Vol.3, No.5, 370-381 (2013) Open Journal of Ecology
Note on the vegetation of the mounts of tlemcen
(Western Algeria): Floristic and phytoecological
Brahim Babali*, Abderrahmane Hasnaoui, Nadjat Medjati, Mohamed Bouazza
Laboratory of Ecology and Management of the Natural Ecosystems, Department of Ecology and En vi ro n me n t, Aboubakr Belkaid
University, Tlemcen, Algeria; *Corresponding Author: miharb_babali@hotmail.fr
Received 5 February 2013; revised 8 May 2013; accepted 8 August 2013
Copyright © 2013 Brahim Babali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Of the four national hunting reserves in Algeria,
the Mounts of Tlemcen Moutas reserve
http://reservebio-tlm.com, characterized by a large
area, reliefs and a specific climate, implies sig-
nificant floristic and faunistic richness. Current-
ly, the coexistence of species, such as Quercus
faginea subsp. tlemcenensis (DC.) M., Lonicera
implexa L., Ruscus aculeatus L., indicates a fo-
rest dominant ecological atmosphere, although
the region has ex perienced repeated fire s during
the 90’s. In this research, a phytoecologicaland
syntaxonomical analysis is obvious. More than
300 species have been inventoried and indexed
in more than 70 families and this shows the im-
portance of phyto-diversity of the studiedregion.
In the analysis of the phyto-ecological parame-
ters, w e could notice a regression of the vegetal
cover in its diversity.
Keywords: Biodiversity; Floristic inventory;
Phytoecological; Anthropozoological action; Climate;
Moutas; Tlemcen
The currently developed methods of biodiversity ex-
tinction have large uncertainties but all converge on ac-
celeration whatever would be the economic models. To
assess the loss of biodiversity, we worked on the disap-
pearance and fragmentation of plant life media (invent-
tory of natural habitats).
The reserve is particularly sensitive in terms of plant di-
versity, it underwent in the past human pressures and sig-
nificant fires. The ecological landscape includes different
habitats moving to a scrub, with considerable variations.
The knowledge of this dynamic and this floristic in-
ventory is an important research path for us. Analyses of
biodiversity lead in particular to show that the maximum
biodiversity is not in the primitive forest sensu stricto,
but in the moderately man altered spaces [1].
We will discuss this problem here from floristic in-
ventory formed by tree structures and their stages of
degradation as it is at this level that th ey can be analyzed.
The vegetation of the national parks and natural re-
serves in the Mediterranean basin have been studied by
many authors like Gruber and Sandoz [2]; Véla et al. [3];
Hill and Véla [4]; Ibn Tattouand & Fennane [5]... and
other works in Tlemcen region like those of Benabadji et
al. [6]; Mesli et al. [7]; Letreuch-Belarouci et al. [8];
Medjahdi et al. [9] and Bouazza et al. [10].
Location and structure of Tlemcen hunting reserve:
The study area is located in the western part of North-
west Algeria at about 46 km as the crow flies from the
sea and 26 km south-west of the city of Tlemcen. The
reserve, part of Hafir forest, occupies the highest and
most wooded area of the Mounts of Tlemcen. It is lo-
cated about 34˚41' to 34˚49' north and 01˚25' to 01˚35'
west (Figure 1).
It occupies an area of 2156 hain a 15 km perimeter; it
is characterized by typically mountainous reliefs of the
Tamaksalet massif with a remarkable difference in alti-
tude. The altitude is between the extreme points from
Ras Torriche 1303 m andthe region of Sidi Messaoud at
1017 m.
It is geographically limited:
• To the east by the town of Aïn Ghoraba;
• In the north-east by the municipality of Sabra;
• To the west and northwest by the municipality of
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381 371
Figure 1. Location map.
• In the south and southwest by the city of Beni Ba hdel.
It receives about 500 m mannual rainfall and shows
average temperatures between 6.4˚C (January) and
26.4˚C (July and August). It is classified in the cool win-
ter’s sub-humid bioclimatic level with a dry season (5
months) which lasts from June to October.
The soils are varied depending on the topography of
the region. On the tops, they are not very deep where
of-time the bed rock levels. Sometimes deep towards
very deep on all along the principal river basins of the
hydrographic networ k.
