Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 409-413
doi:10.4236/epe.2013.54B079 Published Online July 2013 (
Research on Complementary of New Energy for
Dan Li, Haiming Zhou, Fumin Qu
China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing, China
Received April, 2013
Limited conventional energy and environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, so it has been more na-
tional attention to environmental protection and renewable new energy. The world's growing demand for energy, and
the limited reserves of conventional non-renewable resources, mankind is facing a serious energy crisis. Coupled with
the use of fossil fuels has brought serious environmental pollution problems, so the transition energy development way
imminent, the need to be constantly developed and developing green renewable energy generation technologies.
Keywords: Energy; Environmental Pollution; Green Renewable Energy
1. Introduction
The world foot of the main power of the growing de-
mand for energy, consume large amounts of coal and oil
thermal power, while the contribution for the develop-
ment of the national economy and the improvement of
people's living standards, a lot of power, a lot of dust and
smoke emissions, sulfur dioxide and other atmospheric
pollutants, causing huge damage to our ecological envi-
ronment. On the other hand, coal and oil reserves are
limited, and the tighter supply. The limited reserves of
conventional non-renewable resources, mankind is facing
a serious energy crisis. From the protection of the eco-
logical environment and energy consumption, we need to
find new energy sources to replace conventional energy.
Imminent transformation of energy development, need to
be constantly developed. China has a wealth of new en-
ergy and renewable energy resources, mainly solar, wind,
2. Research Status at Home and Abroad
Solar new energy as a clean and pollution-free one, and
has broad prospects for development in China's solar
power photovoltaic-based. By the end of 2010, China's
cumulative PV capacity of 860,000 kilowatts, including
newly added 580,000 kilowatts, solar power projects
currently under construction total size of up to 1 million
kilowatts, the cumulative solar power capacity will reach
10 million kilowatts by 2015. However, the polycrystal-
line silicon solar cell is only in a small number of trial
production stage. China’s PV production and research
and development, there is a great gap compared with
foreign countries, solar power is still in the small and
medium-scale use of stage. Solar applications in Japan, a
shortage of resources, Japan has been actively develop-
ing solar, wind, nuclear energy and other new energy
sources, the use of biomass power generation, waste
power generation, geothermal power and the production
of fuel cells as a new energy, especially high hopes for
the development and utilization of solar energy. Since
2000, solar photovoltaic, solar cell production for many
years ranked first in the world, accounting for about half
of the world's total output of. Wind energy is currently
more mature a technology developed rapidly, the market
value has been accepted by the people of clean energy.
Wind energy has become an important part of the new
energy plan for the U.S. government.
American Wind Energy Association, said New 8.35
GW wind power capacity in 2008, total production ca-
pacity has reached 25.1GW, accounting for 1/5 of global
wind power, become the first in the world wind power.
Wind energy resources have characteristics of random-
ness [1], intermittent, unp redictable n ature an d can not be
stored, etc., tend to access the power system will bring
greater harm [2-4] (such as the instability of the system is
running, etc.), resulting in more wind power in the actual
operation is limited to the Internet, has not been to max-
imize the use of wind power resources and social benefits
[5-7]. The solution to this problem lies in how to control
the power characteristics of wind power in the power
system access, effective way of performance in wind
power storage or complementary with energy joint op-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
eration and grid. The feng shui complementary power
generation system is the organic combination of wind
power generation system with the hydroelectric system
with scheduling [8], when random fluctuations in the
output of the wind farm to the grid, hydropower can
quickly adjust the output of the generator output to com-
pensate for the wind farm [9]. In recent years, the exist-
ing literature has studied wind water complementary
joint optimization run, the use of pumping energy storage
power plants, wind power and run complementary exam-
ple optimized computing literature [10-12], especially
more, but the pumping energy storage power station-
building restrictions of natural conditions and requires a
lot of investment. General regulation of hydropower and
wind power complementary the literature relatively small
and subject to geographical restrictions, [13] proposed
using wind power / utilities complementary solve the
reliability of power supply prob lems in the cold northern
areas, and increase the economic efficien cy of the system.
[14] Proposed to solve the problem of power peaking and
winter stable supply build wind, water and solar systems
in Xinjiang. [15] With a specific example reveals the
complementary characteristics of hydropower hydro-
power hydropower its power to support its capacity to
support wind power and wind power wind power. If
wind power configuration corresponding energy storage
device (battery), with water and electricity the comple-
mentary to run (referred to as the wind build a hydro-
power complementary), the effective control of the
power characteristics of the complementary syste m more
secure and stable access to the grid, to improve the de-
livery of wind powercapacity, will make green energ y to
create more value.
