Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2011, 1, 59-68
doi:10.4236/jsea.2011.41007 Published Online January 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JSEA
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized
Requirements Analysis
Huafeng Chen, Keqing He
State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Received November 22nd, 2010; revised December 4th, 2010; accepted December 20th, 2010.
The development of Web service has changed the process of software production, and requirements engineering be-
comes the key issue of service-oriented software engineering. Meantime, it reduces the degree of difficulty of software
production, which facilitates end-users to customize software according to their personalized requirements. The paper
proposes a method for service-oriented personalized requirements analysis, which is based on domain goal model and
process model. The method can inform users of potential errors in requirements by detecting the correctness of re-
quirements, which is driven by users’ personalized operations on goal models, and customize personalized processes to
satisfy users’ requirements by reusing domain processes. The personalized processes are the basis for Web service dis-
covery and composition.
Keywords: Personalized Requirements Analysis, Requirements Correctness Detection, Personalized Process
Customization, Domain Model, Web Service
1. Introduction
The development of Web service has changed the pro-
cess of software production. Tradition ally, the process of
software production includes several phases, such as re-
quirements elicitation and analysis, design, coding and
test. However, in the era of service co mputing, more and
more Web services are deployed on the Internet, which
provide plenty of resources for software development and
facilitate a novel software production methodology
“Meet-in-the-Middle” [1]. This novel methodology re-
duces the degree of difficulty of software production and
makes it possible for end-users with some knowledge
about computer to customize their own software accord-
ing to their personalized requirements. The software is
composed of Web services and can be changed easily
according to the requirements. Because the software is
living on the Internet, we name it networked software
Using existing Web services is the basis for customiz-
ing networked software, so the key problem to solve is
how to get accurate requirements from end-user, rather
than design and coding.
To serve the end-user well, we think a tool to support
the procedure of customization is necessary. The tool
should give them a lot of tips during the customization,
since end-users are always without expert knowledge
about software, but some knowledge about what they
want to do. These tips should come from domain models
which are constructed by experts beforehand.
Domain models usually include common requirements
and solutions, but requirements from end-users are al-
ways personalized. The paper focuses on how to analyze
end-users’ personalized requirements using common req-
uirements in domain models.
The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is about
related works. In Section 3, the RGPS requirements me-
ta-model framework is introduced, which is the guideline
of constructing domain models used in requirements ana-
lysis. In Section 4, we introduce how to analyze service-
oriented personalized requirements based on domain mo-
dels. The procedure of analysis includes detecting the co-
rrection of personalized requirements and personalized
process customization. A case study is illustrated in Sec-
tion 5. A prototype tool based on our method is intro-
duced in Section 6. The last section concludes the paper
and proposes some problems should be solved in the
2. Related Works
Our method in this paper is related to several ideas or
methodologies, such as mass customization, goal-orien-
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JSEA
ted requirements analysis, and techniques fo r personalized
process customization.
The idea of mass customization is successfully applied
in software engineering. One proof is the birth of soft-
ware product line, which is related to domain analysis
and modeling. Constructing domain requirements assets
is usually necessary. Feature-oriented domain analysis [7]
is very useful to construct common requirements and va-
riable requirements [8]. The decomposition of goals in
RGPS meta-model adopts similar idea.
Goal-oriented requirements analysis is popular after
object-oriented requirements analysis [9]. It is more sui-
table for people without expert knowledge to describe
requirements. KAOS [10] and Tropos [11] are classical
goal-oriented requirements analysis methods.
In the era of service computing, goal-oriented requi-
rements analysis is still full of vitality. Tropos is exten-
ded to make it possible to get service specification [12].
Personalized process customization is the key techni-
que in service computing. A Web service customization
model is constructed in [13], which is related to process
customization. Web service customization is achieved by
applying goal ontology model, process component reuse
and flexible process defining. The process is described
with ECA [14], and users are allowed to modify process
One of the characteristics of our work is that we face
end-user. Service Oriented Architectures for All
(SOA4All) is a large-scale integrating project funded by
the European Seven th Framework Programme, under the
Service and Software Architectures, Infrastructures and
Engineering research area [15], which also faces end-
user. The objective of SOA4All is to make the service
Web as accessible and ubiquitous as today's information
Web. It aims at integrating SOA and four complementary
and revolutionary technical advances (the Web, context-
aware technologies, Web 2.0 and Semantic Web) into a
coherent and domain independent worldwide service de-
livery platform.
