Surgical Science, 2013, 4, 448-452 Published Online October 2013 (
Alternate Technique for Doing Laparoscopic
Cholecystectomy in Situs Inversus*
Vikrant Singh1, Zahur Hussain1, Shadilal Kachroo1, Vanita Gupta2#, Harbinder Singh1,
Mukesh Kumar1, Barinder Kumar1
1Government Medical College, Jammu, India
2Acharya Shree Chander College of Medical Sciences, Jammu, India
Received May 3, 2013; revised June 2, 2013; accepted June 10, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Vikrant Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A 45-year-old female with known situs inversus totalis presented with left-sided abdominal discomfort. Chest X-ray,
abdominal ultrasonog raphy and CT scan con firmed the diag nosis of a gallstone, as well as, situ s inversus ; Laparoscopic
cholecystectomy was safely performed with mirror image of standard 4 ports. Callots triangle dissection was done with
epigastric working port by surgeon, but gallbladder fossa dissection was done by surgical assistant from midclavicular
port as main working port. Laparoscopic surgeon should be careful for view of reversed relationships and also for exis-
tence of other anomalies.
Keywords: Situs Inversus Totalis; Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy; Anomalies
1. Introduction
Situs inversus is a morphological anomaly of position ing
of internal viscera wherein there is a reversal of the usual
“handedness” of visceral topography. The reversal may
be thoracic, abdominal or both. It is estimated to occur in
1 in 5000 - 20,000 births [1,2]. In the published literature,
there have been only about 40 reports of open cholecys-
tectomy in the pre-laparoscopic era and 20 reports of
laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with situs in-
versus [2-4]. Although there are many reports of patients
with situs inversus and cholelithiasis, there is no evi-
dence that the incidence of cholelithiasis is greater in
these patients [5]. It has been reported that about a third
of patients with situs inversus and symptomatic gall
stones may, however, present with epigastric pain and
about 10% of patients may present with right-sided pain
2. Case Report
Our patient was a 45-year-old female patient, who had four
children. Patient presented with pain left side of abdomen
and was been treated with antib iotics and paink illers with
no relief, after which ultrasound was done which re-
vealed left sided gallbladder with stones in it. Patient h ad
no co-morbidities or anomalies.
Chest X-ray showed dextrocardia consistent with situs
inversus but there was no evidence of Bronchiectasis
(Figure 1).
CECT showed situs inversus with Cholelithiasis (Fig-
ure 2).
*The work was conducted in Department of Surgery, Government
Medical College Jammu, J & K.
#Corresponding author. Figure 1. Chest X-ray showing dextrocardia consistent with
situs inversus.
opyright © 2013 SciRes. SS
Echo revealed dextrocardia with grade 1 diastolic dys-
MRCP revealed situs inversus with Cholelithiasis
(Figure 3).
The surgical procedure was modified according to our
comfort. The surgeon and the camera man were posi-
tioned on the right side of the patient. An assistant and
the scrub nurse were positioned on the left side (Figure
4). The video monitor was placed on the head end of
patient. Standard 4-port mirror image technique was used
—an umbilical (10 mm), epigastric (10 mm) and two
subcostal (5 mm) ports. Pneumoperitoneum was estab-
lished by open technique. 10 mm camera port was in-
serted. A head-end-up and left-side-up positioning of the
patient was adopted to optimize views of the gall bladder
and the Callot’s triangle. The epigastric port (10 mm)
was placed just to the left of the falciform ligament. This
port was one of the two main operating ports and the
instruments used were controlled by the right hand of the
surgeon. It was used for dissection of callots triangle.
The medial subcostal port was used for retraction of the
Hartmann’s pouch of the gall bladder initially and later
for gallbladder bed dissection. The lateral subcostal port
was used for fundal traction .
Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a total situs inversus
with left-sided liver and gall bladder, greater curvature
and cecum. The organs on right side included spleen and
the greater curve of the stomach (Figure 5).
Surgery was started with fundal retraction through lat-
eral subcostal port, Hartmann’s pouch retraction was
done with medial subcostal port, and Callot’s triangle
dissection was done with epigastric port. Cystic artery
an d cystic d uct were id entified after d issect io n and clipp ed
separately. After clipping cystic duct and cystic artery
epigastric port was used as retraction port and medial
subcostal port was used as dissecting port. This switching
Figure 2. CECT showed situs inversus with cholelithiasis.
Figure 3. MRCP revealed situs invers us with cholelithiasis.
Figure 4. Port placements in situs inversus patient for
laparoscopi c cholecystectomy.
of dissecting port facilitated easy and smooth dissection
of gallbladder from the gallbladder fossa. The gall blad-
der bed dissection was done by the surgeon who was
assisting the case and standing on left side of patient. Our
total operative time was 90 minutes.
3. Discussion
The cause of the situs inversus is unknown, but it is
claimed to be due to a genetic predisposition, with an
autosomal recessive transmission [2,4]. Drover et al.
reported the first case to have laparoscopic cholecystec-
tomy with this type of anomaly. Literature reveals very
few reports of anomalies of biliary system especially in
situs inversus totalis like that of Kamitani et al. who re-
ported aberrant cystic artery running inferior to cystic
duct [7]. Fabricus in 1600 reported first human case of
situs inversus. Situs inversus may be total including ab-
dominal and thoracic viscera (situs inversus totalis), or,
more rarely, partial (situs inversus partialis). The trans-
position of the organs may be associated with other con-
genital anomalies, such as ren al dysplasia, biliary atresia,
congenital heart disease, or pancreatic fibrosis. Situs in-
versus totalis associated with bronch itis, chronic sinusitis,
and deficient tracheobronchial cilia is known as the
Kartagener’s syndrome [8,9]. Table 1 has been made
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SS
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SS
Table 1. The literature on cholecystectomy in patients of situs inversus.
