comprises several
times a week: for the production of texts, in problems, taking
note of information, Internet searches and math games. Al-
though this information shows that the there was acquisition of
knowledge about the use of the laptop, they were not sufficient
to provoke a change of effective educational practice which
results in the integration of resources to curricular activities in
innovative ways. This is more evident in TA’s testimony whose
use is restricted to the scheduling once a week, with practices
similar to those performed before the training, except for the
production of texts.
They also mentioned that the knowledge built during training
contributed to the planning of using the laptop from the sugges-
tions and approaches discussed in the Modules, which is con-
firmed by performing activities such as problem solving and
production of texts by TB. Although not mentioned by the
teachers, examples of conducting collaborative and innovative
activities, after training, at different times of the interview they
mentioned that “no copy is made, but production by students”,
which supports the idea that there is recognition that students
learn by doing something that is meaningful with the computer.
However, these ideas are not easily incorporated into practice
and reinforce Almeida and Prado (2011) critics that only the
training focused on the use of technology, which deals with the
constructionist principles, does not guarantee that there will be
change in the practice of teaching in line with such principles. It
is necessary that the teacher understands these ideas based on
theories that help to overcome the “intuitive level of action”
(Almeida, 2007: p. 160) and help to produce knowledge that
allows to feed pedagogical practices based on active student
participation in the learning process.
About the aspects that contributed to the acquisition of
knowledge for the educational use of laptop during training, TA
quoted the information available in the Modules, the tutor’s
suggestions for pedagogical use of the laptop, her determination
to carry out the proposed activities, the help and encouragement
of PROUCA County responsible. Besides the assistance of the
local responsible, TB mentioned the guidelines contained in the
course environment, interaction with colleagues in school and
guidance and monitoring of the tutor. These data show that the
content and guidelines were important for the training and
knowledge built and the approach of the three dimensions de-
scribed by Belloni (2001) focused on contextualized training
(Almeida & Prado, 2011), facilitated the understanding and
learning of teachers and provided an opportunity to carry out
practical activities from the discussed theory.
Another aspect mentioned by the teachers and that deserves
to be highlighted is the role of the tutor who, in the view of
participants, not only exercised the role of information provider,
but also of guide and partner of new discoveries and learning,
profile that, according to Prado and Almeida (2003), can sti-
mulate a different position of the teacher towards their stu-
dents. It is also important to highlight the collaboration of the
PROUCA County responsible who worked together with the
school, playing the role of a classroom collaborator, which
helped to minimize the resistance, the initial fear and difficul-
ties regarding the use of resources of the laptop and the meth-
odology of distance learning.
The data obtained from analysis of the plans and the inter-
views were compared in order to ascertain the assistance of
training for the use of the educational laptop and change in
teaching practice. The analysis suggests that there is an im-
provement of the planning done by TA and TB during training,
especially in the consistency between objectives and assess-
ment, and in proposing a methodology aimed at the construc-
tion of knowledge by the student. These improvements are
related to the content working on the Modules and feedbacks
made by the tutor focusing on technical and pedagogical train-
Regarding innovative proposals, even if the activities of lap-
top use have been different from the activities proposed for
using the computer technology room, they are not characterized
as innovative as the laptop is still used for performing tradi-
The tutor’s feedback to teachers is characterized by mentor-
ing, interaction and encouraging reflection on practice in ac-
cordance with the proposed activity planning, providing a cli-
mate of trust and mutual respect, and also mentioned in the
interviews, which stimulate teachers to reflect on the reworking
Although the analysis points that there was an improvement
of planning, from the acquisition of knowledge related to the
use of the laptop, class evaluation and an interview with TA
suggest that the training did not provide a reflection on her
practice, as there was no effective appropriation of knowledge
for the use of laptop tools discussed in the Modules. As for TB,
the interview revealed that the training helped her to reflect on
the changes in planning effective action on a proposal for
The contribution of the training to the observed changes re-
sulted in two different profiles of teachers and was associated
with the course proposal added to the suggestions and guidance
from the tutor and the presence of the PROUCA responsible for
the school, which served as a local collaborative institution for
the study and implementation of the proposed activities. The
analysis of the interviews showed that, after the training, the
teachers continued using the laptop, but there is still a strong
instructional character in the proposed activities that reproduce
practices performed before deploying PROUCA, only with
changes in the use of the resource, suggesting that the peda-
gogical knowledge acquired has not been fully incorporated
into their teaching practices.
The results of this research highlight the need for continued
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
S. T. GOBARA, D. C. CAMILOTTI
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 71
training for laptop use with situations that prioritize discussions
of teachers’ pedagogical conceptions and emphasize the analy-
sis of the use of different applications of the laptop in order to
complement the training undertaken, because only such training
seems to have been insufficient to raise awareness about the
processes of teaching and learning and an innovative approach
that will contribute to the change in the teachers’ pedagogic
practice to use the laptop effectively contributing to improving
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