Modern Economy, 2013, 4, 584-591 Published Online September 2013 (
pen Access ME
Measuring the Level of Economic Non-Freedom and Its
Impact on the Economy of Russia
Sergey A. Surkov
International Institute of Management LINK (, Moscow, Russia
Received April 25, 2013; revised May 25, 2013; accepted June 25, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Sergey A. Surkov. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Work is devoted to studying of economy development regularities which are executed in Russia. A method for deter-
mining the level of economic non-freedom consists in obtaining the values of the relative profit when zero the number
of employees the enterprise. 32 countries of the world have used published statistic data, for Russia, the specified
methods have been added to two more. One is based on information from managers and business owners, and second on
poll direct participants of economic processes. Averaging of these sizes allowed to define the level of economic non-
freedom in Russia as 48.9%.
Keywords: Non-Freedom; Economic of Russia
1. Introduction
Mutually beneficial trade, exchange of technology, ex-
change of people, of achievements culture enriches peo-
ple’life in all countries. This improves prospects of so-
cial development. Russia got rid of the command-ad-
ministrative system. It has passed a long way of trans-
formations and reformation of economy and it has achi-
eved a great deal already. The integration of Russia in the
global economic system in some areas has occurred.
Numerous connections with the most various states were
built. The participation of the Russian Federation in
global trade and international division of labor signifi-
cantly increased. It is assumed that the role of Russia in
world economic activity will increase. It is difficult to
imagine many important international projects, especially
in the field of energy supply without Russia. This occurs
despite of numerous attempts to find sources of alterna-
tive power supply, such as in Europe. Therefore, many
countries are interested in the normal course of economic
development in Russia. In the internal life of Russia a lot
of things had changed. A new generation of entrepre-
neurs, managers, which feel confident in the market eco-
nomy, have grown. Substantial “progress” has been made
in the distribution of the property rights, though it is im-
possible to recognize fully orderly. Russia remains a coun-
try with nine sectors of the economy. The development
of economy of Russia is substantially restrained by dif-
ferent limitations. The most important parts of them are
diagnosed by the general term “economic non-freedom”.
Economic non-freedom is a state of society, when any
of its active members, aimed at creating positive values,
can’t fully realize its economic activities without affect-
ing other’s. Accordingly, in order to make it measurable,
it is necessary to introduce the indicator of economic
non-freedom, measured as a share of the opportunities of
the individual, group of individuals, organizations and
society at maximum free realization of their economic
interests. Of course, the maximum is not reachable, it’s a
mirage, a utopia, but different countries differently pro-
gress on the path to this ideal.
Economic non-freedom is formed as a certain condi-
tion of public psychology, of conceptions, of views, of
established behavior stereotypes, of opinions and judge-
ments about the various society economic life phenom-
ena. Legal support of economic development in this as-
pect always lagged behind the reality. It is caused on the
current psycho-sociological state of society. Components
of economic non-freedom, as shown by polls conducted
by the author among 176 managers and company owners
in Central Russia are corruption, extortion, nepotism,
administrative barriers on a business way, counteraction
to the free market relations from numerous supervising
and control bodies, the interference of the criminal cir-
cles, mismanagement officials, tyranny of law authorities,
incompatibility with reality economic practice, contra-
dictions of the inert legislation, clan-corporative nature
S. A. SURKOV 585
Open Access ME
of the economy, negative attitude toward businessmen a
part of the population and ruling elite, absence of formed
public opinion, that supports the entrepreneurship. The
specified components influence an actual level economic
non-freedom differently. Besides, they are not equal and
in public opinion. At the moment from the standpoint of
public opinion the most important is the corruption com-
ponent. Probably, when it will be eliminated or will be
leveled, the most important will become the other com-
ponent of economic non-freedom. It is difficult to predict
which of the components will be leading. The end of the
bribery can lead to the substantial change in the na-
tional culture, to the change in the social structure of the
Russian society, to the change in personal social and
economic status of many Russians. It is possible to as-
sume that only component could be the public opinion.
In case of a change of public opinion and with the sup-
port of society businessmen will be able more effectively
to overcome numerous barriers in the way of their con-
structive activity.
Mass bribery is blocking economic growth. This is
partly related to the fact that to the initial price of any
product is added a “special tax”. It includes bribes, kick-
backs, and extortions from the side of authorities and
criminal elements. This “tax” is replicated at every stage
of production and product promotion. Accordingly, the
final product turns out to be fabulously expensive. At the
same time manufacturers are getting poverty-stricken,
constantly being near the threshold of profitability. Such
a scheme functioning of the Russian economy is a dead-
locked. It uses unproductively national wealth, including
human capital. The corruption scheme does not lead to
the formation of the capacious domestic market. The
funds in this market “pumped over” from the volumetric
segments in the exclusive segments with the low volume,
and they partially are frozen in the capital accumulated
by the unjust way. These phenomena are trying to fight
through administrative methods. Tighter legislation is
carried out with simultaneous reduction of the freedom
of entrepreneurial activity. The associativity of Russian
market with the world market cannot be achieved within
the framework of this model. It should be replaced by
activities without paying bribe “tax”.
2. Literature Review
In the world practice it is accepted to build the ratings of
the countries according to the economic freedom index.
Russian Federation constantly takes substantially adverse
places in them. So, in the recently published report of the
American Heritage Foundation Russia have put on not
very honorable 146th [1]. The main components of eco-
nomic non-freedom listed above do not help to create a
positive attitude towards entrepreneurship.