S. No Author Journal Year Ref. No
1 Campos L et al. J Laparoendosc Surg 1991(1):123-125 1991 1
2 Lipschutz JH et al. Am J Gastroenterol 1992 87:218-220 1992 1
3 Takei HT et al. J Laparoendosc Surg 19 9 2:2:171-176 1992 1
4 Drover JW et al. Can J Surg 1992:35:65-66 1992 1
5 Huang SM et al. Endoscopy 1992: 24:802 1992 1
6 Goh P et al. Endoscopy 1992:24:799-800 1992 1
7 Schiffino L et al. Minerva Chir 1993:48:1 019-1023 1993 1
8 Mc Dermott JP et al. Surg Endosc 1994:8:1227 1994 1
9 Idu M et al. Br J Surg 1996 83:1442 1996 1
10 Grosher RF et al. Jr Coll Surg Edinb 199 6 : 41:183 1996 1
11 D Agata A et al. Minerva Chir 1997 : 52 : 2 71-275 1997 1
12 Habib Z et al. Ann Saudi Med 1998:247-248 1998 1
13 Demetriades H et al. Dig Surg 1999: 16 (6):519-521 1999 1
14 Djohan RS et al. JSLS 2000:4:251-254 2000 1
15 Yaghan RJ et al. J Laparoendosc Adv Su rg Tech A 2001:11(4):2 33-237 2001 1
16 Nursal TZ et al. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2001:11 2001 1
17 Al-Jumaily M et al. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2001:11 2001 1
18 Wong J et al. Surg Endosc 2001:15:254 2001 1
19 Polychronides A et al. Sur g Endosc 2002:16(7):1110 2002 1
20 Singh K et al. Surg Techno Lint 2002:10:107-108 2002 1
21 Oms LM et al. Surg Endosc 2003:17:1859-1861 2003 1
22 Kang B et al. J Laparoendosc Adv Su rg Tech A 2004:14(2):1 03-106 2004 1
23 Docimog et al. Hepatogastroentrology 2004:958-960 2004 1
24 Antal A et al. Magy Seb 2004:81-83 2004 1
25 Pitiakoudis M et al. Acta Chir Belg 2005:11 105 (1):11 14-117 2005 1
26 Mc Kay D et al. Bmc Surg 2005:5 -5 2005 1
27 Kamitani S et al. World J Gastroenterol 2005:11 (33):5232:5234 2005 1
28 Puglisi F et al. Chir Ital 2006:58(2):179-183 2006 1
29 Bedioui H et al. Ann Chir 2006:131(6-7):398-400 2006 1
30 Machado No et al. Jsls 2006: 10(3):386-391 2006 1
31 Aydin U et al. World J Gastroenterol 2006:21:12(47): 77 17 -7719 2006 1
32 Kirsteinb et al. Surg Lap Endosc Perc Techn 2006:169-171 2006 1
33 Kumar S et al. Ann R C S Engl 2007:89(2):W 16-18 2007 1
34 Pavlides TH et al. Diagn Ther Endosc 2008:46:52-72 2008 1
35 Hamdi J et al. Saudi J Gastroenterology 2008:14(1):31-32 2008 1
36 Garcia-Nunez L et al. Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2008:73(3):14 9 -152 2008 1
37 Pereira-Graterol F et al. Cir Cir 2009:77(2):145-148 2009 1
38 Romano GG et al. G Cir 2009:30(8-9):369-373 2009 1
39 Taskin M et al. Obes Surg 2009:19(12):1724-1726 2009 1
40 Masood R et al. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009:Jan-Mar; 21(1):1 6 2 -3 2009 2
41 Ghosh et al. Internet Journal of Surgery; 2009:Vol. 19 Issue 2, p21 2009 3
42 Simmons et al. American Surgeo n; 20 09:75(4), 353 2009 4
43 Pataki I, et al. Magy Seb. 2010:63(1):23-5 2010 6
44 González Valverde FM et al. [10] Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2010:40(3):264-7 2010 7
45 Sandu C, Toma M et al. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2010: Sep-Oct; 105(5):705-7 2010 8
46 Patle, Nirmal et al. Indian Journal of S urgery; 2010:72(5), 391 2010 9
47 Mehmet Uludag et al. JSLS. 2011:15(2):239-243 2011 10
48 Han HJ et al. [11] Surg Today. 2011:41(6):877-80. Epub 2011 May 28 2011 11
49 Weber-Sánchez A et al. [12] Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2011:76(3):255-9 2011 12
50 Mustafa Ozsoy et al. [13] BMJ; Case Reports 2011; doi:10.1136/Bcr.08.2011. 4581 2011 13
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Figure 5. Laparoscopic picture of gall bladder in patient of
situs inversus.
after thorough search from internet which revealed 53
published cases of cholecystectomy in situs inversus.
4. Conclusions
Asymptomatic or undiagnosed situs inversus with symp-
tomatic gall stone provides a diagnostic dilemma for cli-
nician as the symptoms are predominantly on the left
The principles of surgery are the same except for slight
modification of port placement.
Switching the dissecting port from epigastric to medial
subcostal port facilitates easy gallbladder fossa dissec-
5. Acknowledgements
This study has not been funded by any financial organi-
sation or institution.
We have not received any financial grants either. We
don’t have any industrial links or affiliations.
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