In the reserve, the main rocks source is sedimentary:
calcareous sandstone, sandy limestones, dolomites and
marl [11].
The complete list was made from the following works:
Moutas Herbarium which is made up to now more
than 220 species recorded by researchers from the labo-
ratory of plant/botanical ecology from the University of
Field work du ring 2010, 2011 and 2012, we h ave com-
pleted 70 surveys using conventional techniques and me-
thods of ecology (inventory, minimum area, transect, flo-
ra network...).The method of Braun-Blanquet [12], which
is expressed by analytical characteristics: abundance, do-
minance and sociab ility on a scale of 1 to 5 to help us to
do a thorough analysis of the veg e tation.
The basic work used for the identification of taxa col-
lected in the field is from the studies done by Quézel
&Santa [13]; Battandier & Trabut [14]; Valdéset al. [15];
Blanca et al. [16]; Maire [17] and Dobignard [18].
Scientific Name: the word list adopted is th at of: Index
synonymique et bibliographique de la flore dAfrique du
Nord [18] and synonyms from: Nouvelle flore dAlgérie
et des régions désertiques méridionales [13].
Ecological zoning of the main forest groupings.
3.1. The Oak Forests
Four major species of the genus Quercus were found
in the reserve: Quercus ilex L., Quercus suber L., Quer-
cus coccifera L. and Quercus faginea subsp. tlemcenen-
sis (DC.) Maire and Weiller (=Quercus faginea subsp.
Broteroi (Coutinho) A. Camus).
3.1.1. Eve r green Oak For est
Dominates almost all of the reserve and is character-
ized by the evergreen oak presence (Quercus ilex subsp.
ballota (Desf.) Samp) within a 942.4 hectares area.
The major issues, well developed and characterized by
a large trunk, are located at the edges of cultivated lands
within the reserve where the soil is deep and very rich in
organic matter. These characters change as the altitude
increases, the soil becomes shallower and bedrock ap-
pears at the surface. In addition, North exposures have a
significant contribution to water compensation, allowing
the taxa development in integrated settlements linked to
Quercetea ilicis [6,19].
The distribution of Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera
subsp. coccifera L.) is very limited, and in the extreme
west and north-west of the reserve close to Tamaksalet
(Bouhlou municipamity) and some species are scattered
throughout the center of the reserve at Ras Mnakher,
Mnakher and Souamaa. These areas are a warmer (xeric).
3.1.2. Zeen Oak Forest
The zeen oak (Quercus faginea Lamk) is a deciduous
oak of meso-and supra-Mediterranean types [20-22], en-
demic to the western Mediterranean (Iberian Peninsula,
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) [23]. It would be repre-
sented in the Mounts of Tlemcen by a sub-species: Quer-
cus faginea subsp. tlem cenensi s (DC.) M. (Figure 2)
This oak occupies 1/5th of the reserve with an area of
428 ha. It is found mainly in the southern and south-
Figure 2. Quercus faginea subsp. tlemcenensis formations at
Tor- riche (Moutas). Photo. Babali B. September 2011.
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
western part of the reserve at Torriche, Ras Moutas,
Mnakher, Chaâbat La’akhra and Aïn Ben. It is also found
in the extreme north at Besghirand Boumedrer.
The Tlemcen zeen oak, ranging in size between 5 and
7 m, prefers deep soils and limestone-rich substratewith-
fresh degraded materials and rare silica. This species
exists and dominates the valleys and hollows of the re-
serve.We can consider that this species benefits from the
water compensation, despite drought and this can be ex-
plained by compensation edaphic-climatic phenomena
[24]. It is practically non-existent or so on the summit
where the soil dep th is less thick, and even if it do es, it is
most unusual and with a dwarf size that barely exceeds 2
Among the accompanying taxa are: Cytisus arboreus
subsp. Baeticus (Webb) Maire Cytisus villosus Pourret,
Hedera algeriensis Hibberd, Ruscus aculeatus L., Smi-
lax aspera L., Viburnum tinus L., Lonicera implexa L.,
Pistacia terebinthus L., Asplenium ceterach L., Umbili-
cus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy, Phillyrea latifolia L. Am-
pelodesmos mauritanicus (Poiret) Durand & Schinz...