Cold regions in northern China at the same time there
is rich in hydropower resources and wind energy re-
sources, from a seasonal point of view, winter and spring
the water level of the reservoir is low, insufficient o utput
of hydropower, when the wind speed of the wind farm,
able to assume moreload. Wind speed in summer and
autumn, the lower output of the wind farm, at this time it
is the abundant rainfall, hydropower can bear the load, so
precisely wind power hydropower season on comple-
mentary. In addition, small hydropower short-term vola-
tility, the runoff in a day and night is basically uniform,
while the short-term volatility of wind power is great, so
that can reflect the complementary nature of wind power
and hydropower [15]. In order to make effective use of
wind energy, an energy storage device needs to be con-
figured to reduce the supply of the electricity grid in the
hydropower complementary supply of wind power, in-
crease the effectiveness of the complementary system.
Storage of wind energy [16], and the battery has a high
efficiency, simple, reliable, high discharge power, quick
charging, long cycle life, light weight, etc., to complete
the storage of excess wind power to supply the load. Se-
lect the battery to store excess wind energy on the feng
shui complementary system and provide power to the
load when necessary.
Hydro power generation will be the impact of the
flood season and non-flood season. Flood season and
non-flood hydropower optimization run around the na-
ture of hydropower peaking hydropower generating ca-
pacity of wind power consumptive ability to maximize
the optimization model to carry out comprehensive con-
sideration. Therefore, the standard water and electricity
to run the merits of large-scale wind power access grid
case consists of two parts:
Formula: E is Target power, EH is Hydropower gener-
ating capacity, EW is Hydropower peaking power to the
assimilative capacity of wind power.
Judging from the different periods of reservoir inflow
characteristics, hydropower annual run can be divided
into the flood season and non-flood season run.
3. Research on the Non-flood Season Run
Non-flood season have when hydropower plays a role in
peak shaving, and wind power for the grid consumptive
conditions. Run water and electricity in the grid load
chart position, the peak load hydropower assumed more
and more flat reserved for other power assumed power
grid load on the grid clean energy consumptive condi-
tions more favorable, but non-flood season by available
water and hydropower installed capacity constraints, lim-
ited water and electricity in the grid during peak hours
assumed power, hydropower peaking to eliminate the
ability of wind power and hydropower generating capac-
ity, hydropower installed capacity, power generation
head, reservoir utilization requirements, as well as the
power grid operation requirements related. Each charge
relationship is calculated as follows:
tKQE tttH
tPEE tbtHtCH 
tPPE tbtPL 
)( ,max,
Formula: EH,t is Generating capacity of hydropower t
periods, K for hydropower output coefficient, Qt is for t
periods generation flow, ht is the period t Hydropower
average power head, t
is The number of hours of the
time period t, ECH,t is period t hydropower generating
capacity net of minimum power after electricity, Pb,t is
the t periods hydropower lowest output, EPL,t is The hy-
dropower t time adjustable power, Pmax,t is the period t
hydropower expected to contribute, Size and average
hydropower power head units available capacity and
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
D. LI ET AL. 411
maximum contact line.
3.1. Non-the Flood Season Hydroelectric Peaking
Elimination of Wind Power Capacity
According to the size of ECH,t, Calculate the hydropower t
periods peaking consumptive wind power capacity
charge EW,t Can be divided into two kinds:
tW E
Visible, more non-flood hydropower generating ca-
pacity of peaking to consumptive, more wind power
more favorable. Inevitably must bear trough power gen-
eration capacity over peak demand for electricity adjust-
able grid load when the hydropower t periods. The hy-
dropower generating capacity is more and more unfa-
vorable to the contrary, the powe r p eaking. Thi s was :
),min( ,,,, tCHtPLtCHtW EEEE 
3.2. The Hutchison and Massive New Energy
Access Non-flood Hydropower Optimal
Operation Mode
As is shown in Figure 1, when the generating capacity to
reach EH,t, Hydropower peaking reaches a maximum
contribution of electricity by wind power consumptive.