3. RGPS Requirements Meta-Model
The RGPS requirements meta-model framework adopts
ontology & meta-modeling theory [16], and defines 4
types of elements required by service-oriented require-
ments modeling. They are role, goal, process and service,
res- pectively. The role model and the goal model are
des- cribed in OWL [17], and the process model and the
service model are described in OWL-S [18]. All the
models are annotated with ontology, which makes it
possible for semantic inquiry and reasoning. 4 types of
elements are not isolated. A role can have goals, a goal
can be achieved by processes, and a process can be rea-
lized by services.
This requirements meta-model framework can be used
to guide domain experts to cons truct domain models. The
common requirements assets in domain models can be
used to analyze requirements and customize personalized
For the goal and the process are greatly related to this
paper, we will look further into them. For the compre-
hensive understanding of RG PS, we can ref e r to [19].
3.1. Goal Meta-Model
Goals and relationships between goals are two major ele-
ments in the goal meta-model (Figure 1). Goals are de-
fined as the target state of the system users expect, and
are divided in to functional goals and non functional goals.
Functional goals have 3 properties, and they are operation,
such as “display”, object, such as “travel information”,
and manner, such as “by SMS”. Nonfunctional goals are
further divided into qualitative nonfunctional goal and
quantitative nonfunctional goal. The former, such as “fast
responsible time”, includes nonfunctional type, such as
“responsible time”, and degree, such as “fas t”. Th e latter ,
such as “cost less than 20 dollars”, includes nonfunctional
type, such as “cost”, comparison operator, such as “less”,
value, such as “20”, and unit, such as “dollar”. A non-
functional goal can affect one functional goal or the
whole system.
The relationship between goals can be divided into
horizontal relationship and vertical relationship. The for-
mer include “depend” and “exclude”. The “depend” rela-
tionship means that if the goal A is selected, the goal B
which is depended by the goal A, should be selected. The
goal A is the source end, and th e goal B is the target end.
The “exclude” relationship means that if a goal is se-
lected, all the goals exclude it sho uld not be selected.
The vertical relationship between goals is “decompose”.
Goals can be refined by decomposition until operational
goals which can be achieved by processes. We define 4
types of decomposition, and they are “mandatory”, “op-
tional”, “alternative” and “or”. The “mandatory” means
that if the super goal is selected, the sub-goal should be
selected. The “optional” means that if the super goal is
selected, the sub-goal could be selected or not. The “al-
ternative” means that if the super goal is selected, one of
the sub-goals in a group should be selected. The “or”
means that if the super goal is selected, at least one of the
sub-goals in a group should be selected.
3.2. Process Meta-Model
The process meat-model includes process and its proper-
ties (Figure 2). The process can be divided into atomic
process and composite process. Atomic processes are
composed into a composite process by control structures.
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Figure 1. Goal meta-model.
Figure 2. Process meta-model.
5 typical control structures are in the meta-model. They
are sequence, loop, choice, split-join and any-order. The
properties of process include input, output, precondition,
effect, and quality expectation. The input and output re-
present data flow of the process. The precondition and
effect represent the condition must be satisfied before
execution and after execution, respectively. The quality
expectation means nonfunctional constraint on the pro-
3.3. Relationship between Goal and Process
The relationships between goal and process are also de-
fined in the framework. Due to the limitation of space,
we illustrate them in Table 1. More details are in [20].
Table 1. Relationship betwee n Goal and Proc ess.
Goal Process
Functional Goal Composite Process
Operational Goal Atomic Process
Mandatory Any-Order
Optional Any-Order
Alternative Choice
Or Split-Join
Depend Sequence
Nonfunctional Goal Expectation
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JSEA
4. A Method for Service-Oriented
Personalized Requirements Analysis
The method proposed in the paper allows end-users to
propose their personalized requirements by modifying
domain goal models. We name this type of modification
personalized operation. After the personalized operation,
different types of requirements correctness detections
will be triggered. The modifications on domain goal mo-
dels will be mapped into process models and persona-
lized processes are generated automatically by modifying
domain process models. Because end-users are more fa-
miliar with the goals than processes, we advocate this
method is suitable for end-users to customize software.