3.1.3. Cork Oak Forests
Representedby the cork oak relics: Quercus suber L.
(Figure 3), in a very limited area, which does not exceed
20 ha, they are frequently found in Saf-el-Ali, Aïn Djedi
and other relics in Torriche, Boumedrerand Ras Moutas
south side and finally a few stalks at Mnakher. Their
growth is generally less strong after fire. These species
are typical of low-intensity fire regimes, but common in
the study area [25-27].
The vegetation associated with these cork oak is: La-
vandula stoechas L., Anagallis arvensis L., Erica arbo-
rea L., Arbutus unedo L., Stauracanthus boivinii (Webb)
Samp Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poiret) Durand &
Schinz, Asparagus acutifolius L., Daphne gnidium L.,
Cytisus villosus Pourret, Cistus clusii Dunal., Cistus
creticus L., Cistus salvifolius L., Cistus ladanifer subsp.
Figure 3. Relic of cork oak. Sahb El Ababda (Moutas). Photo.
Babali B. October 2010.
mauritianus Pau & Sennen. These plants prefer siliceous
3.2. Conifers
They are softwood thermophilic with an extremely
wide ecological spectrum. We have: Thuja: Tetraclinis
articulata (Vahl) Masters (Figure 4).
Endemic to North Africa [28,29] it colonizes areas
with low rainfall (300 - 500 mm) [30]. This species is
slightly represented in the Moutas reserve. It occupies,
especially the northwest portion of the reserve: south-
western slopes and the southern slopes of Boumedrer,
Ras Mnakhert toward Bouhlou, Aïn Ben Soumaâ and
Safel-Ali. It is associated with Pistacia lentiscus L.,
Chamaerops humilis var. argentea Andrew Gl o bularia a-
lypum L., Macrochloa tenacissima L. (Kunth), Phyleria
angustifolia L. , Asparagus albus L.
The Juniper: Juniperus oxycedrus Subsp.
It is widespread in the reserve with scattered blankets.
This indicates the presence of degradation oak stands.
• Other conifers are represented in the form of planta-
tions in the rest area Torriche and near the forest house
Boumedrer as Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis Miller, stone
pine (Pinus pinea L.) cedar (Cedrus atlantica (Endl.)
Carrière) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)
3.3. Riverine
The reserve is surrounded by natural sources: Aïn-
Boumedrer the largest and most common, AïnE-Djedi,
Aïn Moutas and Aïn El-Ben. The vegetation, adjacent to
these springs and streams, is riparian representing vege-
tation structure at least partly azonal [31], or indicators
of wetlands such as Rubus ulmifolius Schott, Dittrichia
viscosa (L.) Greuter, Typha latifolia L., Carex hispi-
Figure 4. Degraded forest Tetraclinis articulata based at-
Tameksalet-Moutas (south side). Photo. Babali B., October
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381 373
da Willd., Populus alba L., Salix pedicellata Desf., Jun-
cus maritimus Lam., Hypericum perforatum L., Mentha
rotundifolia L., Ficus carica L., Calamintha nepeta (L.)
Savi, Potentilla reptans L., Zannichellia peltata Bertol.,
Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr., Apium nodiflorum (L.)
Lag, Arundo donax L., Dactylorhiza durandii (Boiss. &
Reuter) M. Lainz, Ranunculus ficaria L., Ranunculus
aquatilis L., Ranunculus spicatus Desf. Sonchus mari-
timus L., Nerium oleonder L. Trachelium caeruleum L.,
Jasminum fruticans L., Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris
(D.C. Gmelin) Hegi. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.)
Hayek (= Nasturtium officinale R. Br.).
Riparian forests are dominant in this area; unfortu-
nately the foresters do not take this fact into account in
their statistics.
3.4. The Scrub
Over a large area of 680 ha, the scrubs are character-
ized and dominated by more xeric coppices depleted in
forest and pre-forest species that occupy the land like
thechamaephytes or nanaophanerophytes which prefer
gradients and hot spots (southern slopes) belonging to
Pistacio-Rhamnetalia Alaterni represented by Chamae-
rop shumilisvar. argentea Andrew Ampelodesmos mauri-
tanicus (Poiret) Durand & Schinz, Pistacia terebinthus L.,
Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reuter, Fumana thymifolia
(L.) Webb, Calicotome intermedia (Salzm.) C. Presl,
Rhamnus lycioïdes L.
