M. Z. BERNARD ET AL.

Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ENG

Figure 8. Power system response to variable wind speed: (a)

frequency deviation ∆f and (b) WT electrical power output.

single area power system in the presence of wind farm

based on the P I-M PC control technique. Digital simulations

have been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness

of the proposed scheme. The proposed controller has

been tested for several mismatched parameters and load

disturbance. Simulation results show that fast response,

robustness against parameter uncertainties and load

changes can be considered as some advantages of the

proposed PI-MPC controller. In addition, a performance

Comparison between the proposed controller and both

the MPC and a conventional PI control schemes are car-

ried out. It is shown that the PI-MPC controller response

is much more effective than that of the traditional PI only

and MPC only respon ses; and it is able to deal with both

uncertainties in parameters and load changes more effi-

ciently. Also, it is observed that both the MPC and the

proposed PI-MPC controllers are ro bust, but the PI-MPC

technique has the advantage over MPC with respect to

faster oscillation damping, reducing variations, frequency

enhancement and economics.

References

[1] P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control,”

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994, pp. 581-585.

[2] H. Bevrani, “Robust Power System Control,” Springer,

New York, 2009, pp. 15-61.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-84878-5

[3] K. Y. Lim, Y. Wang and R. Zhou, “Robust Decentralized

load-frequency control of multi-area powe r systems,” IEE

Proceedings of Generation, Transmission and Distribu-

tion, Vol. 143, No. 5, 1996, pp. 377-386.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:19960452

[4] H. Saadat, “Powe r System Analysis,” McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1999, pp. 526-528.

[5] BTM Consult APS, “International Wind Energy Devel-

opment World Market Update 2005, forecast 2006-2010,”

2006. Accessed 28 June.

http://www.btm.dk/Documents/Pressrelease.pdf.

[6] L. Holdsworth, J. B. Ekanayake and N. Jenkins, “Power

System Frequency Response from Fixed Speed and

Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbines,”

Wind Energy, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2004, pp. 21-35.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/we.105

[7] A. Mullane and M. O’Malley, “The inertial response of

induction-machine -based wind turbines,” IEEE Transac-

tions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2005, pp. 1496-

1503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2005.852081

[8] H. J. Lee, J. B. Park and Y. H. Joo, “Robust LFC for Un-

certain Nonlinear Power Systems: A Fuzzy Logic Ap-

proach,” Information Science, Vol. 176, 2006, pp. 3520-

3537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2006.01.003

[9] D. Rerkpreedapong, A. Hasanovic and A. Feliachi, “Ro-

bust Load Frequency Control Using Genetic Algorithms

and Linear Matrix Inequalities,” IEEE Transactions on

Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 855 -861, 2003.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2003.811005

[10] A. Demiroren, H. L. Zeyne l gi l and N. S. Semgor, “The

Application of ANN Technique to Load-Frequency Con-

trol for Three-Area Power System,” Paper accepted for

presentation at PPT 2001, 2001 IEEE Porto Power Tech

conference 10th-13th September, Porto, Portugal.

[11] F. Liu, Y. H. Song, J. Ma, S. Mai and Q. Lu, “Optimal

Load-Frequency Control in Restructured Power Systems,”

IEE Proceedings of Generati on, Transmission and Dis-

tribution, Vol. 150, No. 1, 2003, pp. 87-95.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:20020683

[12] Y. Wang, D. J. Hill and G. Guo, “Robust Decentralized

Control for Multimachine Power System,” IEEE Trans-

actions on Circuits and Sy stems: Fundamental Theory

and Applications, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1998.

[13] A. M. Stankovic, G. Tadmor and T. A. Sakharuk, “On

Robust Control Analysis and Design for Load Frequency

Regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.

13, No. 2, 1998, pp. 449-455.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/59.667367

[14] C. T. Pan and C. M. Liaw, “An Adaptive Controller for

Power System Load-Frequency Control,” IEEE Transac-

tions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1989, pp. 122-128.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/59.32469

[15] M. T. Alrifai and M. Zr ib, “Decentralized Controllers for

Power System Load Frequency Control,” ASCE Journal,

Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2005.

[16] H. Bevrani, Y. Mitani and K. Tsuji, “Robust AGC: Tradi-

tional structure versus restructured scheme,” Transactions

of Electrical Engineering in Japan, Vol. 124-B, No. 5,

May 2004.

[17] E. Cam and I. Kocaarslan, “Load Frequency Control in

Two Area Power Systems Using Fuzzy Logic Controller,”

Energy Conversion Management, Vol . 46, 2005, pp. 233-

243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2004.02.022

[18] A. P. Birch, A. T. Sapeluk and C. S. Ozveren, “An En-

510152025303540 45 50

-0.02

-0.015

-0.01

-0.005

0

0.005

0.01

0.015 Power System Frequency Dev iat ion

time (sec)

(a)

∆ f (Hz)

PI

MPC

PI-MPC

010 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

-0.003

-0.002

-0.001

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

time (sec)

(b)

∆Pe

WT

(p u)

Win d Tur bine El ect r ical Pow er

PI

MPC

PI-MPC