American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013, 4, 1924-1927 Published Online October 2013 (
Inheritance of Resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic
Virus (MYMV) in Inter and Intra Specific Crosses of
Mungbean (Vigna radiata)*
M. Sudha1#, A. Karthikeyan1#, P. Anusuya1, N. M. Ganesh1, M. Pandiyan2, N. Senthil1,
M. Raveendran1, P. Nagarajan1, K. Angappan1
1Department of Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; 2National Pulse Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vamban, Tamil Nadu, India.
Received July 10th, 2013; revised August 10th, 2013; accepted September 1st, 2013
Copyright © 2013 M. Sudha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The objective of this research was to study the mode of inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus
(MYMV) in inter TNAU RED × VRM (Gg) 1 and intra KMG 189 × VBN (Gg) 2 specific crosses of mungbean. An
infector row technique was used for evaluating parents, F1, F2 and F3 plants for MYMV resistance. No insecticide was
sprayed in order to maintain the natural whitefly p opulation in exp erimental field. In the field con dition, only after 80%
of plants showed MYMV incidence, and the scoring of the test materials was done by MYMV disease rating scale. Ac-
cording to the mean disease score, the mungbean genotypes were categorized into five groups resistant (R), moderately
resistant (MR), moderately susceptible (MS), suscep tible (S) and highly susceptible (HS). 3 (Susceptible): 1 (Resistance)
was observed in all two crosses of all F2 population and it showed that the dominance of susceptibility over the resis-
tance and the results of the F3 segregation (1:2:1) confirm the segreg ation pattern of the F2 segregation . Collectively all
the two crosses F2 and F3 generations results suggested that a single recessive gene is involved in resistance against the
MYMV disease.
Keywords: Inheritance; Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus; Vigna spp.
1. Introduction
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], also known as
greengram, green bean, mash bean, golden gram and
green soy is an important source of dietary protein across
Asia.It is widely grown in tropical and sub-tropical re-
gions as a monoculture and as a component in cropping
systems. Almost 90% of world’s mungbean production
comes from Asia, and India is the world’s largest mung-
bean producer cultivated on 2.84 million ha area with a
production of 1.04 million tones and productivity of 386
kg/ha [1]. However the standard yield of mungbean
worldwide is very low (384 kg/ha) and the mungbean
production has not considerably increased yet. The main
cause for the low yield is the susceptib ility of the crop to
insects, weeds and diseases caused by fungus, virus or
bacterium, of which Mungbean yellow mosaic virus
(MYMV) is one of the most prevalent and destructive
viral pathogens in mungbean. It causes severe yield loss
and a reduction in seed quality. In India, MYMV affects
all mungbean-producing regions in the country. MYMV
produces typical yellow mosaic symptoms. The symp-
toms appear in the form of small irregular yellow specs
and spots along the v eins, which enlarge until leaves were
completely yellowed. Diseased plants were stunted, with
fewer flowers and pods that bear smaller, occasionally
shriveled seeds in severe cases, and other plant parts also
become completely yellow. Depending on the severity of
the MYMV infection, the yield penalty may reach up to
85% [2]. MYMV transmitted in a circulative persistent
manner by white fly Bemisia tabaci. MYMV control is
often based on limiting the vector population with insec-
ticides, which are ineffective under severe wh itefly infes-
tations [3]. The use of resistant varieties is the most de-
sirable strategy to manage the disease in an economical
and environmentally-friendly way. Information on in-
*The authors contributed equally on this work.
#Corresponding author.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AJPS
Inheritance of Resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) in Inter and Intra
Specific Crosses of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) 1925
heritance of resistance to MYMV disease is useful in
breeding for resistant cultivars. Inheritance of resistance
to MYMV in mungbean has been studied extensively us-
ing different resistant sources but results were contradic-
tory. Inheritance of MYMV resistance studies revealed
that the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene
[4-9], dominant gene [10], two recessive genes [11-13]
and complementary recessive genes [14]. Thus a more
extensive study is needed in order to finalize th e mode of
inheritance of the resistance. Meanwhile understanding
the inheritance of resistance to MYMV is of prime im-
portance in mungbean breeding programmes. However
sources of resistance to MYMV are very rare in the
germplasm of mungbean, whereas a high proportion of
Ricebean (Vigna umbellata) and urdbean (Vigna mungo)
lines resistant to MYMV are available. Monika et al. and
Pandiyan et al. [15,16] reported that Ricebean (Vigna um-
bellata) contains desirable genes for MYMV resistance.
Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investi-
gate the inheritance of resistance to MYMV in inter and
intra specific crosses of mungbean.