Other taxa grow in an expansionary way after the fire
e.g., Cistus ladanifer L., Cistus creticus L. and Cistus
salvifolius L. and taxa characterized by their high regen-
eration such as thujaand evergreen oak that can partici-
pate in the formation of scrub landscapes [20].
3.5. Lawns (Figure 5)
“in the short-cycle crops adapted to use a fleeting re-
source, tolerance and/or need of light (light-demanding
species) make them exclusive or preferential plants ofo-
Figure 5. Annual plant lawn with Anemone coronaria before
Moutas plain crops. Photo. Babali B., March 2011.
ligotrophic dry grasslands or rocks exposed to wind and
temperature extremes.” [32].
They are spread over about 106 hectares and domi-
nated by annual species (Therophytes) caused by high
anthropozoological action and further degradation (fir e).
This group belongs to the Thero-Brachypodietea in
general, is on calcareous substrata; characterized by Rha-
ponticum coniferum (L.) Greuter, Bombycilaena discolor
(Pers.) Lainz, Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth, Scorzonera
laciniata L., Tr ifolium ste llatu m L., Ajuga iva var. pseudo-
iva subsp. Pseudoiva (DC.) Briq., Teucrium polium L.,
Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea (Cav.) Gouan, Carex halleri-
ana Asso., Rumex bucephalophorus L., Briza ma xima L.
Vulpia ciliate Dumort…
List of vascular taxa listed by family in Tlemcenhunt-
ing reserve.
The list includes 322 species belonging to 72 families:
Compositae (Asteraceae), Leguminosae (Fabaceae), La-
biatae (Lamiaceae), Gramineae (Poaceae) and Orchida-
ceae (see palnches 1 - 2 in the annex).
Allium Cupani Raf.
Allium roseum L.
Acis autumnalis (L.) Herb
=Leucojum a utumnale L.
Narcissus cantabricus DC.
Narcissus serotinus L.
Narcissus tazzeta L.
Narcissus tazzeta subsp. pachyb olbus (Dur.) Baker
Pancratium foetidum var. oranense Pomel
Pistacia lentiscus L.
Pistacia Terebinthus L.
Nerium oleander L.
Arisarum simorrhinum Durieu
=Arisarum vulgare subsp simorrhinum (dur.) M.et W.
Biarum Bovei subsp. di s p a r (Schot t.) Engler
Hedera helix L.
Chamaerops humilis subsp. Argentea André.
Aristolochia baetica L.
Aristolochia paucinervis Pomel
=Aristolochia longa subsp. paucinervis (Pomel) Batt.
Anthericum liliago L. subsp. algeriense
Aphyllanthes monspeliensis L.
Asparagus acutifolius L.
Asparagus albus L.
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
Asphodelus ramosus L.
=Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm et Viv
Ceterach officinarum Lamk.
=Asplenium ceterach L.
Anchusa italica Retz.
=Anchusa azurea Mill.
Borago officinalis L.
Cerinthe gymnandra Gasparr.
=Cerinthe major subs p. gymnandra (Aspar.)M.
Cynoglossum cheirifolium L.
Echium vulgare L.
Neatostema ap ul um (L.) I.M. Johnston
=Lithospermum apulu m (L. ) Vahl.
Campanula dichotoma L.
Campanula rapunculus L.
Trachelium caeruleum L.
Lonicera implexa L.
Viburnum tinus subsp. tinus L.
Dianthus cintranus Boiss. & Reuter
=Dianthus gaditanus Boiss.
Dianthus serrulatus subsp. macrant hus Maire
Paronychia arge nte a Lam.
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke
=Silene inflata (Salisb.)Sm.
Silene latifolia subsp. latifolia Poiret
Silene ramosissima Desf.
Stellaria media (L.) V ill.
Cistus clusiiDunal.
Cistus creticus L.
=Cistus villosusL.
Cistus ladanifer subsp. mauritianus Pau & Sennen
=Cistus ladaniferusL.
Cistus salvifolius L.
