Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 167-170
doi:10.4236/epe.2013.54B032 Published Online July 2013 (
Distributed Generation Application in the Rural Areas
of West China
Yanfei Su, Chenxu Zhao, Long Xu, Xiaoyu Liu
The Bayannur power Bureau of Inner Mongolia Electric Power Group Co. Ltd., Hohhot, China
Received February, 2013
In this paper, at first the appearance background electricity grid in the rural areas of west China, and its meaning as well
as the concept and structure of DG technologies are resented, and a DG technologies mode of development in the rural
areas of west China is given. The development ideas and the future development direction of DG in are compared and
summarized. At last, the significance of DG in future development of the rural areas of west China is prospected and
some problems to be especially considered in the domestic research on DG technologies are put forward.
Keywords: Distributed Generation Technologies; Rural; West China; Application
1. Introduction
The rural power grid is an important part of the China
State Grid, county and rural electricity consumption has
accounted for 52% of the social consumption. Recent
years, Western rural areas the rapid speed of develop-
ment of electric power, the institutional structure of rural
economy relative has undergone a major change, the
electrical energy has become the development of the
main driving force. State investment in rural grid began
in 1998, Rural power grids implementation of the proj ect
lasted 14 years. Through the transformation of rural
power grids, electricity has been greatly improved, but
the city contrast, on safety, reliability remains a certain
gap.[1] China’s western rural has quality of solar
resources, wind resources and biomass resources; the city
is not these resources. So accelerate the construction to
be strong based on the intelligent features of the new
rural network. It is the goals and challenges faced by the
agricultural and electrical work for the New Period, is
also an inevitable requirement for the development of the
rural power grid coordination at all levels.[2]
2. The Feasibility of China’s Western Rural
Distributed Generation Application
The large amount of solar energy resources in western
China, western rural and remote areas without electricity
accounted for 30% of the total, has a good solar
conditions. Solar radiation total 6680-8400 mj/m2,
equivalent to the amount of radiation 5.1-6.4 kw/m2
hours of annual sunshine time is 3200-3300h, the same
amount of heat required standard coal-fired 225-285 kg.
And have a good wind resources, the western perennial
prevailing northwest wind at higher elevations, an
average of about 1000 meters, the terrain is relatively flat
with no obstacles, the temperature difference between
day and night, making the air flow more strongly.
Effective wind power density of 200 to 300 watts /
square meter, wind speed greater than or equal to 3 m / s.
The numbers of hours for more than 5000 hours
throughout the year, throughout the year wind speed is
greater than or equal to 6 m / s the number of hours to
3000 hours or more.[3]
Through the comprehensive utilization of wind, solar
and biomass, composition of the new energy structure -
micro-grid. Distributed Generation technology has long
been in a foreign country, such as photovoltaic roof
construction is common in Germany, the Netherlands
and Japan and other countries. Directly powered by the
Distributed Generation rural supplement to help th e rural
Eco-energy and comprehensive utilization of the space
environment, is the inevitable choice for China's real
sustainable social development and environmental
At present there are still large numbers of people
without electricity in the remote areas of western China
rural and pastoral ar eas. As the power lines power sup ply
radius is too long, bad weather and external damage, and
other reasons often cause power interruption, and
recovery time compared to cities of the electricity very
much worse, objectives for economic, safe and reliable
electricity is quite a distance. In China, the use of
Distributed Generation technology is still in its infancy,
the National Development and Reform Commission
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
response to increase investment and promote the use of
the western Distributed Generation of China.
Distributed Generation technology in rural western
China, the local distribution network in rural areas should
be combined with the common run, two power grid to
grid operation, but also the island run, these two models
combined with the operating mode conducive to saving
investment and reduce energy consumption and improve
power system reliability and flexibility, is the world's
many countries in energy, electricity experts recognized
the future direction of development of electrical energy.
Therefore, in the rural areas of micro-net technology is
not only conducive to promoting the development and
utilization of new energ y and renewable energy, and help
guide the electricity sector as well as policy-making
departments to better develop the technology in the long
run, China's western rural economic development also
has important practical significance.