4.1. The Relationship between Personalized
Operations and Correctness Detection
Because the requirements in domain models are common,
but end-users’ requirements are personalized, there must
be some difference between them. However, some of the
difference is problematic. The task of correctness detec-
tion is to find the problematic difference. Table 2 illus-
trates corresponding correctness detections to persona-
lized operations.
4.2. Personalized Operations and Correctness
In this paper, personalized operations are divided into 2
categories. One category will introduce requirements
from other domain into the current requirements, whe-
reas the other category won’t. The former is named inter-
domain personalized operation, and the latter is named
personalized operation within one domain.
Personalized operation within one domain can be di-
vided into 8 sub-categories, and they are “Select Sub-
goal”, “Specify Goal”, “Add Domain Functional Goal”,
“Delete Domain Functional Goal”, “Add Nonfunctional
Goal within a Domain”, “Delete Nonfunctional Goal
within a Domain”, “Add ‘Depend’ between Goals within
a Domain”, and “Delete ‘Depend’ within a Domain”.
Inter-domain personalized operation can be divided into
6 sub-categories, and they are “Add Functional Goal of
other Domain”, “Delete Functional Goal of other Do-
main”, “Add Nonfunctional Goal of other Domain”,
“Delete Nonfunctional Goal of other Domain”, “Add
‘Depend’ between Goals not within a Domain”, and
“Delete ‘Depend’ between Goals not within a Domain”.
4.2.1. Personalized Operations within One
1) Select Sub-goal (SSG)
Selecting a sub-goal is the most common operation for
end-users. They should follow 4 types of deco mpositions.
By the way, the selected goal may be excluded by exist-
ing goals. So “Check Decomposition Conflict” and “Ch-
eck Conflict” are necessary.
“Check Decomposition Conflict” means checking
whether end-users’ selections for sub-goals should fol-
low the constraints of 4 types of d e composition.
“Check Conflict” means checking whether the sub-
goal selected by end-user has the “exclude” relationship
between other goals existing in the requirements.
2) Specify Goal (SG)
Specifying a goal means adding the “manner” to the
goal. For example, the goal “display travel information”,
which does not have “manner”, can be specified into
“display travel information by SMS”, by adding “man-
ner” “by SMS”. Specifying a goal won’t cause any trou-
ble, so correctness detection is unnecessary.
3) Add Domain Functional Goal (ADFG)
A functional goal can be added as a sub-goal of an ex-
isting goal or as a top-level goal. A special situation is
that if goal A is selected and goal A depends on goal B in
the domain model, the end-user can add goal B together
with the “depend” relationship. In this case, goal B is
called “associated goal”. “Check Conflict” is necessary
in this situation. If a goal is add ed without any “depend”
relationship, we must do “Check Sub-goal”, and “Check
“Check Sub-goal” means checking whether a goal can
be a sub-goal of another goal. We assume that a goal in
the domain model can not be the super-goal of its former
super-goal or can not be the sub-goal of its former sub-
4) Delete Domain Functional Goal (DDFG)
When deleting a goal with the “depend” relationship,
we should do “Check Dependent Goal Collection”, “Ch-
eck Nonfunctional Goal Collection”, and “Check Sub-
goal Collection”. When deleting a goal without the “de-
pend” relationship, we should only do “Check Nonfunc-
tional Goal Collection”, and “Check Sub-goal Collec-
“Check Dependent Goal Collection” means that we
should delete the goal which is depended by the goal de-
“Check Nonfunctional Goal Collection” means that
the nonfunctional goals, which constrain the functional
goal deleted, should be deleted.
“Check Sub-goal Collection” means that we should
delete the sub-go a ls of the goal deleted.
5) Add Nonfunctional Goal within a Domain (ANFGD)
Adding a nonfunctional goal to a functional goal will
trigger “Check Nonfunctional Type”. Because the non-
functional goal may conflict with the nonfunctional goals
already related to the same functional goal.
