Open Journal of Forestry
2013. Vol.3, No.4, 109-114
Published Online October 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojf) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2013.34018
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 109
Birds of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal
Saroj Panthi1*, Sher Singh Thagunna2
1Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Baglung, Nepal
2Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation, Api-Nampa Cons ervation Area, Darchula, Nepal
Email: *mountsaroj@gmail.com
Received June 18th, 2013; revised J uly 22nd, 2013; accepted August 7th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Saroj Panthi, Sher Singh Thagunna. This is an open access article distributed under the Crea-
tive Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any me-
dium, provided the o riginal work is properly cited.
Nepal is rich in bird diversity and recorded 871 bird species. Our study aimed to update bird diversity of
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) of Nepal which is an Important Birds Area (IBA) out of 27 IBAs of
Nepal. One hundred forty nine species of birds were recorded in DHR; out of them Catreus wallichii was
globally threatened bird which has faced different anthropogenic problem. Twelve species of birds were
included in CITIES Appendices and 3 species were nationally threatened. Most of the species of order
Passeriformis were recorded. Only one species of order Upupiformes i.e. Upupa epops was recorded dur-
ing the study.
Keywords: Bird; Checklist; Threatened; Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Introduction
Birds (class Aves) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endother-
mic, egg-laying, vertebrate animals (Wikipedia, 2013). Al-
though Nepal covers just 0.1% of the global land mass, nearly
9% of the world’s bird species are found here (BCN, 2012).
With the latest record of ashy minivet (Pericrocotus divaricatus)
and long-billed vulture (Gypus indicus) Nepal’s bird diversity
has reached 871 species (BCN, 2012; BCN and DNPWC,
2012). A total of 29 species recorded in Nepal were identified
as globally threatened by BirdLife International in 1999 (Grim-
mett et al., 2000). Zoo-geographically, Nepal falls between two
great regions: the Palaeartic in the north and Oriental to the
south so Nepal has one of the world’s richest avian fauna
(Shrestha, 1981).
A total of 27 Important Birds Areas (IBAs) had been identi-
fied in Nepal. Thirteen IBAs are within protected areas (Tha-
kuri & Thapa, 2012). Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) is one
of the IBAs (BCN and DNPWC, 2011). DHR was a habitat of
137 species of bird out of them cheer pheasant (Catreus wal-
lichii) is listed in endangered category of IUCN red data list
(Thapa, 2007). Here we updated the checklist of bird species of
DHR. DHR was good habitat of birds (Thapa, 2007) but check-
list update was lacking. Our aim was to update the checklist of
bird species in DHR and to identify their order, family, conser-
vation status and threats.
Material and Methods
Study Area
The Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) is the only one hunt-
ing reserve in Nepal located in Dhaulagiri Himal range of the
eastern part of the country (Aryal & Kreigenhofer, 2009; Panthi
et al., 2012). The reserve was established in 1983 and gazetted
in 1987. The reserve covers 1325 km2 and ranges from 2000 to
7246 m (altitude). It falls within the Rukum, Baglung and
Myadgi districts of Nepal (Figure 1). The reserve supports 14
ecosystems types represented in the mid hill to higher Himala-
yan ecosystem (Shrestha et al., 2002; Lillesø et al., 2005; Bhuju
et al., 2007).
The reserve provide prime habitat for fauna such as barking
deer (Munticus muntjak), Himalayan thar (Hemitragus jemla-
chicus), rhesus macaque (Macaca radiata) wolf (Canis lupus),
red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens), wild boar (Sus scorfa), blue
sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibet-
ans), common leopard (Panthera pardus), goral (Naemorhedus
goral), serow (Capricornis thar) and variety of avifauna in-
cluding cheer pheasant (Catrus wallichii) and danphe (Lopo-
phorus impegians) (Aryal & Kreigenhofer, 2009; Aryal et al.,
2010a; Aryal et al., 2010b; Panthi et al., 2012).
Methods: Checklist of Birds in DHR
Intensive survey was conducted throughout the reserve to
update the checklist of birds in study area. We used The books
“Birds of Nepal” prepared by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp
and Tim Inskipp (2000) and “Birds of Nepal: An Official
Checklist” (2012) prepared by Bird Conservation of Nepal
(BCN) and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Con-
servation (DNPWC) to identify the birds during the study. We
visited all seven hunting blocks of DHR viz. Barse, Dogadi,
Fagune, Ghustung, Seng, Sundaha and Surtibang blocks and
observed the birds in two season viz. winter and summer
throughout the year 2012. We observed the birds carefully by
the help of binoculars took photographs with digital camera and
compared that photo with the photos of book to identify the
birds. We also interviewed local people and DHR staffs to in-
dentify birds and their threats during the study.