2. Materials and Methods
Materials for the present investigation comprised a
MYMV resistant mungbean line KMG 189 and ricebean
line TNAU RED, Two MYMV susceptible mungbean
lines VBN (Gg) 2 and VRM (Gg) 1 (All the lines are ori-
ginated from Tamilnadu, India), F1, F2 and F3 genera-
tion plants (derived from crossing between resistant and
susceptible parents were used in the present study. The
field experiment was conducted during the period of
2006-2010 in every kharif and summer season of the year
at the National Pulse Research Centre. The plants were
maintained properly by providing row to row and plant to
plant spacing at 50 cm and 10 cm, respectively. The in-
fector row method, where in two test rows alternating
with spreader rows of the susceptible variety (C0 5 mung-
bean) were sown, was adopted in the field condition, for
the evaluation of MYMV infestation. No insecticide was
sprayed in order to maintain the natural whitefly popula-
tion in experimental field. Only after 80% of plants
showed MYMV incidence, the scoring of the test materi-
als was done. The rating scale suggested by Singh et al.,
[17] was adopted. The mean disease score was calculated
as disease rating and frequency per total number of plants
was also calculated. Based upon the MYMY score, the
mungbean plants were divided into five categories, resis-
tant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moderately suscep-
tible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS).
Plants that are moderately susceptible (MS), susceptible
(S) and highly su sceptible (HS) were included in suscep -
tible group and resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR)
plants were included in resistant group. The chi-square
test was performed to determine the goodness of fit of
observed segregation for MYMV disease reaction in F2
and F3 generati o ns.
3. Results and Discussion
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is widespread
in the major mungbean-growing areas in India. A severe
outbreak of MYMV in the southern and northern states is
currently causing serious concern to mungbean growers
and to the mungbean industry in these regions. Resis-
tance to MYMV was determined by visual symptoma-
tology. Symptomless lines were assumed to be resistant.
As mungbean lines can be infected without showing
symptoms, it is possible that these are not resistant lines.
Breeding for cultivars with resistance is a commonly ac-
cepted and effective strategy for controlling the MYMV
disease and also prevent the multiplication of virus. The
knowledge of inheritance of resistance genes and role of
each gene in the development of resistance or suscepti-
bility will be very useful for the mungbean breeders to
breed MYMV-resistant varieties. The objective of this
study was to determine the inheritance of MYMV resis-
tance in inter and intra specific crosses of mungbean. In
the field condition, MYMV infection can be evaluated by
MYMV disease rating scale suggested by Singh et al.,
[17]. The susceptible parents VBN (Gg) 2, VRM (Gg) 1
and F1 plants of all two crosses showed susceptible reac-
tion (S), that is, symptoms observed on both leaves and
pods. No symptoms were observed in resistant parents
KMG 189 and TNAU RED up to maturity, and hence,
they were scored as resistant. Based on the rating scale in
all the two F2 and F3 generations, five reactions were re-
corded, resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moder-
ately susceptible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly sus-
ceptible (HS). F2 generation disease screening results are
presented in Table 1.
The X2 tests of the two crosses showed a good fitness
to 3 (Susceptible): 1 (Resistance) in F2 population (Ta-
ble 2) and it showed th e dominance of susceptib ility over
the resistance which indicated a monogenic inheritance
designated as MYMV. But the segregation for 3:1 in F2
[10,11,13] is totally different from the present study.
However the F3 progenies from two crosses showed
Table 1. MYMV disease screening results in F2 generation
of crosses between re sistant and susc e ptible plants.
Plant material sTotal
plants (HS) (S) (MS) (MR)(R)
VRM(Gg)1 187 24 50 59 30 24
KMG 189
VBN(Gg)2 203 19 56 57 41 30
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AJPS
Inheritance of Resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) in Inter and Intra
Specific Crosses of Mungbean (Vigna radiata)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AJPS
Table 2. Segregation for mungbean yellow mosaic crosses between virus resistance in F2 and F3 generation of resistant and
susceptible genotypes.
Plant materials Total Susceptible
(MS-HS) Segregation Resistant
(MR-R) Expected ratio X2 P value
TNAU RED 30 0 - 30 - - -
VRM(Gg)1 30 30 - 0 - - -
F1 20 20 - 0 - - -
F2 187 133 54 3:1 1.72 0.40 - 0.30
F3 56 16 30 10 1:2:1 0.30 0.50 - 0.60
KMG 189 30 0 - 30 - - -
VBN(Gg)2 30 30 - 0 - - -
F1 30 20 - 0 - - -
F2 203 132 - 71 3:1 1.02 0.40 - 0.30
F3 54 13 28 15 1:2:1 0.20 0.65 - 0.75
a segregation pattern of 1 (none segregating suscep-
tible): 2 (segregating): 1 (non segregating resistant) (Ta-
ble 2). The results of the F3 segregation clearly confirmed
the segregation pattern of the F2 se grega tion. Collectively
all the results confirmed that single recessive gene was
controlling resistance of MYMV disease. Similar results
of single recessive genes inheritance of the mungbean
have been reported by various workers [6,8,9]. There are,
however, reports indicating the involvement of dominant
gene [10], two recessive genes [13] and complementary
recessive genes [14]. Reason for these contradictory re-
sults can possibly be due to the differences in genotypes
of the host, strains of virus and the interaction between
them. The weather parameters in relation of vector acti-
vities are other important factors responsible for the dif-
ferences in the inheritance. However the present study
will be useful for developing DNA markers linked with
MYMV resistance gene. In addition we suggest that to
improve the MYMV resistance in mungbean virus strain-
based investigations will be needed in future.
4. Acknowledgements
We thank the Department of Bio-Technology, a division
under the Department of Science and Technology, India,
for the funding and supporting the research programme.
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