3. The Definition of Distributed Generation
The Distributed Generation system is a more independent
and decentralized power network. Is any combination of
renewable energy power generation equipment to the use
of technology for the energy of the main power supply,
solar photovoltaic, wind power, small hydro, biomass
power generation, gas generation, battery group and so
on? Then add the measurement and control devices, as a
system, independent of the grid or the intermittent and
grid connection, the formation of the joint operation of a
utility grid and Distributed Generation power system.[5]
4. Characteristic of Distributed Generation
Flexible and free running mode, there are two modes of
operation, and the network mode and islanding mode.
And the network mode, the load can not only directly
from the Power Supply Bureau, powered access, can also
be obtained from the micro-grid, while the Distributed
Generation access to energy at the same time, the
transmission power to direct power supply. When the
power supply capacity is insufficient or fails, the direct
power supply and Distributed Generation are
disconnected, operate independently, that is the island
mode. Can it provide clean energy? Distributed
Generation applications not only reduces the impact of
distributed power supply for the safe operation of the
distribution system, and help to achieve distributed
power “plug and play”, a reduction of environmental
pollution, energy sustainable development, to provide
users with a “green power”, while the energy of the
micro-network optimization is one important measure of
management to maximize the use of renewable energy
and clean energy, is the realization of China's energy
saving target[6].
5. Distributed Generation Operation Mode
Distributed Generation operation mode is very flexible,
with the joint operation of the direct supply grid or an
independent can highlight its advantages. For example,
the construction of the micro-network of high-density load
areas (commercial, economic and technological develop-
ment zones, schools, factories, demonstration area, etc.),
the period of peak load and the distribution network in
parallel operation, the use of micro-network power
supply and distribution network as well as micro-network
load power can alleviate the pressure of the supply of the
distribution network, may also reduce the micro-power
purchase costs; when Distributed Generation internal
failure can be timely and direct supply grid is discon-
nected, without jeopardizing the safety of the grid; direct
supply grid failure, the Distributed Generation load
power supply from the grid independence of the region,
and provide backup power for grid recovery; addition,
according to grid electricity, the cost of micro-power
generation, micro-network load structure and demand the
preparation of operational plans can reduce Distributed
Generation overall operating costs, this is very favorable
to the economic operation of the combined power
6. Distributed Generation Development
Mode Western Rural of China
According to local conditions, the village as a unit
composed of different forms and different sizes of micro-
grid, their energy advantage, the use of the distributed
power of rational science to form a micro-grid. For
example, in sufficient wind energy resources in Inner
Mongolia, Xinjiang and other regions should be a lot of
development of small and medium-sized wind farm, the
service to avoid the far farmers; sufficient sunlight in
Qinghai, Tibet, Gansu, should play a decentralized
supply of solar photovoltaic advantage of the promotion
that allows the user to use photovoltaic power generation
system. Combined with the different regions, wind
energy, solar energy used in combination, to promote the
integration of wind, light, storage system operation.
Local conditions to the formation of various forms, the
scale of the micro-network, so as to solve the problems
of rural areas without electricity and the lack of
electricity supply of the population, the progressive
realization of the socialist new rural electrification.
According to the investigation and analysis on the
western rural electricity, I believe that should be adapted
to local conditions to promote the use of the following
two modes:
The first mode is the combination of “solar panels +
wind power + battery pack” model, space is limited
capacity, suitable for dispersion of single-family use, and
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Y. F. SU ET AL. 169
the investment cost is small.
Solar panels system: a single block of solar panels
power: 120 Wp, solar panels, photovoltaic power: 24 *
120 Wp = 2880 Wp. Taking in to account the so lar panels
work angle of inclination of 25 degrees, bevel day
average can be calculated daily generating capacity, four
hours per day the amount of sunlight calculations.
Experience the value of 0.806. Calculation of solar
panels generating capacity: 9.4 degree.
Wind power generation system: fan power rating of 1
KW, the average power of 0.6 KW; fans daily average
generating capacity of 4 degrees.
The battery pack system: a set of battery capacity
12/200 AH with 2, 4 strings, and the combination of a
total of: 400 AH.