Results and Discussion
We recorded one hundred forty nine species of birds in DHR
Table 1). Out of them, Catreus wallichii was globally threat- (
*Corresponding author.
S. PANTHI, S. S. THAGUNNA
Table 1.
Bird of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR), identified during the survey periods in 2012.
CITIES
S.N. Common name Scientific name Order Family Conservation
status Appendix
1 Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Anseriformes Anatidae
2 Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea Anseriformes Anatidae
3 Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis Ciconiformis Accipitridae II
4 Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus Ciconiformis Accipitridae II
5 Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis Ciconiformis Accipitridae II
6 Pallas’s Fish E agle Haliaeetus leucoryphus Ciconiformis Accipitridae II
7 Ibisbill Ididorhyncha struthersii Ciconiformis Charadriida e
8 Common Krestrel Falco tinnunculus Ci coniformis Falconidae II
9 Little Stint Calidris minuta Ciconiformis Scolopacidae
10 Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Ciconiformis Scolopacidae
11 Hill Pigeon Columba rupestris Columbiformes Columbidae
12 Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis Columbiformes Columbidae
13 Rock Pigeon Columba livia Columbiformes Columbidae
14 Snow Pigeon Columba palumbus Columbiformes Columbidae
15 Speckled Wood Pigeon Columba hodgsonii Columbiform es Columbidae
16 Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis Columbiformes Columbidae
17 Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus Galliformis Phasianidae II
18 Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii Galliformis Phasianidae GT, NP I
19 Hill Partridge Arborophila to rqueola Galliformis Phasianidae
20 Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejan us Galliformis Phasianidae NP I
21 Kalij Pheasant Lophura l eucomelanos Galliformis Phasianidae
22 Koklas Pheasant Pucrasia macrolop ha Galliformis Phasianidae
23 Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra Galliformis Phasianidae NP III
24 Snow Patridge Lerwa lerwa Galliformis Phasianidae
25 White-Throated Tit Aegithalos nive ogu l aris Passeriformes Aegithalidae
26 Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula Passeriformes Alaudidae
27 Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes Passeriformes Certhiidae
28 Brown Dipper C i nclus pallasii Passeriformes Cinc lidae
29 Hill Prinia Prinia atrogularis Pa sseriformes Cisticolidae
30 Striated Prinia Prinia criniger Passeriformes Cisticolidae
31 Zitting Cisticola Cisticola ju ncidis Passerif ormes Cisticolidae
32 Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophae us Passeriformes Corvidae
33 Common Raven Corvus corax Passeriformes Corvidae
34 Common Iora Aegithina tiph ia Passeriformes Corvidae
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S. PANTHI, S. S. THAGUNNA
Continued
35 Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus Passeri formes Corvidae
36 House Crow Corvus splen des Passeriformes Corvidae
37 Large-Billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos Passeriformes Corvidae
38 Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta v agabunda Passeriformes Corvidae
39 Short-Billed Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus Passeriformes Corvidae
40 Spotted Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatacte s Passeriformes Corvidae
41 Yellow-Billed Blue Magpie Urocissa flavirostris Passeriformes Corvidae
42 Yellow-Billed Chough Pyrrhocorax gracul us Passeriformes Corvidae
43 Yellow-Billed Fantail Rh ipidura hypox antha Passeriformes Corvidae
44 White-Throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis Passerif ormes Corvidae
45 Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus pulc h errimus Passeriformes Fringillidae
46 Blanford’s Rosefinch Carpodacus ru b escens Passeriformes Fringillidae
47 Collard Grosbeak Mycerobas affinis Passeriformes Fringillidae
48 Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus Passeriformes Fringillidae
49 Creasted Bunting Melophus lathami Passeriformes Fringillidae
50 Dark-Rumpled Rosefinch Carpodacus edw ardsii Passeriformes Fringillidae
51 Fire-Fronted Serin Serinus pusillus Passeriformes Fringillidae
52 Little Bunting Emberiza pusil la Passeriformes Fringillidae
53 Pine Bunting Emberiza leucoce phalos Passeriformes Fringillidae
54 Pink-Browed Rosefinch Carpodacus rodochrous Passeriformes Fringillidae
55 Red-Fronted Rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus Passeriformes Fringillidae
