Advances in Internet of Things, 2013, 3, 73-78 Published Online October 2013 (
Detection of Objects in Motion—A Survey of
Video Surveillance
Jamal Raiyn
Computer Science Department, Alqasemi College, Baka El Gariah, Israel
Received August 1, 2013; revised September 4, 2013; accepted September 13, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Jamal Raiyn. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Video surveillance system is the most important issue in homeland security field. It is used as a security system because
of its ability to track and to detect a particular person. To ov ercome the lack of the convention al video surveillance sys-
tem that is based on human perception, we introduce a novel cogn itiv e video su rveillan ce system (CVS) that is based on
mobile agents. CVS offers important attributes such as suspect objects detection and smart camera cooperation for peo-
ple tracking. According to many studies, an agent-based approach is appropriate for distributed systems, since mobile
agents can transfer copies of themselves to other servers in the system.
Keywords: Video Surveillance; Object Detection; Image Analysis
1. Introduction
Various papers in the literature have been proposed
and focused on computer vision problems in the con-
text of multi-camera surveillance systems. The main pro -
blems highlighted in these papers are object detection
and tracking, and site-wide, multi-target, multi-camera
tracking. The importance of accurate detection and track-
ing is obvious, since the extracted tracking information
can be directly used for site activity/even t detection. Fur-
thermore, tracking data is needed as a first step toward
controlling a set of security cameras to acquire high-
quality imageries, and toward, for example, bu ilding bio-
metric signatures of the tracked targets automatically.
The security camera is controlled to track and capture
one target at a time, with the next target chosen as the
nearest one to the current target. These heuristics-based
algorithms provide a simple and tractable way of com-
puting. Conventional video surveillance systems have
many limitations to their capabilities. In one case, con-
ventional video surveillance systems have difficulty in
tracking a great number of people located at different
positions at the same time and tracking those people
automatically. In another case, the number of possible
targeted people is limited by the extent of users’ in-
volvement in manually switching the view from one
video camera to another. With cognitive video surveil-
lance system, mobile agent technologies are more effec-
tive and efficient than conventional video surveillance
systems, assuming that a large number of servers with
video camera are installed. If one mobile agent can track
one person, then multiple mobile agents can track nu-
merous people at the same time, and the server balances
the load process of the operating mobile agent on each
server with a camera.
We consider the scenario that the smart camera cap-
tures two similar objects (e.g. twin), then each object
selects a different path. The tracking process will be
confusing. Furthermore, the smart camera is limited to
cover a certain zone in public place (Indoor). Next sec-
tion introduces many solutions that have been suggested
to the above problem. The suggested solutions to im-
prove the conventional video surveillance system are
extended in various ways.
A part of the approaches is to use an active camera to
track a person automatically, and thus the security came ra
moves in a synchronized motion along with the projected
movement of the targeted person. These approaches are
capable of locating and tracking a small number of peo-
ple. Another common app roach is to position the camera
at strategic surveillance locations. This is not possible in
some situations due to the number of cameras that would
be necessary for full coverage, and in such cases, this
approach is not feasible due to limited resources. A third
approach is to identify and track numerous targeted peo-
ple at the same time involving image processing and in-
stallation of video cameras at any designated location,
opyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT
since the image processing increases server load.
The limitation of human perception system in conven-
tional video surveillance system increases the demand to
develop cognitive surveillance system. Many of the pro-
posed video surveillance systems are expensive and lack
the capability of cognitive monitoring system such as no
image analysis. This makes the system lack the ability to
send warning signal autonomously in real-time and be-
fore the incidents happen. Furthermore, it is difficult and
might take a long time for people to locate the suspects in
the video after the incidents happen. The problem may
get more complete on the larger scale surveillance sys-
tem. The next generation video surveillance system ex-
pected not only to solve the issues of detection and track-
ing but also to solve the issue of human body analysis. In
the literature, it can be found many references in devel-
opment of sophisticated video surveillance system. In
this paper, we introduce the cognitive video surveillance
system (CVS). CVS aims to offer meaningful character-
istics like automation, autonomy, and real-time surveil-
lance such as face recognition, suspect objects, target de-
tection, and use of cooperative smart cameras. Many face
recognition systems have a video sequence as the input.
Those systems may require being capable of not only de-
tecting but tracking faces. Face tracking is essentially a
motion estimation problem. Face tracking can be performed
using many different methods, e.g., head tracking, feature
tracking, image-based tracking, and model-based track-
ing. These are different ways to classify these algorithms.