6) Delete N onfunction al Goal w ithin a Dom ain (DNFGD)
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Table 2. Relationship among personalized operation, correctness detection and personalized process customization.
Personalized Operation Correctness Detection Personalized Process
Customization Note
Within One
Select Sub-goal
Select Optional
Sub-goal (SOSG)
Check Decomposition
Conflict (C_DC), Check
Delete Process in
Any-order (DPA)
Select Alternative
Sub-goal (SASG)Delete Process in Choice
Select Or
Delete Process in
Split-join (DPS)
Specify Goal (SG) No Add Input (AI) Specify a goal by
adding “manner”
to the goal.
Add Domain
Functional Goal
By “Depend”
(ADFGD) Check Conflict(C_C) Add Process Considering
Dependency (APD) A way to complete
Not by “Depend”
(ADFGND) Check Sub-goal (C_S),
Check Conflict(C_C)
Add Any-order and a
Process in Any-order
Delete Domain
Functional Goal
With “Depend”
Check Dependent Goal
Collection (C_DGClct),
Check Nonfunctional
Goal Collection
(C_NFGClct), Check
Sub-goal Collection
(C_SubClct) Delete Process (DP)
The goal deleted
has “depend”
relationship with
another goal.
Without “De-
Check Nonfunctional
Goal Collection
(C_NFGClct), Check
Sub-goal Collection
The goal deleted
does not have
“depend” rela-
tionship with
another goal.
Add Nonfunctional Goal within a
Domain (ANFGD) Check Nonfunctional
Type (C_NFT) Add Expectation (AE)
Delete Nonfunctional Goal within a
Domain (DNFGD) No Delete Expectation (DE)
Add “Depend” between Goals within a
Domain (ADD) Check Depend (C_D) No
Delete “Depend” within a Domain
(DDD) No
Add Functional Goal of other Domain
(AFG) No Add any-order and a
Process in Any-order
Delete Functional Goal of other Do-
main (DFG) The same as (DDFG) Delete Process (DP)
Add Nonfunctional Goal of other Do-
main (ANFG) Check Nonfunctional
Type (C_NFT) Add Expectation (AE)
The nonfunctional
goal must con-
strain a nonfunc-
tional goal, which
belongs to other
Delete Nonfunctional Goal of other
Domain (DNFG) The same as (DDNFG) Delete Expectation (DE)
Add “Depend” between Goals not
within a Domain (AD) Check Depend (C_D)
The “depend”
relationship must
be related to a
goal, which be-
longs to other
Delete “Depend” between Goals not
within a Domain (DD) The same as (DDD)
Deleting a nonfunctional goal won’t cause any incor-
rectness. 7) Add “Depend” between Goals within a Domain (ADD)
Adding a “depend” relationship between two goals will
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JSEA
trigger “Check Depend”.
“Check Depend” means checking whether the “de-
pend” relationship will become a loop after adding a new
8) Delete “Depend” within a Domain (DDD)
Deleting a “depend” relationship between two goals
won’t cause any incorrectness.
4.2.2. Inter-domain Personalized Operations
1) Add Functional Goal of other Domain (AFG)
Adding a functional goal belonging to another domain
won’t cause any incorrectness, because the goal from an-
other domain does not have any relationship with goals
in this domain.
2) Delete Functional Goal of other Domain (DFG)
Because once a goal from another domain is added
into the existing requirements, the context of the goal is
the same as goals in this domain, deleting the goal is the
same as DDFG.
3) Add Nonfunctional Goal of other Domain (ANFG)
Adding a nonfunctional goal from another domain will
trigger “Check Nonfunctional Type”.
4) Delete Nonfunctional Goal of other Domain
Deleting a nonfunctional goal from another domain is
the same as DNFGD.
5) Add “Depend” between Goals not within a Domain
“Check Depend” is necessary after adding “depend”
relationship between goals from different domains.
6) Delete “Depend” between Goals not within a Do-
main (DD)
Deleting “depend” is the same as DDD.
