International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography, 2013, 1, 1-4 Published Online September 2013 (
Editorial: The Newly Launched International Journal
of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography
Ilia Brondz1,2
1Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
2R&D Department of Jupiter Ltd., Ski, Norway
Received July 1, 2013; revised August 4, 2013; accepted September 1, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Ilia Brondz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We are now launching the first issue of the first volume
of the International Journal of Analytical Mass Spec-
trometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC). This newly
launched journal is an open access journal, whose pri-
mary aim is to provide a platform for researchers and
practitioners, worldwide, to promote, share, and discuss
various new issues and developments in all areas of Mass
Spectrometry and Chromatography, as well as theoretical
developments in all areas related to this dynamic and
developing field of the sciences. We hope to become an
example to other open access journals in Scientific Re-
search Publishing, Inc., and to journals beyond the
boundaries of our parent corporation. We aim to set an
example as a progressive organization that helps authors
to share their interests, results, and opinions with other
researchers and with readers from the general public,
industry, and government authorities. We also intend to
cooperate with universities, research institutes, industry,
and government authorities to promote progressive ideas
and information, and to curb plagiarism, falsifications,
and disinformation, such as the cases disclosed in [1].
We will resurrect important institutions of journalistic
practice, such as a “Letters to the Editor” the section,
which has been done away with by many publishers,
such as those that follow the example of Elsevier; in the
attempts to conceal mistakes and the disability of editors.
The reason for the decision by one Elsevier journal to
abolish its “Letters to the Editor” section is described in
[1] on p. 184 as follows: “The chief editor of Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (JPBA) Mr.
Bezhan Chankvetadze when confronted with the Letters
to the Editor regarding cases of plagiarism and inap-
propriate performance in review and editorial work,
went so far as to abolish the Letter to the Editorsec-
tion in the journal, thus removing this forum…”.
The suggestion of direct corruption, in terms of “The
close relationship the publisher, Elsevier, has with phar-
maceutical companies”, is highlighted in the article “El-
sevier published 6 fake journals”, which is posted on-
line by Bob Grant:
/display/55679/#ixzz0mmsPoMlS. In the article, the wri-
ter states: “Scientific publishing giant Elsevier put out a
total of six publications between 2000 and 2005 that
were sponsored by unnamed pharmaceutical companies
and looked like peer reviewed medical journals, but did
not disclose sponsorship, the company has admitted...”.
Elsevier did not deny colluding with the pharmaceutical
industry. For more detail about cases of inappropriate
editorials and publications, see [1].
The above examples show that readers are not pro-
tected from disinformation by well-established publishers
or high impact factor journals.
We will do our best to present in our publications the
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. It is our
slogan. However, we will not prevent discussion or the
expression of new ideas, facts, and contradictions, as
only through discu ssion and ar gument can scien tific facts
be born and tested.
IJAMSC welcomes papers relevant to the development
and practice of sample preparation and specific derivati-
zation for mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography,
and the connection of mass spectrometers to other ana-
lytical instrumentation for providing high accuracy meas-
urements, such as in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spec-
trometry (GC-MS), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectro-
metry with Supersonic Molecular Beams (GC-MS with
SMB), High-Speed Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectro-
metry (HSGC-MS), Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-
Mass Spectrometry (SFC-MS), and Liquid Chromatog-
raphy-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). We also welcome
research using such instrumentation for molecular struc-
ture elucidation in organic and inorganic molecules. The
use of MS equipment as a universal detector in multi-
detection systems for enhanced recording and elucidation
of the detailed composition of natural substances is de-
manding; hence, both natural and synthetic samples will
be of interest. This technique is described in the paper
opyright © 2013 SciRes. IJAMSC
“Supercritical fluid chromatography of secondary me-
tabolites and multi-analysis by mass spectrometry-ultra-
violet and corona charged aerosol detection” [2,3].
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is widely discussed in the literature as
a detection tool and in relation to analytical methods of
separation, such as GC, SCF, high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE),
thin layer chromatography (TLC) and as an analytical
tool for the determination of molecular structures. MS is
a powerful tool for structural analysis. Alone, MS is not
enantiospecific, but in combination with HPLC, SFC,
GC, CE, or even TLC, it can adequately demonstrate the
presence of isomers and enantiomers. The recording by
MS of enantiomers in a mixture is possible only by using
chromatography w ith chiral co lumns or if chir al selectors
are used in the resolution process. MS is an excellen t tool
for the evaluation of the constitutional, cis- or trans-,
geometric, or other isomers, alone or in conjunction with
chromatography. By using fastseparation techniques in
conjunction with MS, it is possible to monitor syntheses
or the dynamics of reactions.
Improvements in the construction of MS apparatuses
are of significant importance, together with the develop-
ment and improvement of software and the analytic
From its original primitive form, MS instrumentation
has been developed, step by step, into the super-modern,
complex, multitasking equipment of today. The first
mass spectrometers were of the single-focus type, in
which the positive ions were deflected through 180˚ sec-
tor in a magnetic field, H. The focused ion beams were
recorded on a photographic plate.