2. Review of Human Body Analysis
This section introduces various approaches that consid-
ered the object detection and object tracking in video
surveillance field [1-3]. The analysis of human body
movements can be applied in a variety of application
domains, such as video surveillance, video retrieval, hu-
man-computer interaction systems, and medical diagno-
ses. In some cases, the results of such analysis can be
used to identify people acting suspiciously and other un-
usual events directly from videos. Many approaches have
been proposed for video-based human movement analy-
sis [4-6].
In [7] Oliver et al. developed a visual surveillance
system that models and recognizes human behavior using
hidden Markov mod els (HMMs) and a trajectory feature.
In [8-10] proposed a probabilistic posture classification
scheme to identify several types of movement, such as
walking, running, squatting, or sitting. In [11] traced the
negative minimum curvatures along body contours to
segment body parts and then identified body postures
using a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm.
In addition [12,13] used different morphological opera-
tions to extract skeletal features from postures and then
identified movements using a HMM framework. Another
approach used to analyze human behavior is the Gaus-
sian probabilistic model. In [14] has been described the
real-time finder system for detecting and tracking hu-
mans. In [15] proposed a shape-based approach for clas-
sification of objects is used following background sub-
traction based on frame differencing. The goal is to de-
tect the humans for threat assessment.
In [16] presented a method to detect and track a human
body in a video. First, background subtraction is per-
formed to detect the foreground object, which involves
temporal differencing of the consecutive frames. In [17]
presented a novel approach to detect the pedestrians,
which is shown to work well in a indoor environment.
They make use of a new sensing device, which gives
depth information along with image information simul-
taneously. In [18] proposed method that deals with the
direct detection of humans from static images as well as
video using a classifier trained on human shape and mo-
tion features. The training dataset consists of images and
videos of human and non-human examples. In [19] has
been suggested to use the mobile agent for multi-node
wireless video cooperation in order to reduce redundancy
which will result repeated information collection in over-
lapping regions. In [20] introduced automatic human
tracking system based on a video surveillance system
enhanced with mobile agent technologies. In [21-23] has
been proposed a composite approach for human detection,
which uses skin color and motion information to first
find the candidate foreground objects for human detec-
tion, and then uses a more sophisticated technique to
classify the objects. Other approaches extract human
postures or body parts (such as the head, hands, torso, or
feet) to analyze human behavior.
Motion Detection
This section aims to provide the status of art of the dif-
ferent techniques of motion detection estimation. Various
studies have been introduced on the subject and the lit-
erature is very plentiful in this provin ce. We are trying to
list some methods used methods. The idea is to give an
overview of the most commonly used methods and ap-
proaches. The most used algorithms for moving objects
detection are based on background subtraction. The
background subtraction is based on comparing of the
current video frame (foreground objects) with one from
the previous frames that is called someti mes background.
3. Video Surveillance System
In this section we introduce the system model of the
video surveillance system. Video surveillance system has
been used for monitoring, real-time image capturing,
processing, and surveillan ce information analyzing.
The infrastructure of the system model is divided in
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT
three main layers: mobile agents that are used to track
suspect objects, cognitive video surveillance manage-
ment (CVS), and Protocol for communication as shown
in Figure 1. Each end device, smart camera, covers a
certain zone or cell. Smart camera used for collecting
parameters of human face.
3.1. Communication Protocol
In the system model has been introduced two communi-
cation protocols. The first protocol used for agent-to-
agent protocol. Agents used this protocol for communi-
cation. The protocol is based on messages exchange as
shown in Figure 2. The goal of the protocol is to update
the agents. The second protocol is used for communica-
tion between CVS and mobile agent.
3.2. Mobile Agent Features
Mobile agents are placed in smart camera stations. Mo-
bile agent aims to track the suspect object from smart
camera station to others. Mobile agent offers various
characteristics, e.g. negotiation, making decision, roam-
ing, and cloning.
3.3. Cognitive Video Surveillance Management
Cognitive video surveillance (CVS) managed mobile
agent handoff in wireless networks. CVS provide the
mobile agent with information. Based on received infor-
mation mobile agents make decision when and where to
move to next smart camera station.
3.4. Tracking Moving Objects
In order to track moving obj ects, we introd uce two strate-
gies. The first strategy is based on messaging protocol
(msg_protocol). The goal of this msg_protocol is to in-
Figure 1. System model.
Figure 2. Agent protocol.
form the mobile agent about the position of the suspect
object. The second strategy uses the protocol to help the
mobile agent to roaming from point to others.
4. Methodology
Cognitive video surveillance (CVS) uses a data base of
images. Pixels are described by a set of binary sequences.
Each sequence presents certain properties (color). The
database is divided into two separate sets of pixels—the
training set and the test set. In both sets there are both
pixels, which belon g to a certain family of colors (attrib-
utes) and sequence, which do not belong.