56 Rock Bunting Emberiza cia Passeriformes Fringillidae
57 Scarlet Finch Haematospiza sipahi Passeriformes Fringillidae
58 Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicill oi des Passeriformes Fringillidae
59 Twite Carduelis flavirostri s Passeriformes Fringillidae
60 Vinaceous Rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus Passeriformes Fringillidae
61 White-Winged Grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes Passeriformes Fringillidae
62 Yellow-Breasted Greenfinch Carduelis spinoides Passeriformes Fringillidae
63 Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Passeriformes Hirundinidae
64 Black-Backed Forktail Enicurus immaculatus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
65 Black Redstrat Phoenicurus ochruros Passeriformes Muscicapidae
66 Blue-Capped Redstrat Phoenicurus coeruleocephalus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
67 Blue-Fronted Redstrat Phoenicurus frontalis Passeriformes Muscicapidae
68 Common Stonechat Saxicola torqu ata Passeriformes Muscicapidae
69 Dark-Sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica Passeriforme s Muscicapidae
70 Dark-Thorated Thrush Turdus ruficollis Passeriformes Muscicapidae
71 Dusky Thrush Turdus naumanni Passeriformes Muscicapidae
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S. PANTHI, S. S. THAGUNNA
Continued
72 Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula Passeriformes Muscicapidae
73 Golden Bush Robin Tarsiger chrysenus Passeriforme s Muscicapidae
74 Grandala Grandala coe l icolor Passeriformes Muscicapidae
75 Grey Bushchat Saxicola ferra Passeriformes Muscicapidae
76 Grey-Winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul Passerif ormes Muscicapidae
77 Hodgson’s Redstrat Phoenicurus hodgosni Passeriforme s Muscicapidae
78 Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brun ne a Passe rif orm e s Muscicapidae
79 Kessler’s Thrush Turdus kessleri Passeriformes Muscicapidae
80 Mistle Thrush Tu rdus viscivorus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
81 Orange-Flanked Bush Robin Tarsiger cyanurus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
82 Orental Magpie Robin Copsychus saula ris Passeriformes Muscicapidae
83 Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata Passeriformes Muscicapidae
84 Plumbeous Water Redstart Rhyacornis fuliginos us Passeriformes Muscicapidae
85 Purple Cochoa Cochoa p urpurea Passeriformes Muscicapidae
86 Red-Thorated Flycatcher Ficedula parva Passeriformes Muscicapidae
87 Rufous-Brested Bush Robin Tarsiger hyperythrus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
88 Rufous-Gorgeted Flycatcher Fic edula strophiata Passeriformes Muscicapidae
89 Rusty-Tailed Flycatcher Muscicapa ruficauda Passeriformes Muscicapidae
90 White-Browed Bush Robin Tarsiger indicus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
91 White-Bellied Redstrat Hodgsonius ph aenicuroides Passeriformes Muscicapidae
92 White-Ca pp ed Water Redstart Chaimarronis leucoce phalu s Passerif orm es Muscicapidae
93 White-Collard Blackbird Turdus albocinctus Passeriformes Muscicapidae
94 White-Gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula monileger Passeriformes Muscicapidae
95 White-Tailed Robin Myiomela leucura Passeriformes Muscicapidae
96 White-Throated Redstrat Phoenicurus schisticeps Passeriformes Muscicapidae
97 Black-Lored Tit Parus xanthogenys Passeriformes Paridae
98 Coal Tit Parus ater Passeriformes Paridae
99 Fire-Capped Tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps Passeriformes Paridae
100 Green-Backed Tit Parus montic olus Passeriformes Paridae
101 Rufous-Napped Tit Parus rufonuchalis Passeriformes Paridae
102 Rufous-Vented Tit Parus rubidiventris Passeriformes Paridae
103 Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris Passeriformes Passeridae
104 Altai Accentor Prunella himalayana Passeriformes Passeridae
105 Brown Accentor Prunella fulvescens Passeriformes Passeridae
106 Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreol a Passeriformes Passeridae
107 Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea Passeriformes Passeridae
108 House Sparrow Passer domesticus Passeriforme s Passeridae
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Continued
109 Olive-Backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni P asseriformes Passeridae
110 Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus Passe riformes Passeridae
111 Red-Thorated Pipit Anthus cervinus Passeriformes Passeridae
112 Robin Accentor Prunella rubeculoides Passeriformes Passeridae
113 Rosy Pipit Anthus rosestus Passeriformes Passeridae