Theoretically, when EH,t / E'H,t, and EH,t = EW,t grid clean
energy dissipation Granada to the best point. However,
due to the water for reservoir operation with a lag, the
best point of dynamic optimal point, need to be placed
throughout the scheduling period to the consolidated
Therefore, the non-flood season (in TL) annual run
model for hydropower:
TLt tCHtPLtCHtHLEEEET )),min((max ,,,,
3.3. The Flood Season of Hydropower Optimal
Since the flood season more runoff, and subject to the
constraints of limited water level of reservoir flood sea-
son easily lead to disposable water, hydro mandatory
participation peaking requirements to reflect the power
grid, reservoir the annual operation mode making the
introduction of daily load rate power peaking hydro-
power to participate describe, Hydropower t periods
daily load expressed as:
where: t is the average output of the hydropower
periods. The visible daily load rates reflect the size of the
contribution of hydropower flood season to participate
peaking. To increase in terms of hydropower, flood sea-
son peaking, divided into the following two situations:
P t
1) To allow a regulating storage reservoir ahead of
pre-vent some water, will inevitably lead to reduced hy-
dropower generation capacity.
2) Reservoir the abandoned water peaking, and the in-
evitable loss of some water resulting in reduced hydro-
power generation capacity, the measures equivalent con-
sumptive wind power to give up part of the hydropower
generating capacity.
The flood season of hydropower generating capacity
should be:
),)(min( max,, tPtQPE ttttH
where: P(Qt), Qt corresponds to the hydropower genera-
tion water flow output.
Flood season hydroelectric peaking assimilative ca-
pacity of wind power electricity:
tCHtbttttW EtPhPE ,,max,, ))(( 
Therefore, the flood season (in TH) build the target
function is as follows:
TLttWtHH EET )(max ,,
4. Hydropower Peaking Contribution to the
Power of the New Energy Consumptive
Best Balance Analysis
Overall, the flood season to consider seeking the best
balance of hydropower generation and hydropower
peaking assimilative capacity of wind power electricity
daily load rate constraints premise. Under normal cir-
cumstances, is to deal with the impact of wind power
randomness of the grid, the grid is usually configured
according to the same capacity with wind power conven-
tional energy. Similarly, through th e model theory analy-
sis shows that, net power, hydropower generating capac-
ity and adjustable power equal contribution of wind
power consumer is satisfied most favorable. As is shown
in Figure 1, EH,t = EW,t, the grid is the best balance of
clean energy dissipation Granad a. But this time is not the
best clean energy generating capacity to achieve hydro-
power the largest contribution to the entire power grid
clean energy consumptive target.
The objective function must also meet the following
constraint conditions,
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
1) The water balance constraints:
touttintt QQWW ,,1 (
Figure 1. Non-flood hydropower generating capacity n
here: Wt and Wt+1, respectively, for the the t pe
peaking power capacity of wind power to dissolve the rela-
early and late-period reservoir storage, Qin,t and Qout,t,
respectively, for the period t average inbound and out-
bound flow, t
Q period t, the average loss (evaporation,
leakage, etc.), Qg,t, Qe,t, Qs,t respectively the time t
average gate sluicing flow, generating traffic, compre-
hensive flow.
2) Water ava
ilability constraints
where: is the storage capacity of the reservoir op-
itin WWtQ
eration od; W scheduler period water availability,
specific to a given year fixed runoff is a constant
3) The water level on the lower limit constraints
ttt max,1min, ZZZ
wherein: Zmin, t, Z+1, Zmax,t respectively, nd
of the flow limit co
where: Qmin,t and Qmax,t, respectively, for the period
period t, the minimum water level, period level, the
highest water level of the period.
4) Comprehensive utilization
for the eof the
ttoutt QQQ max,,min,
minimum library traffic and outbound flow.
5. Conclusions
China’s future sustainable energy development needs to
be strong and smart grid support. Mostly with the condi-
tions for the development of large-scale hydro, wind,
solar and other clean energy and new energy, But far
from load centers, the need for large-scale, long-distance
transmission, the implementation of a wide range of en-
ergy optimal allocation of resources. So build ing a strong
grid structure is the focus of China's smart grid develop-
ment. In long-term point of view, the development of
smart grid not only enhances the level of energy security,
but also guides and changes the user's energy consump-
tion habits, improve the efficiency of energy utilization.
Rely on a strong and smart grid intelligent allocation of
resources to become a key factor to enhance the sustain-
able development of China’s energy.
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