Each image is then divided into frames, a frame being
a subset of pixel from the sequence. The number of pixel
in each frame is a variable and is dynamically set to ob-
tain optimal results.
11 1
22 2
mmm m
Xxx x
Xxx x
xx x
If for example a certain frame is comprised of 200
segments, the frames might consist of pixels 1 to 10, 2 to
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT
5. Smoothing EMA
11, 3 to 12, etc. Statistical methods are then applied to
find correlation between a certain properties of the frame. In this section we introduce detection model that is based
on moving average scheme. There are three types of
moving average, that is, simple moving average (SMA),
weight moving average (WMA), and exponential moving
average (EMA). In this study, an exponential moving
average is considered. An exponential moving average
uses a weighting or a smoothing factor which decreases
exponentially. The weighting for each older data point
decreases exponentially, giving much more importance
to recent observations while not discarding the older ob-
servations entirely. The detection phase focused on the
collected data analysis. To increase the accuracy of the
forecast model, the abnormal events in the collected data
should be considered. The forecast scheme is based on
the exponential moving average. The robustness and ac-
curacy of the exponential smoothing forecast is high and
impressive. The accuracy of the exponential smoothing
technique depends on the weight smoothed factor alpha
value of the current demand. To determine the optimal
alpha factor value, fitting curve has been considered.
The basic logic of statistical differentiation of pixel is
known and widely used in many prediction systems.
1 if
0 otherwise
A large number of correlating factors is defined by
CVS and grouped in sets. A number is linked with each
correlating factor. Each factor is then turned into a single
number which represents the strength of the correlation
factors for each frame with respect to the probability that
this frame belongs to the certain family or not. As a re-
sult we have a large number of frames, for each pair of a
frame we have a number which is correlated to the prob-
ability that this frame belo ngs to a certain attribute (color
similarity) or does not belong.
Optimization of J:
Prediction 1demand
JJ kJ
In addition to the statistical method an innovative
method of logical XOR multiplication of matrices is ap-
plied to enrich the number of frames, which are poten-
tially contributing to the prediction model.
6. Performance Analysis
We have used the object oriented programming language
C # to present the image in binary system as shown in
Figure 3. Hence Binary vectors are implemented in
WEKA platform. WEKA is stand for Waikato Environ-
ment for Knowledge Analysis. WEKA implements many
machine learning and data mining algorithms. As shown
CVS can be implemented in a dynamic environment –
when the training databases are modified the prediction
mechanism is modified as well with improved prediction
Figure 3. Image representation in binary system.
in Figures 4(a) and (b) the image analysis in visual form
is based on color classification. WEKA considers the
color of the image. The colors are represented in binary
system. WEKA clusters the binary vectors. Each cluster
represents certain attributes. As shown in Figure 5 the
comparison between simple moving average (SMA),
weight moving average (WMA) and exponential moving
average (EMA) is based on mean average error (MAE).
Furthermore we have compared the actual observations
to EMA model as shown in Figure 6. Results indicate
that all three moving average methods have more or less
similar performance in forecasting short-term times.
However, as one would expect the method using opti-
mized weights produced slightly better forecasts at a
higher computational cost. Quality of forecast is dimin-
ished as the time for which forecasts are made is farther
in the future. Moving average methods overestimate
travel speeds in slow-downs and underestimate them
when the congestion is clearing up and speeds are in-
7. Conclusion
In this paper, we discussed several methods in the recent
literature for human detection from video. We have or-
ganized them according to techniques which use back-
Figure 4. (a) Image analysis; (b) Color classification.
Figure 5. Comparison bet ween MA sch emes .
Figure 6. Actual observation vs. forecasting model.
ground subtraction and which operate directly on the
input. In the first category, we have ordered the tech-
niques based on the type of background subtraction used
and the model used to represent a human. In the second
category, we have ordered the techniques based on the
human model and classifier model used. Overall, there
seems to be an increasing trend in the recent literature
towards robust methods which operate directly on the
image rather than those which require background sub-
traction as a first step. The EMA model can be used for
human behaviors prediction.
[1] R. T. Collins, A. J. Lipton, T. Kanade, H. Fujiyoshi, D.
Duggins, Y. Tsin, D. Tolliver, N. Enomoto, O. Hasegawa,
P. Burt and L. Wixson, “A System for Video Surveillance
and Monitoring,” Robotics Institut e, Carnegie Mellon Uni -
versity, Pittsburgh, 2000.
[2] I. Haritaoglu, D. Harwood and L. S. Davis, “W4: Real-
Time Surveillance of People and Their Activities,” IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelli-
gence, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2000, pp. 809-830.