Fumana thymifolia (L.) Webb
Halimium umbellatum (L.) Spach
Helianthemum cinereum (Cav.) Pers.
Helianthemum helianthemoides (Desf.) Grosser
Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Miller
Colchicum lusitanum Brot.
=Colchicum autumnale L.
Merendera filifolia Camb.
Anacyclus pyre thrum (L.) Link
Atractylis cancellata L.
Bellis sylvestris Cirillo
Bombycilaena di scolor (Pers.) Laínz
=Micropus bombycinus subsp discolor Lag.
Calendula arv e ns is L.
Calendula suffruticosa Vahl
Carlina gumm i fera (L.) Less.
Catananche caerulea L.
Cent aurea pullata L.
Cichorium intybus L.
Cirsium echinatum (Desf.) DC.
Dittrichia viscose (L.) Greuter
=Inula viscose (L.) Ait.
Echinops strigosus L.
Filago fuscescens Pomel
Glebionis segetum (L.) Fourr.
=Chrysanthemum segetum L.
Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench
=EIichrysum stoechas (L.) DC.
Inula montana L.
Mauranthemum paludosum (Poiret) Vogt & Ober-
=Leucanthe m u m paludosum (Poiret) non Bar.
Pallenis maritima (L.) Greuter
=Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less.
Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass.
Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass.
Phagnalon sordidum (L.) Reichenb.
Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth
Rhaponticu m acaule (L.) DC.
Rhaponticu m coni fer u m (L.) Greuter
=Leuzea conifera (L.) DC.
Scolymus g randiflorus Desf.
Scolymus hispanicus L.
Scorzonera laciniata L.
Scorzonera un d ulata Vahl.
Senecio vulgaris L.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
Sonchus maritimus L.
Staehelina du b i a L.
Ta r a xacum obovatum (Willd.) DC.
Convolvulus al t haeoi des L.
Convolvulus arvensis L.
Convolvulus cantabrica L.
Convolvulus humilis Jacq.
Convolvulus tricolor L.
Pistorinia breviflora subsp. intermedia (Boiss. &
Reuter) Greuter & Burdet
=Cotyledon br eviflora (Boiss.) M.
Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau
Sedum albu m L.
Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy
=Cotyledon umbilicus-veneris subsp. Pendulina (DC.)
Alyssum simplex Rudolphi
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381 375
Biscutella didyma L.
Erysimum gran diflorum Desf.
=Erysimum boccon ei (all.) Pers.
Lepidium hirtum (L.) Sm.
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.
Nasturtium officinale R. Br.
= Rorippa nast urt i u m- aq u at i c um (L.) Hayek
Raphanus raphanistrum L.
Sinapis alba L.
Sinapis arvensis L.
Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus
Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters
Cupressus sempervirens L.
Carex halleriana Asso
Carex hispida Willd.
Diocorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin
=Tamus communis L.
Cephalaria leucantha (L.) Roemer & Schultes
Lomelosia ste ll ata (L.) Raf.
=Scabiosa stellata L.
Sixalix atropurpurea (L.) Greuter & Burdet
=Scabiosa atropurpurea L.
Arbutus unedo L.
Erica arborea L.
Erica multiflora L.
Euphorbia hel i osco pi a L.
Euphor b i a nicræensis AlI.
Euphorbia squamigera Lois.
Quercus coccifera L. subsp. coccife ra
Quercus faginea subsp. tlemcenensis (DC.) Maire et
=Quercus faginea subsp. broteroi (Coutinho) A. Ca-
Quercus Ilex subsp. Ballota (Desf.) A. DC.
Quercus suber L.
Centaurium erythraea Raf.
=Centaurium umbellatum (Gibb.) Beck.
Erodium moschatum (L.) L’Hér.
Geranium malviflorum Boiss. & Reute
Aegilops geniculata Roth
Aegilops triuncialis L.
Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poiret) Durand &
= Ampelode sma mauritanica (Poiret) Dur.et Sch.
Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski
=Bromus matritensis L.
Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski
=Bromus rubens L.
Arundo donax L.
Avena sativa L.
Avena sterilis L.
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. B.
Briza maxima L.
Bromus hordeaceus L.
Cynosurus echinatus L.
Festuca coerulescens Desf.
