 Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory, 2013, 3, 17-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/alamt.2013.33004 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/alamt) Innovative Structured Matrices Rahul Gupta, Garimella Rama Murthy IIIT-Hyderabad,Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India Email: rahulg583@gmail.com, rammurthy@iiit.ac.in Received February 17, 2013; revised March 17, 2013; accepted April 2, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Rahul Gupta, Garimella Rama Murthy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ABSTRACT Various directions of obtaining novel structured matrices are discussed. A new class of matrices, called “the L-family” matrices are introduced and their properties are studied. Keywords: Innovative Matrices; L Matrices; Structured Matrices 1. Introduction Linear algebra is central to modern mathematics and has been found many applications in Science, Technology, Engineering and many other disciplines. Matrices with special kind of structure like Toeplitz, Hankel etc., are studied with great interest . In this paper, a special family (called “The L-family”) of matrices are discussed in detail with some interesting properties. It is expected that this family of matrices will find interesting applica- tions in various disciplines of human endeavour. This idea of analysing new structured matrices was adopted from Dr. G. Rama Murthy’s journal paper “In- novative Structured Matrices”, International Journal of Algorithms, Computing and Mathematics Volume 2, Number 4, November 2009. 2. Logical Idea behind Structured Matrices We can think of innovative structured matrices in many ways. For example, one way is to construct a matrix from the indices or subscripts of elements of the matrix. The other way is to assign a particular same value to all ele- ments for each subset of the matrix, where these subsets are taken to be mutually exclusive and exhaustive [1,3]. Constructing matrices from indices point-of-view: 11 121321 222331 3233aaaaaaaaa we can map axy to a function of x, y, f (x, y). x, y = 1, 2, 3 i.e., ,xyafxy The following is the matrix constructed by taking 22,fxyxy xy 26126163012 30 54 We can also take just like ,xyaafxy,fxyx y as in a Toeplitz. Constructing matrices from subset point-of-view: Let us look at some typical examples. Example: 1 3333332223321233222333333aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  constructed by taking size-increasing, mutually ex- clusive and exhaustive square shaped subsets Example: 2 4321432243334444aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 1234223433344444aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa4444433343224321aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 4444333422341234aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaThe above 4 matrices are constructed by taking └, ┘, Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ALAMT R. GUPTA, G. R. MURTHY 18 ┐, ┌ shaped subsets of the matrix as the criteria respec- tively. Example: 3 2222211221122112aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 2222211121112222aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa2222111211122222aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 2112211221122222aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaThese matrices are constructed by taking shaped subsets of the matrix as the criteria in all the four direc- tions with opening towards south, east, west and north directions respectively. Remark: This logical approach can be extended to ar- rive at large number of structured matrices (like Toeplitz matrix) . The L-family of matrices: Now we focus our attention on the class of matrices in Example 2. This class of matrices can be called “The L-family” matrices due to their resemblance in their structure with the letter “L”. 4321432243334444L-matrixaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa 1234223433344444rev-L matrixaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa4444433343224321inv-L matrixaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a 4444333422341234rev-inv-L matrixaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa[rev: stands for reverse and inv: stands for inverse].Let us consider only square matrices in our entire dis- cussion. Let us define an originator of a matrix in L-family. The ith originator of a n*n L-family matrix is the element which occurs (2i-1) times in the matrix. In all the above mentioned matrices, a1-1st originator, a2-2nd originator, a3-3rd originator and a4-4th originator. Let us examine some of the properties of L-family: Claim 1: For any L-family matrix A, 1AA where ||.|| represents natural norm . Proof 1: 111111max maxmaximum absolute column sum of the matrixmzijzjniAA a 111max maxmaximum absolute row sum of the matrixnzijzjmiAA a For rev-L and inv-L matrices absolute kth row sum is equal to absolute kth column sum for . For L- and rev-inv-L matrices absolute kth column sum is equal to absolute (n ‒ k + 1)th column sum for 1, 2,,kn1, 2,,kn. (Note: m = n for a square matrix). Hence 1AA Claim 2: For an L-family matrix to be stochastic, all the originators of it must be equal to each other. Proof 2: The sum of all the elements in each column of a stochastic matrix is equal to 1.Consider an L-matrix of order “n”, i.e., ,1,2,,iai n are originators. Sum of all the elements in 1st column = nan 11nnnaa n  Sum of all the elements in 2nd column = 11nnna a 11111 1nnna na n Sum of all the elements in 3rd column = 212nnnaaan 22221 1nnnan a nS imilarly, sum of all the elements in kth column = 111nknk akn  11111for4,5,nknknk aknank  1n Therefore, 1ian for all in 1, 2,,Hence all the originators must be equal to each other. Similar type proof can be provided for other type of matrices rev-L, inv-L, rev-inv-L matrices also. Claim 3: The determinant of a rev-L or inv-L matrix with originators ,1,2,,iai n is equal to  122334 1nnaa aaa aaaa n. Proof 3: The proof for rev-L matrix is as follows. Perform the following elementary row operations on the determinant. 