4.3. Personalized Process Customization
Personalized process customization is driven by end-
users’ personalized operations. Having detecting correct-
ness of requirements, we can modify domain process
models to satisfy end-users’ requirements using relation-
ship between goal and process (Table 1) and rules for
customizing processes. Table 2 illustrates the rules cor-
responding to pers o nal i zed o perati o ns.
1) Delete Process in Any-order (DPA)
In Tab le 1, optional goals correspond to the processes
in control structure “any-order” (Figure 3(a)). If the op-
tional goals selected by end-users correspond to process i,
process j, and process k, we can modify the common
process (Figure 3(a)) into the personalized one (Figure
3(b)). When only one process existed in the control stru-
cture “any-order”, it is unnecessary for it to exist, so we
delete the control structure “any-order”.
2) Delete Process in Choice (DPC)
The situation is similar to DPA. It is easily to under-
stand the transformation from the process in Figure 3(c)
to the process in Figure 3(d). It should be noticed that in
this case only one goal is selected, so the control struc-
ture “choice” is always deleted.
3) Delete Process in Split-join (DPS)
This case is similar to DPA.
4) Add Input (AI)
“Manner” added by end-uses can be transformed into
the input of the process. For example, if an end-user spe-
cifies a goal “search gas station” into “search gas station
by current position”, the corresponding process will add
an input “current position”.
5) Add Process Considering Dependency (APD)
The “depend” relationship corresponds to the control
structure “sequence”. If goal i depends on goal j, and
goal j is added by end-user, we should transform process
i (Figure 3 (d)) into the personalized one (Figure 3(g)).
6) Add Any-order and a P rocess in Any-order (APA)
When an end-user adds a goal without “depend” rela-
tionship with other goals, we should transform the
process (Figure 3(d)) into the personalized one (Figure
3 (h)).
7) Delete Process (DP)
Delete the process which corresponding to the goal de-
leted by end-user.
8) Add Expectation (AE)
Transform the nonfunctional goal added by end-user
into expectation. The nonfunctional goal is usually att-
ached to a functional goal, so the expectation is also at-
tached to the process which corresponds to the functional
9) Delete Expectation (DE)
Delete the expectation corresponding to the nonfunc-
tional goal, which is de leted by end-user.
5. Case Study
A case on planning travel is studied to illustrate the me-
thod proposed in this paper. In this case, the goal model
in Figure 4 is used as the domain model.
This case belongs to the domain of urban traffic, and
takes common citizens’ travel as background. Although
common citizens travel every day, they are not experts on
the domain of urban traffic. They are assumed to propose
requirements in the form of goals, and their requirements
are usually not complete and correct. Some of the goals
even do not belong to the domain of urban traffic. We
should analyze the requirements with those characteris-
tics, and assist them to customize the software suitable
for them with Web services. Firstly, an end-user has
proposed the following goals.
1) Functional Goal: Inquire Travel Information.
2) Functional Goal: Display Travel Information by
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Proc. 1
Proc. n
Proc. i
Proc. i
A Proc. j EA
Proc. k
Proc. 1
Proc. n
Proc. i
Proc. i
Proc. 1
Proc. n
Proc. i
Proc. i
S Proc. j ES
Proc. k
Proc. j Proc. i
g Proc. i
Figure 3. Personalized process customization.
3) Functional Goal: Plan Itinerary of Bus.
4) Qualitative Nonfunctional Goal: Number of Itine-
rary/ Numerous, which constrains Plan Itinerary.
5) Functional Goal: Search Gas Station.
We will perform personalized operation and correct-
ness detection based on the requirements proposed ab-
The end-user feels “Plan Itinerary” should have non-
functional goal “Response Time/Short”, which triggers
“check conflict”, and finds that “Number of Itinerary/
Numerous” is conflicted “Response Time/Short”. We
suggest the end-user to do some modification. Finally,
the end-user changes the “Number of Itinerary/Numer-
ous” into “Number of Itinerary/Moderate”.
At this time, the end-user feels that “Plan Itinerary of
Bus” can not express what he/she wants to do, so he/she
specifies it into “Plan Itinerary of Bus by Current Posi-
tion”. The personalized operation “specify goal” does not
trigger any correctness detection.