Hordeum murinum L.
Lagurus ovatus L.
Macrochloa tenacissima (L.) Kunth
=Stipa tenacissima L.
Vulpia ciliata Dumort.
Drimia maritima (L.) Speta
=Urginea maritima var. pancration (Stein.) Baker.
Drimia undulata Jacq.
=Urginea undulata (Desf.) Steinh. subsp typica M.
Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl.
=Muscari comosum (L.) Mill.
Muscari neglectum Guss.
Oncostema pe ruvi ana (L.) Speta
=Scilla peruviana L.
Ornithogalum algeriense Jord. & Fourr
=Ornithog al u m umbellatum L.
Ornithogalum narbonense L.
=Ornithog alum pyramidalisauct. non L.
Prospero autumnalis (L.) Speta
=Scilla autumnalis L.
Pros pero obtusifolium (Poiret) Speta
=Scilla obtusifolia Poiret
Uropetalum serotinum (L.) Ker Gawl.
=Dipcadi se rotinum (L.) Medik.
Hypericum perforatum L.
Hypericum tomentosum subsp tomentosum L.
Gladiolus italicus Mill
=Gladi ol u s segetum Ker.-Gawl.
Iris planifolia (Mill.) Dur. et Sch.
Iris xiphium L.
Moraea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.
=Gynandriri s si syri nchium (L.) Parl.
Romulea bulboco di um (L.) Seb.et Mau r.
Juncus maritimus Lam k.
Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber
=Ajuga chamaephitis Schreb.
Ajuga iva subsp. iva (L.) Schreber
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
Ajuga iva subsp. pseudoiva (DC.) Briq. var. pseudo-
Ballota hirsutaBentham
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi
=Satureja calamintha subsp. Nepeta correct
Lamium amplexicaule L.
Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas
Marrubium vulgare L.
Mentha rotundifolia L.
Nepeta multibracteata Desf.
Nepeta tuberosa subsp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire
Origanum vulgare subsp. Glandulosum (Desf.) Iest-
=Origanum glandulosum Desf.
Phlomis crinita subsp. Mauritanica (Munby) Murb.
=Phlomis crinita cav.
Phlomis herba-venti L.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Jord. & Fourr.
=Rosmarinus tournefortiid e No é
Salvia verbenaca L.
Stachys ocymast ru m (L.) Briq.
Teucrium fruticans L.
Teucrium polium L.
Teucrium pseudochamaepitys L.
Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Boiss. &
Reuter) Greuter & Burdet
=Thymus ciliatus subsp . coloratus (B. & R.) Batt.
Anthyllis polycephala Desf.
Anthyllis vulneraria L.
Argyrolobium zanonii (L.) Link
=Lotophyllus argenteus L.
Astragalus caprinus subsp. caprinus.
=Astragalus caprinus subsp. Lanigerus (Desf.) M
Astragalus epiglottis L.
Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton
=Psoralea bituminosa L.
Calicotome intermedia (Salzm.) C. Presl
=Calycotome villosa su bsp. Intermedia (Salzm.) M.
Ceratonia siliqua L. (Césalpiniacées)
Coronilla scorpioides (L.) W.D.J. Koch Cytisus
arboreus subsp. baeticus (Webb) Maire
Cytisus villosus Pourret
=Cytisus triflorus L’Herit
Erop haca baetica (L.) Boiss.
=Astragalus lusitanicu s Lamk.
Genista ramosissima (Desf. ) Poiret
=Genista cinerea subsp. ramosissima (Desf.) Maire
Genista tricuspidata subsp. Duriaei (Spach.) Batt.
Lathyrus latifolius L.
Lotus hispidus DC.
Medicago italica subsp. Tornata (L.) Emb. et Maire
Medicago polymorpha L.
= Medicago hispida Gaertn.
Ononis bifl or a Desf.
Ononis pubescens L.
Ononis spinosa L.
Scorpiurus muricatus L.
Stauracanthus boivinii (Webb) Samp
=Ulex Boivinii Webbvar. webbianus (Cosson) Maire
Trifolium angustifolium L.
Trifolium stellatum L.
Trifolium tomentosum L.
Vicia onobrychioides L.
Vicia sativa L.