The first mass spectrometer was developed by Arthur J.
Dempster and Francis W. Aston in 1918/19 [4]. Their
invention was actually a mass spectrograph. Arthur
Dempster was born in Canada in 1886, and studied in
Canada, Germany, and the USA. He conducted his re-
search at the University of Chicago from 1916 until his
death in 1950. Besides the development of MS, he is
known for the discovery of the uranium isotope 235U. He
was also a member of the Manhattan Project. Francis
Aston was born in Birmingham in 1877, and in 1893
enrolled at the University of Birmingham, where he
studied physics under John Henry Poynting and chemis-
try under Frankland and Tilden.
However, the history of MS actually begins with a
discovery made by a German scientist, Eugen Goldstein
(1850-1930) . In 1886, he observed r ays in gas discharges
under low pressure. He discovered that tubes with a per-
forated cathode emitted a glow at the cathode end. The
rays propagated from the anode and thro ugh the channe ls
in the perforated cathode, in a direction opposite to that
taken by charged cathode rays. He called these rays
“Kanalstrahlen” or “canal rays”. In 1899, the German
physicist Wilhelm Wien (Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto
Fritz Franz Wien, 1864-192 8) found that electric or mag-
netic fields could deflect the canal rays, and he con-
structed a device that separated the positive rays accord-
ing to their charge-to-mass ratio. The rays were posi-
tively charged particles-later found to be ions. The be-
havior of ions in a homogeneous, linear, static magnetic
field obeys the Lorentz force law, and this holds true in a
sector instrument. The Lorentz equation, given below, is
fundamental to all MS techniques:
qE vB
where E is the strength of the electric field, B is the in-
duction of the magnetic field, q is the particle’s electric
charge, and v is the particle’s velocity.
An ion with a charge e accelerated through a voltage V
will acquire a translational (kinetic) energy equal to eV.
Therefore, the kinetic energy of an ion is independent of
its mass. Because ½mv2 = eV, where m is the mass of the
ion and v is the magnitude of its velocity after its accel-
eration in an electric field; more massive ions will travel
more slowly. Ions will be accelerated under the influ ence
of a magnetic field of magnitude B. The magnitude of the
acceleration is v2/r, and it is directed perpendicular to the
particle’s movement, which implies that the particle will
describe a circular trajectory with radius r. From New-
ton’s second law of motion and the Lorentz force law, it
follows that
BeVmv r.
Combining this equation with½mv2 = eV results in
222me BrV.
From this equation, it follows that for a given magnetic
field strength and accelerating voltage, ions with a given
m/e ratio will follow a distinct path of rad ius r, wher e r is
determined by m/e. It is possible to sweep the ions of
various m/e ratios past the exit slit, either by varying B
while holding V constant, o r by vary ing V while holding B
constant. The first technique is called “magnetic scan-
ning”, and the second technique is called “electric scan-
ning” or “voltage scanning”.
It is not necessary t o have an angle of defle ction of 180˚.
A 90˚ sector field instrument is less expensive and easier
to produce. It also has the advantage that the ion source
and collector are more accessible than in the 180˚ sector
version of the instrument.
A 90˚ sector field instrument should be seen as a mod-
ern version of the original instrument developed by
Dempster. The general problem with these instruments is
that the resolving power is limited b y the initial spread of
the translational energies of the ions on leaving the source.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJAMSC
The initial spread of the translation al energies depends on
the Boltzmann distribution and the nonhomogeneous field
in the source. These problems were overcome in the ap-
paratus constructed by Mattauch and Herzog [5] by
passing the ions through an electric field before their
passage through the magnetic field. In Mattauch and
Herzog’s instrument, the electrostatic analyzer had a
sector of 31˚82’ and the magnetic analyzer had a sector of
90˚. The r1 was the minimum focal radius and the r2 was
the maximum focal radius. In this instrument, photo-
graphic plates were used to record the ions. The photo-
graphic plates were placed at 45˚ relative to the r2. This
method of analysis is called “mass spectroscopy”.
In modern instruments, electronic devices are used for
ower and rela tive pre cision of a sp eci
MS instrument to produce high qu
spects of M S
[1] I. Brondz, “Hromatography and
nd and J. Lefler, “Supercritical Fluid
hod of Positive Ray Analy-
ecise and sensitive detection; these instruments are
called “mass spectrometers” and the method is “mass
spectrometry”. Later, in 1953, Johnson and Nier published
an article describing another configuration of sectors in a
MS instrument [6]. Accounts that give more detail on the
sectors in MS instruments are available in the literature
[7,8]. In the instrument of Johnson and Nier, the electro-
static analyzer field is 90˚ and the magnetic analyzer field
is 60˚. There are several other types of MS instruments,
such as the Hinterberger-Konig mass spectrometer, with a
42˚3’ electric sector and a 130˚ magnetic sector. Mass
spectrometers can have also a Takeshita geometry, with a
54˚43’ electric sector and a 180˚ magnetic sector, a Ma-
tsuda geometry, with an 85˚ electric sector and a 72˚50’
magnetic sector; or a Bainbridge-Jordan geometry, with a
127˚30’ electric sector and a 60˚ magnetic sector, with a
resolving power of 600 and a relative precision of one part
in 10,000 [9,10].