114 Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis Passeriformes Passeridae
115 Upland Pipit Anthus sylvanus Passeriformes Passe ridae
116 Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Passeriformes Passeri dae
117 Long-Tailed Shrike Lan ius schach Passeriformes Pittidae
118 Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus Passeriformes Pycnonotidae
119 Himalayan Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys Passeriformes Pycnonotidae
120 Striated Bulbul Pycnonotus melanic t erus Passeriformes Pycnonotidae
121 Goldcrest Regulus re gulus Passeriformes Regulidae
122 Black-Faced Laughinthrush Garru la x affinis Passeriformes Sylviida e
123 Black-Throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis niplensis Passeriformes Sylviidae
124 Brownish-Flanked Bush Warbler Cet t i a f o rtipes Passeriformes Sylviidae
125 Chesnut-Crowned Bush Warbler Cettia major Passeriformes Sylviidae
126 Great Parrotbill Conostoma oemodi um Passeriformes Sylviidae
127 Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides Passeriformes Sylviidae
128 Grey-Hooded Warbler Seicercus xanth oschistos Passe riformes Sylviidae
129 Hoary-Thorated Barwing Actinod ura nipalensis Passeriformes Sylviidae
130 Hume’s Warbler P hyll osco pus hum ei P asse rif orm es Sylviidae
131 Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus Passeriformes Sylviidae
132 Large-Billed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Passeriformes Sylviidae
133 Rufus-Vented Yuhina Yuhina occipitalis Passeriformes Sylviidae
134 Slender-Billed Scimita r Babbler Xiphirhynchus Superciliaris Passeriformes Sylviidae
135 Straited Laughinthrush Garrulax striatus Passeriformes Sylviidae
136 Streaked Laughinthrush Garrulax lin eatus Passeriformes Sylvi id ae
137 Variegated Laughinthrush Garrualx variegates Passeriformes Sylviidae
138 Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus whistleri Passerif orm es Sylviidae
139 White-Browed Tit Warbler Leptopoecile sophiae Passeriformes Sylviidae
140 White-Creasted Laughingthrush Garrulax monileger Passeri formes Sylviidae
141 White-Throated Laughingthrush Ga rrulax albogularis Passeriformes Sylviidae
142 Yellow-Bellied Warbler Abrosc opus supercilliaris Passeriformes Sylviidae
143 Crimson-Brested Woodpecker Dendrocopos cathpharius Piciformes Indicato ridae
144 Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus Piciformes Indicatoridae
145 Rufous-Bellied Woodpecker Dendroco pos hyperythrus Piciform es Indicatoridae
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Continued
146 Little Owl Athene noctua Strigiformes Strigidae II
147 Spotted Owlet Athene brama Strigiformes Strigidae II
148 Tawny Owl Strix aluco Strigiformes Strigidae II
149 Common Hoopoe Upupa epops Upupiformes Upupidae
Note: GT: Globally Threatened, NP: Nationally Protected.
Figure 1.
Dhorpatan hunting reserve, Nepal.
ened bird which has faced different anthropogenic problem.
C. wallichii Lophophorus impejanus Tragopan satyra are na-
tionally protected birds found in the reserve. C. wallichii and L.
impejanus are included in CITIES appendix I (BCN and
DNPWC 2012).
We recorded 9 species which are included in CITIES appen-
dix II and on e sp e cies w hich is in clude d in CIT I ES app end ix I II .
Most of the species of order Passeriformis were recorded. Only
one species of order Upupiformes i.e. Upupa epop s was recorded
during the study.
This study showed that snares were main threats of birds.
Local people used snares to capture large sized birds such as
Arborophila torqueola, Catreus wallich ii, Ithaginis cruentus Lo-
phophorus impejanus, Lophura leucomelanos, Pucrasia macro-
lopha and Tragopan satyra for fulfillment of meat.
We recorded snares in two places viz. Karichaur in Fagune
block and Rukhacahur in Barse block. Small children killed
small sized forest birds due to lack of awareness. The present
study provided basic information on birds of DHR. However
further species wise information is needed. Distribution and
detail threats identificat io n o f globally threatened and nationally
protected species are further recommended study in DHR.
Acknowledgements
The study was possible after the financial and logistic sup-
port from the DHR office and Department of National Parks
and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC). We thanked to all staffs
of DHR and DNPWC who helped for field survey. We also
thank to Dr. Achyut Aryal (Institute of Natural and Mathemati-
cal Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand) for his guid-
ance to complete this study.
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