Fritillaria lusitanica subsp. Oranensis (Pomel)
=Fritillaria messanensis Raf. var. atlantica M.
Gagea Durieui Pari.
Gagea granatelli subsp. chaberti Terracc.
Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis (Link.) Pamp.
Linum suffruticosum L.
Linum tenue Desf.
Linum usitatissimum L.
Lavatera trimestris L.
Malope malachoides L.
Malva sylvestris L.
Fucus carica L.
Anagallis arvensis L.
Anagallis Anagallis monelli L.
Jasminum fruticans L.
Olea europea L. subsp. europaea
=Olea europea var. oleaste r
Phillyrea angustifolia subsp. angustifolia M.
Phillyrea latifolia L.
=Phillyrea angustifolia subsp. latifolia (L.)M.
Aceras pyrami dal i s (L.) Reichenb
=Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C. Rich.
Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans (Poll.) Bate-
man, Pridgeon & Chase
= Orchis co riophora subsp. Fragrans (Poll.) G. Camus
Anacamptis morio subsp. tlemcenensis (Batt.) E.G.
Anacamptis papilio nacea (L.) Bateman, Pridgeon &
=Orchis papilionacea L.
Dactylorhiza durandii (Boiss.& Reuter) M.Lainz
=Orchis elata subsp. Dur andoi (B.et R.)
Himantoglossum hircinum (L.) Sprengel
=Himanthoglossum hircinum (L.) Spreng.
Himantoglossum robertianum (Loisel.) Delforge
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381 377
= Himantho glossum longibracteat u m (Biv.) Sch.
Ophrys atlanti c a Munby
Ophrys lutea subsp. Lutea (Cav.) Gouan
Ophrys speculum L.
Ophrys sphegifera Willd.
= Ophrys scolopax Cav. subsp. Apiformis
Ophrys subfusca (Reichen b. fil.) Haussknecht
=Ophrys lutea subsp. Subfusca (Rchb.) Batt.
Ophrys thenthredimifera Willd. subsp. Ficalhoana
Ophrys thenthredimifera Willd. subsp. Thenthredi-
Orchi s ant h ropophora (L.) All.
= Aceras anthr opophorum (L.) Ait.
Orchis italica Poiret
Orchis ol bi ensis Reuter.
= Orchis maculata sub sp. Obliensis (Reut.) Asch. et
Bartsia trixago L.
= Bellardia trixago (L.) All. (Scrophiliacées)
Odontites purpureus subsp. purpureus (Desf.) G.
Don fil.
= Odontites bolligeri E.Rico, L. Delgado & Herrero in
Rico et al. [33]
= Odontites purpureasubsp purpurea (Scrophiliacées)
Orobanche ramosa L.
Orobanche variegata Wallr
Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel (Scrophiliacées)
Fumaria capreolata L. (Fumariacées)
Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariacées)
Papaver hybridum L.
Papaver rhoeas L.
Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC.
Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrière
=Cedrus libanotica Link
Pinus halepensis Mill.
Pinus pinea L.
Anarrhinum fruticosum subsp. fruticosum Maire
Antirrhinum majus L. (Scrophiliacées)
Globularia Alypum subsp. alypum L. (Globularia-
Linaria arvensis L. Desf. (Scrophiliacées)
Linaria triphylla (L.) Miller (Scrophiliacées)
Linaria tristis (L.) Miller (Scrophiliacées)
Plant ago mauritani ca Boiss. et Reut.
Plantago lagopus L.
Plantago serraria L.
Polygala monspelia ca L.
Rumex bucephalophorus L.
Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr.
= Potamogeton densusL.
Cytinus hypocistis subsp. clusiiNyman
= Cytinus hypocistis subsp. kermesianus (Guss.)
Cytinus hypocistis subsp. hypocistis L.
= Cytinus hypocistis subsp. ochr ac eus (Guss.) Wettst.
Adonis aestivalisL.
Anemone coronaria L.var. cyanea (Risso) Ardoino
Anemone palmata L.
Clematis cirrhosa L.
Clematis flammula L. var. parviflora Pomel
Delphinium balan sae Boiss. et Reut.
Ranunculus arvensis L.
Ranunculus ficaria subsp. ficariiformis Rouy &
Ranunculus g ra mi neus L.
Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf.
Ranunculus millefoliatus Vahl
Ranunculus p al ud os us Poiret
Ranunculus spicatus Desf.
Ranunculus aquatilis L.
Reseda alba subsp alba L.
= Reseda alba subsp eu-alba L.
Reseda luteola L.
Reseda Phyteuma subsp. collina (Gay) Batt.
Rhamnus alaternus L. subsp. alaternus
Rhamnus lycioides subsp. oleoides (L.) Jahand. &
Crataegus monogyna Jacq.
= Crataegus Oxyacantha subsp. monogyna (Jacq.)
Rouy et Camus
Potentilla reptans L.
Rosa canina L.
Rubus ulmifolius Schott
Sanguisorba mi no r Scop.
Rubia peregrina subsp. Peregrina L.
Ruscus aculeatus L.
Ruta angustifolia Pers.
= Ruta chalepensis subsp. angustifolia (Pers.) P. Cout
Populus alba L.
Salix pedicellata Desf.
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
Osyris quadripartita Decne
Saxifraga gl o b u l i fera Desf.
= Saxifraga gl ob ul üera Desf.
Scrofularia laevigataVahl
Scrophularia canina L.
Verbascum blattari a L.
Cheilanthes acrostica (Balb.) Tod.
Smilax aspera L. var. Altissima Moris & De Not.
Smilax aspera L. var. genuina L.
Daphne gnidi um L.
Typha an gustifolia L.
Ammoides pusilla (Brot.) Breistr.
= A. verticillata (Desf.) Briq.
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag
= Helosciadium nodiflorumLag.
Bupleurum rigidum L.
Daucus carota L.
Eryngium tricuspidatum L.
Eryngium triquetrum Vahl
Ferula communis L.
Thapsia garganica L.
Fedia cornucopiae (L.) Gaertn
Valeriana tuberosa L.
Valerianella discoide a (L.) Loisel.
= Valerianella cor onata subsp. discoidea Lois.
Verbena officinalis L.
Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin) Hegi
Zannichellia peltata Bertol.
One can not speak of plant diversity, of the Moutasre-
serve, without taking the relative ch ange in the climate of
the western part of Algeria into consideration. That’s
how the phylogenetic potential began a regressive evolu-
tion. This latter is accentuated by an increasingly strong
anthropo zoological pressure.These ecosystems are frag-
ile and complex and must be tackled in a comprehensive
manner. There are many achievements in phytoecology
and plant systematics, but little information/data is avai-
lable regarding in particular the western part of Algeri-
aendemic species.
Faced with this alternative we insist on develop-
ing/expanding plants (aromatic/medicinal and others)
sincethe hunting reserve has a wealth of landscapes and
acts as a refuge for sensitive and/or endangered species
as Origanum, Ammoides e.g.
Today, we are moving towards a bank of botanical
data to monitor this floristic cover which is close to the
ecological break (environmental stress).
For about 30 years we have gone through this area, the
changes are significant and we see before our eyes that
the regressive evolution has begun. This observation is
linked to southern species which are moving to north of
Tlemcen Mounts.
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B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
Planche 1. Board color (phot. B. Babali).
Anacamptis morio subsp. tlemcenensis
(Batt.) E.G. Camus Fritillaria lusitanica subsp. Oranensis
(Pomel) Valdés Biarum Bovei subsp. dispar (Schott.) Engler
Ophrys atlantica Munby Iris xiphium L. Carex hispida Willd.
Briza maxima L. Pancratium foetidum var. oranense Pomel Drimia undulata Jacq.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
B. BabalI et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 37 0-381
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Planche 2. Board color (phot. B. Babali).
Ajuga iva subsp. pseudoiva (DC.) Briq. Anthyllis polycephala Desf. Euphorbia nicræensis AlI.
Cistus ladanifer subsp. Mauritianus
Pau &Sennen Cytinus hypocistis subsp. clusii
Nyman + Cistus villosus Pourret Nepeta tuberosa subsp. reticulata (Desf.)
Odontites purpureus subsp.
purpureus (Desf.) G. Don fil. Quercus fagi nea subsp. tlemcenensis
(OC.) Maire et Weiller Stauracanthus boivinii
(Webb) Sam p