The reso lving pfic
strument are very important characteristics when re-
cording ions with low m/e ratios. For verification of the
isomeric differences between primaquine and its con-
taminating agen t, quinocide, an instru ment with high pre-
cision and high resolving power was used to record the
m/e 44 ions [11].
The ability of a ality,
formative spectra also depends on the way in which th e
sample is introduced into the instrument. Direct introd uc-
tion is preferable, but it is not always possible. In some
analyses of complex mixtures, the compounds must be
separated prior to the MS analysis. A combination of
HPLC or SFC with MS creates conditions similar to those
of chemical ionization, because of the excess of other
substances, such as water, alcohol or CO2. Water and
alcohol are introduced into a MS instrument from the
HPLC mobile phase, or CO2 is introduced from the SFC
mobile phase. An excess of mobile phase from chroma-
tographic devices quenches ion production and can also
create adduct ions. GC-MS spectra giv e m ore i nfor m ation
about the structure of a molecule than do HPLC-MS or
SFC-MS spectra. To ensure that an ion of a given mass
produces a discernible peak in the spectrum, the best
combination to use is GC-MS with SMB, because of short
analysis times, low temperatures in the injector, trans-
ference line, and detection device, and, especially, “cold
EI” and a “fly-through ion source” [12,13].
This journal welcom es di scussions of al l a
d Chromatography instrumentation, theory, practices,
and appl ications, in di fferent fiel ds of science and i ndustry
as well as advice for improving the journal itself.
istorical Overview of Ch
Related Techniques in Analysis of Antimalarial Drug
Primaquine,” Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York,
2011, pp. 183-187.
[2] I. Brondz, K. Høila
Chromatography of Secondary Metabolites and Multi-
Analysis by Mass Spectrometry-Ultraviolet and Corona
Charged Aerosol Detection,” 12th Norwegian MS-Winter
Meeting, Hafjell, 21-24 January 2007, p. 63.
[3] I. Brondz and K. Høiland, “Chemotaxonomic
tion between Cortinarius infractus and Cortinarius sub-
tortus by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Connected
to a Multi-Detection System,” Trends in Chromatogra-
phy, Vol. 4, 2008, pp. 79-87.
[4] A. J. Dempster, “A New Met
sis,” Physical Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1918, pp. 316-325.
[5] J. Mattauch and R. F. K. Herzog, “Mass Spectrograph,”
Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 89, 1934, pp. 786-795.
[6] E. G. Johnson and A. O. Nier, “Angular Aberrations in
Sector-Shaped Electromagnetic Lenses for Focusing Beams
of Charged Particles,” Physical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1,
1953, pp. 10-17. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.91.10
[7] J. De Laeter and M. D. Kurz, “Alfred Nier and the Sector
Field Mass Spectrometer,” Journal of Mass Spectrometry,
Vol. 41, No. 7, 2006, pp. 847-854. doi:10.1002/jms.1057
[8] IUPAC, “IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminol-
d Energy,”
ogy,” Blackwell Science Inc., Oxford, 1997.
[9] K. T. Bainbridge, “The Equivale nce of Mass an
Physical Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1933, p. 123.
[10] G. Audi, “The History of Nuclidicmasses and of Their
. Mantzilas, E. Hvat-
A. Amirav, “Analysis of
raphy-Mass Spectrometry with Supersonic Molecular
Evaluation,” International Journal of Mass Spectrometry,
Vol. 251, No. 2-3, 2006, pp. 85-94.
[11] I. Brondz, U. Klein, D. Ekeberg, D
tum, H. Schultz and F. S. Mikhailitsyn, “Nature of the
Main Contaminant in the Drug Primaquine Diphosphate:
GC-MS Analysis,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 17
No. 3, 2005, pp. 1678-1688.
[12] I. Brondz, A. B. Fialkov and
Quinocide in Unprocessed Primaquine Diphosphate and
Primaquine Diphosphate Tablets Using Gas Chromatog-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJAMSC
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJAMSC
Beams,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1216, 2009
pp. 824-829. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.11.043
[13] A. Amirav, “What Can Be Improved in GC-MS: When
Multi Benefits Are Transformed into a GC-MS Revolu-
tion,” International Journal of Analytical Mass Spec-
trometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC), Vol. 1, No. 1,
2013, pp. 31-47.