[3] S. Kwak and H. Byun, “Detection of Deominant Flow
and Abnormal Events in Surveillance Video,” Optical
Engineering, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2011. pp. 1-8.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT
[4] Z. Xu and H. R. Wu, “Smart Video Surveillance System,”
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on In-
dustrial Technology, 14-17 March, pp. 285-290.
[5] S. Aramvith, et al., “Video Processing and Analysis for
Surveillance Applications,” International Symposium on
Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Sys-
tems (ISPACS 2009), 7-9 January 2009, Kanazawa, pp.
[6] P. Bottoni, “A Dynamic Environment for Surveillance,”
Proceedings of the 12th IFIP TC 13 International Con-
ference on Human-Computer Interaction, Uppsala, 24-28
August, 2009, pp. 892-895.
[7] N. M. Oliver, B. Rosario and A. P. Pentland, “A Bayesian
Computer Vision System for Modeling Human Interac-
tions,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Ma-
chine Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2000, pp. 831-843.
[8] D. Weinland, R. Ronfard and E. Boyer, “A Survey of
Vision-Based Methods for Action Representation, Seg-
mentation and Recognition,” Computer Vision and Image
Understanding, Vol. 115, No. 2, 2011. pp. 224-241.
[9] I. Karaulova, P. Hall and A. Marshall, “A Hierarchical
Model of Dynamics for Tracking People with a Single
Video Camera,” Proceedings of the British Machine Vi-
sion Conference, 2000, pp. 262-352.
[10] Y. Ren, et al., “Detection and Tracking of Multiple Tar-
get Based on Video Processing,” 2009 Second Interna-
tional Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology
and Automation, Changsha, 10-11 October 2009, pp. 586-
[11] M. B. Augustin, S. Juliet and S. Palanikumar, “Motion
and Feature Based Person Tracking in Surveillance Vid-
eos,” Proceedings of ICETECT 2011, Tamil Nadu, 23-24
March 2011, pp. 605-609.
[12] T. J. Broida and R. Chellappa, “Estimation of Object Mo-
tion Parameters from Noisy Images,” IEEE Transactions
on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 8, No.
1, 1986, pp. 90-99.
[13] Y. Su, et al., “Surveillance Video Sequence Segmenta-
tion Based on Moving Object Detection,” 2009 Second
International Workshop on Computer Science and Engi-
neering, Qingdao, 28-30 October 2009, pp. 534-537.
[14] C. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell and A. Pentland,
“Pfinder: Real-Time Tracking of the Human Body,” IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelli-
gence, Vol. 19, No. 7, 1997, pp. 780-785.
[15] M. Ahmad and S.-W. Lee, “HMM-Based Human Action
Recognition Using Multi View Image Sequences,” Inter-
national Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol. 1, 2006,
pp. 263-266.
[16] Y. Kuno, T. Watanabe, Y. Shimosakoda and S. Naka-
gawa, “Automated Detection of Human for Visual Sur-
veillance System,” Proceedings of the 13th International
Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vienna, 25-29 Au-
gust 1996, pp. 865-869.
[17] H. Gou, et al., “Implementation and Analysis of Moving
Objects Detection in Video Surveillance,” Proceedings of
the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Information
and Automation, Harbin, 20-23 June 2010, pp. 154-158.
[18] S. Wang et al., “A Mobile Agent Based Multi-Node
Wireless Video Collaborative Monitoring System,” The
3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer
Theory and Engineering, Chengdu, 20-22 August 2010,
pp. 35-39.
[19] H. Kakiuch, et al., “Detection Methods Improving Reli-
ability of Automatic Human Tracking System,” 2010 4th
International Conference on Emerging Security Informa-
tion, Systems and Technologies, Washington DC, 2010,
pp. 240-246.
[20] W. Y. Zhao, R. Chellappa, P. J. Phillips and A. Rosenfeld,
“Face Recognition: A Literature Survey,” ACM Comput-
ing Surveys, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2003, pp. 399-458.
[21] T. S. Ling, L. K. Meng, L. M. Kuan, Z. Kadim and A. A.
Baha Al-Deen, “Colour Based Object Tracking in Sur-
veillance Application,” Proceedings of the International
Multi-Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists,
Hong Kong, 18-20 March 2009, pp. 459-464.
[22] B. Schiele, “Model-Free Tracking of Cars and People
Based on Color Regions,” Image and Vision Computing,
Vol. 24, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1172-1178.
[23] Z. Zhang, “Head Detection for Video Surveillance Based
on Categorical Hair and Skin Colour Models,” The 16th
IEEE International Conference on Image Processi ng, Cairo,
7-10 November 2009, pp.1137-1140.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AIT