1) 1iiiRRR for all in 1, 2,,12) Take 12 231,,aaa aaa ,,nammon out of the determinant nn co3) 1iiiRRR for all in ,1,,n24) The remaining determinant goes to “1” as it is Iden- tity matrix. Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ALAMT R. GUPTA, G. R. MURTHY 19Hence proved for rev-L matrix. The proof for inv-L matrix is as follows. 1) for all 1iiiRRR,1,,inn22) Take an, (a1 − a2), (a2 − a3), ... (an−1 − an) common out of the determinant 3) for all 1iiiRRR1, 2,,1in 4) The remaining determinant goes to “1” as it is Iden- tity matrix. Hence proved for inv-L matrix also. Claim 4: The determinant of L-matrix or rev-inv-L matrix with originators ,1,2,,iai n is equal to 2122334 11nnaa aaaaaaann, where [.] denotes step function/greatest integer function. The above claim can be easily proved using a simple mathematical induction. Before going through the proof let us look at some criteria which will be useful in prov- ing the claim. Let us define Mirror image of a n*n ordered square matrix as the matrix , where .  ijAa 1in jba ijBb ij (MIRROR) 1112131312 1121 222323222131 32 3333 3231aaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaa      001010100 (say M3) is the mirror image of Identity matrix, I3. Our aim is to find out the determinant (say Dn) of Mn. Claim 5: 21nnD Proof 5: We shall prove this using mathematical in- duction method. Let 1211kkD . Then  1112111111kkkkkkDD    12k Case 1: If k is even (= 2p)   211221 13221111 1pppp pkpk kD   1 Case 2: If k is odd (= 2p + 1)  211122111ppppkD  1k. Hence, 21nnD . The proof for claim 4 is as follows. Proof 4: The proof for L-matrix is as follows: Perform the following elementary row operations on the determinant. 5) 1iiiRRR for all 1, 2,,1in6) Take 12 231,,,,aaa aaa nammon out of the determinant nn co7) 1iiiRRR for all ,1,,inn28) The remaining determinant goes to “Dn” which is equal to (−1)[n/2]. Hence proved for L-matrix. The proof for rev-inv-L matrix is as follows: 5) 1iiiRRR for all ,1,,inn26) Take an, (a1 − a2), (a2 − a3), ... (an−1 − an) common out of the determinant 7) 1iiiRRR for all 1, 2,,1in8) The remaining determinant goes to “Dn” which is equal to 21n Hence proved for rev-inv-L matrix also. Therefore, from the above we can say that any L-fami- ly matrix of order n*n will be a non-singular matrix if and only if nth originator is non-zero and any ith generator is not equal to to (i + 1)th originator (for all 1, 2,,1in) matrix. Claim 5: If we permute ai with its adjacent number i.e. with 1ia or 1ia (in circular way), the value of DLn changes to 111nnnn naaaDLaa a  and 1112nnaaaDLaaa   Proof 5: Case 1. When replacing ai by ai‒1 for 2,3, ,in and a1 by an (in Circular Manner) i.e. 1nnaa, and 122,,nnaa a1a1naathen the value of Det. become 111nnnn naaaDaa a L and by dividing it by the actual value of L, 111nnnnnaaaDDaa a Case 2. When replacing ai by ai + 1 for and an by a1 (in Circular Manner) 1, 2,,1ini.e. , and 12aa23 1,,naa aan1naathen the value of Det. become 1112nnaaaDLaaa   and Copyright © 2013 SciRes. ALAMT R. GUPTA, G. R. MURTHY 20 by dividing it by the actual value of Det (L), 1112nnaaaDDaaa  Now note that, if we divide both the ratios, 11 211nnnaaaDDaa a  3. Block “L” Matrix If we take any one of the four kind of L matrix and make a bigger matrix (having order greater than the previous matrix) which contain the previous matrix then this type of matrix can be characterized as Block “L” where the Matrix has the same building block all over the matrix. Let us consider a “L” matrix having minimum order (2  2) – abaa Now, we are considering a shape where b = 0 then 0aLaa which has a shape of “└” If we take this matrix and make a new matrix which has this matrix as a building block then 0LXLL here L is the same as described above. Here we can see that the value of 2La Again, if we can take X as a building block and if we follow the same shape “└”, we can get a new matrix 0XLXX4 where “X” is as described above. Note that, all the matrices are following the same pat- tern and hence having a same shape. If we calculate the Determinant of the above matrices :  22XLLaaa Likewise, for Y,  44YXXaa 8a where the matrix Y has order = 2  2  2 = 8 So we can generalized the det. value as -Block nLa where n is the order of the matrix. Now, if we more generalize our Block Matrices with different L matrices having different elements, then we can write X as – 1230LLL where 1L, 2L, 3L are L matrices having different ele- ments. Note, 211La 222La 233Laand that is how, the value of   222131313XLLaaaa Again, going for bigger ordered matrices, we have Y which has blocks of X, X , X and if we go through above method, we can find the 2213 13YXXaabb  Where are elements of 123,,,aaaX matrix. like- wise, are elements of 123,,,bbbX . Here we can write X as 1230LLL  So, In general, Determinant value of Block “L” matri- ces can be written as: 22213 13 13Block Laabbcc Where are elements of different “L” Ma- trices. ,,, ,abcd4. Hybrid “L” Matrix We can make a matrix in which it has blocks of different kinds of “L” matrices like └, ┘, ┐, ┌. They may or may not repeat in the matrix. We are calling this type of matrix as hybrid “L” matrix where the building block of matrix is different types of L matrix. This type of shapes can be found in the nature itself. 0000abaa bbccddcd Matrix having all four type of L matrices. Here we can see the different L patterns. The elements are arranged in this fashion that they are constructing different L shapes. In future, the Determinant value and inverse of the above matrix can be evaluated. 5. Conclusion and Future Work In this technical report, we reflect on the approach of arriving at structured matrices. 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