Wind and solar system inverse transformer for 5 KW,
the battery pack 400 the AH, composed of single-user
mode, per day generating about 4 kwh, to meet the power
consumption of the rural and pastoral areas, residents of
remote areas. Of course, the output of solar and wind
every day fluctuate, so regardless of wind or solar energy
must have a means of storing excess energy in order to
store energ y on a sunny d a y and wait for a rainy day use.
The second model is a combination of “solar panels +
wind power + biogas generation” mode. Consisting
mainly of methane generating units, there is enough
capacity, suitable for the more concentrated the village,
one-time investment is large.
Solar panels groups and modes of generation of wind
power generation system with a single biogas generator
sets to run a village community long-running 100 kW
unit, for example, the continuous power of 80 kW is ap-
propriate, unit annual generation capacity of 80 kW / h ×
4000 h = 320000 kW The can provide a small and
medium-sized towns and villages in the production and
living electricity.
Wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass power generation
system to form a private network established in the
Direct power supply to have a professional connection
point with the rural power grid. Energy ratio can be 5:3:2
and biomass power generation in rural areas accounted
for 50% accounted for 30%, solar photovoltaic, wind
energy accounted for 20%. It’s major equipment for a
solar photovoltaic power generation systems and net-
inverter system, a lead-acid battery energy storage
system and bi-directional inverter, a methane gas power
generation system, a fan power generation system. The
application of this model will promote solar, wind biomass
unit modular development is a development trend of
green power.
7. The Advantages of the Micro-Net
Distributed Generation is safe, reliable, energy saving
and environmental protection, energy and power disper-
sion and concentration of flexible arrangement, the
power flow in both directions, that is, with Plug When
used in conjunction with the direct supply network has a
good peaking performance can greatly improve the
reliability of electricity supply. Supply network to crash
or malfunction, accidental damage, but also to provide
users with continuous power.
Distributed Generation for the grid in remote rural and
pastoral areas is an effective energy supplement. The
application of the Distributed Generation system will be
a single centralized power supply system, an effective
complement to, it can be more effective their energy use
and development, but also to avoid the direct supply of
economic losses due to failure blackout. Power Supply
Bureau, under the normal power supply can be used as
energy storage devices, uninterrupted power supply
conditions, the user can select the distributed energy to
provide safe and reliable electricity supply.
Distributed Generation in remote rural areas to solve
the problem of electricity, improvement of rural life can
be conditioned. Rural western China has abundant solar
energy, wind energy, resources, especially biomass
power generation, the western rural areas of the raw
biomass (crop straw, firewood), the large number of
widely distributed, the highest energy density in the
renewable energy , so it is important to distributed
energy base in China. In resource-rich western rural areas,
priority should be given to the development of the use of
biomass as the main power supply of the formation of
micro-network. There by improving the living conditions
in rural areas to improve the quality of life of the
peasants, and rural electrification.
8. Effect Analysis
Distributed Generation is the only independent operation
of the power supply system, its economy in some cases
with direct supply comparable. Distributed Generation
can also serve as a direct power supply reliable standby
power, no lines, equipment investment; to some extent
reduce line losses and unnecessary investment in power
grid. Do not take up a lot of land, can also provide more
energy saving and environmental protection. Distributed
Generation can provide additional supply capacity,
market selection and market ancillary services in remote
pastoral areas without electricity problems for farmers to
provide high-quality electricity, so that the farmers of the
lower electricity costs, but also to avoid competition in
the market power price rise, power generation companies,
but also play a role in reducing the burden on farmers
also produce good economic and social benefits of great
significance to promote the efficient use of clean energy
and rural electrification construction.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. EPE
9. Conclusions
In recent years, with the growing of China's western rural
electricity consumption and electricity load, power sys-
tem capacity serious lack of assurance industry, electric-
ity is the mainstream of development in rural areas often
“limited power” and “electricity shortage” tensions,
which has become an important factor restricting China's
rural economic development. Therefore, sustainable de-
velopment and reduce environmental pollution to con-
sider the Distributed Generation technology in rural areas
will become an inevitable choice for China's. Current
inputs are not enough; you also need the strong support
of the policy to give more subsidies and investment poli-
cies, such as the rural Distributed Generation construc-
tion, which will make the Distributed Generation tech-
nology as soon as possible into the life of the majority of
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