Because the goal “Search Gas Station” depends on the
goal “Confirm Current Position”, the end-user feel it is
necessary to add “Confirm Current Position” to co mplete
the requirements. “Check conflict” is triggered.
The end-user wants to add a goal “Inquire Weather”
which belongs to another domain, and no correctness de-
tection is triggered.
The end-user feels he/she does not need the goal “In-
quire Travel Information” any more. After deleting the
goal, “Check Nonfunctional Goal Collection” and “Che-
ck Sub-goal Collection” are triggered.
After the personalized operations performed above, we
get the personalized goal model. Using process customi-
zation rules “DPA” and “APA”, we get the personalized
process (Figure 5). The composite process “Display Tra-
vel Information” and “Plan Itinerary” can also be custo-
mized similarly according to the rules.
The personalized processes are the basis for service
discovery and composition.
6. Prototype System
A prototype tool for service-oriented requirements elici-
tation and analysis is developed to support the method
discussed above. Its functions include requirements eli-
citation, requirements analysis, and service discovery,
composition, and execution.
The tool is B/S style to satisfy multi-users online, and
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JSEA
alternative or
or or
Plan Travel
Plan Itinerary of
Plan Itinerary of
Display T ravel
Information by
In qu ir e Trave l
Informati o
Inquire Bus
Inquire Car
Display Trave l
Display T ravel
Information by
Display Travel
Inf o r m atio n by A udio
Inquire Taxi
Informati o
Response Time/
Plan Itinerary of Bus by
Current Positio
Number of Itin er ary/
Plan Travel
Functional Goal
Nonfunctional Goal
Nonfunctional Goal Constraining
Functional Goal
Time/ Sho rt
Figure 4. Goal model on traffic.
Composite Process in Domain Model:
Plan Trave l
Inquire Weathe r
Plan Itinerar
Display T ravel
Inquir e Trav e l
Plan Itinerary
Display T ravel
Persona lize Proc ess:
Plan Travel
Figure 5. Personalized process customization.
A Method for Service-Oriented Personalized Requirements Analysis
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Figure 6. the Interface for end-users’ personalized opera-
is implemented in the form of Web service.
End-users can register to get an account. They can in-
put initial requirements by structured natural language
after login. After analyzing the requirements, we can get
a set of initial goals. End-user s can perform personalized
operations on the goals. The tool will detect correctness
of the requ irements. When the end -user finis hes pers ona-
lized operations, the tool can assist end-user to get per-
sonalized processes according to the goal models. Web
service discovery, composition and execution are also
functions of the tool, but the methods supporting those
functions are not in the scope of this paper. By the way,
end-users can reuse others’ requirements directly, or per-
form personalized operations on others’ requirements to
generate a new version of requirements in our tool.
Figure 6 illustrates the interface for end-users’ perso-
nalized operations. This interface contains some basic in-
formation of goals and su pports add ing, deletin g and mo-
difying those goals.
This tool has been applied in the domain of urban traf-
fic. Our methods are proved workable in this domain.
We will further apply this tool in other domains.
7. Conclusions and Future Works
Towards the characteristics of requirements engineering
in the era of service computing, we propose a method for
service-oriented requirements elicitation and analysis.
Our method is faced to end-users, who have some basic
knowledge about how to use computer and Internet. Re-
quirements’ correctness detection and personalized pro-
cess customization are two core parts of our method,
which are driven by end-users’ personalized operations.
We categorize the personalized operations and define the
corresponding detection type and process customization
rules for each type of personalized operation. A proto-
type tool is illustrated to prove the method workab le.
In the future, we will consider the environment of
cloud computing, especially process dynamic generation
and management in multi-tenant environmen t.
8. Acknowledgements
This research is part of the projects which are supported
by the National Basic Research Program (973 Program)
of China (2007CB31080 1); the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (60970017, 60703009, 60940028);
the Scholarship for International Young Scientists fun-
ded by National Natural Science Foundation of China
(60950110352); Specialized Research Fund for the Doc-
toral Program of Higher Education (20090141120020);
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
(Wuhan University) (6082008); the Outstanding Youth
Foundation of Hubei Province (2009CDA148); the Youth
Chenguang Science Project of Wuhan (200950431189).
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