S. Bavetta [2] reports of attempts to construct object-
tive empirical indices of the extent of economic freedom
enjoyed by countries on a world-wide basis.
C. R. Williamson and R. L. Mathers [3] include meas-
ures of culture and measures of economic institutions in
growth equation.
Website Economic Freedom [4] point out that eco-
nomic freedom is the key to greater opportunity and an
improved quality of life. It analyzes five subcomponents
to measure a country’s level of economic freedom. These
subcomponents include the size of government based on
expenditures and taxes; the legal structure and its protect-
tion of property rights; access to sound money; freedom
to trade internationally; and regulation of credit, labor,
and business.
Website Free the [5] emphasize that it is a
necessary condition for democratic development. It lib-
erates people from dependence on government in a
planned economy, and allows them to make their own
economic and political choices.
J. Gwartney and R. Lawson [6] point out that the key
ingredients of economic freedom are: personal choice,
voluntary exchange, freedom of competition and the
protection of people and property. They indicate that the
most recent edition of the EFW index contains 21 indi-
vidual components. Within the five major areas, 21 com-
ponents are incorporated into the index, but many of
those components are themselves made up of several
Such a measure requires a lot of effort and money. For
Russia and similar countries, the level of economic free-
dom is small, much smaller than it might seem from the
outside, and it is advisable to use the concept of econo-
mic non-freedom.
The last survey VTsIOM (All-Russian Center for the
Study of Public Opinion) [7] showed a positive result on
this issue only 58.6 percent of those surveyed. According
to Fund of “Public Opinion” 58 percent of respondents
are positive towards entrepreneurs [8]. Center of Y. Le-
vada [9] clarified this indicator, revealing that the level
of unconditionally positive attitude is 45 percent. The
above-mentioned elements of economic non-freedom
lead to low economic activity Russian population. They
cause a decline in business activity, create a sense of
hopelessness among Russian citizens. The latter stimu-
lates the larceny in companies and undeclared, “hidden”
strikes in an uncontrolled scales, or work on the rules of
the “Italian” strike. Low economic activity of population,
and resulting consequences are blocking the activity of
not only national but also foreign companies. Some of
them have reduced their activities, and some at all went
out or goes out of the Russian market. All this limits de-
velopment of Russia. The analysis of the reasons for a
high level economic non-freedom allows look for the
Open Access ME
ways of its overcoming that is why it is the important
Economic non-freedom as a sign of low ethical culture
in Russian society is a widely known fact.
For example, S. Schelin indicates that the fact that our
system is based on clan structure, nepotism and state
encouragement of the dullness, “is clear and for baby”
[10]. However, the phenomenon of modern Russian life
consists in the fact that the inadmissibility of the moral
and ethical situation is clear for all segments of the
population. Nevertheless, this does not lead to any con-
crete and effective measures to remove this situation. In
part, this phenomenon is similar to the state of “delayed
life” [11], that is also very typical of national practice.
Persons, a groups, and even entire areas of persons are
dreaming of a “good life” and aspire to it. Nevertheless,
concrete actions to reach that goal delayed until “best
According to the organization The All-Russia Anti-
Corruption Public Reception “Clean hands”, a corruption
turnover of in Russia makes about 50 percent of gross
domestic product [12]. This value practically corresponds
to data of the World Bank, 48 percent of GDP [13]. The
most corrupt is the sphere provision of public and mu-
nicipal services, where a veiled corruption goes up to 90
percent of turnover. Businessmen complain that because
of the corruption they lose about half of their income
[14]. At same time, public opinion is inclined to the im-
possibility of eradicating corruption, at least under cur-
rent conditions. The information channel Subscribe. ru
(service VoxRu.Net) has addressed to the users of Rus-
sian Internet with a question on a possibility to win cor-
ruption [15]. The poll involved about 1900 people. Re-
sults of research showed that about 44 percent of the
Russian Internet users believe that corruption amenable
to eradication. 45 percent don’t trust in such possibility,
and 11 percent found it difficult to answer this question.
Using the problems of the Russian market and loop-
holes in the legal field, some foreign firms commit ac-
tions that can hardly be called well-posed. Traditionally,
imported products are considered to be of higher quality
than domestic. At the same time, they are more expen-
sive, what provides substantial revenues from sales of
these products in Russia. All the same, a number of for-
eign companies in Russia use the corruption schemes.
They violate the country’s laws and ethics of business at
the same time. In the corruption scandals were involved
the companies Daimler [16,17], IKEA [18], Hewlett-
Packard [19] and others. More than 50 firms, including
six leading German companies, signed a document under
the name Corporate Ethics Initiative in an order that a bit
to neutralize the consequences of scandals. It should pro-
mote to an ethically irreproachable conduct business in
Russia. Nonetheless, experts estimate the chances of
successful implementation of not sufficiently optimistic
Thus, the economic non-freedom and the corruption as
the most obvious and unacceptable manifestation of its,
are causing a high public response.
It should be noted that corruption is one of the main
but not the exclusive part of the economic non-freedom.
This component has the most odious character, the higher
it is, the greater the economic non-freedom. Experts re-
late it to 80% of the total value of the economic non-
It negatively affects economic progress of Russia. The
role of psycho-social factors in the efficiency of labor of
its citizens is traditionally substantial.
The level of economic non-freedom has a negative
impact on the economic life of society. It’s not even the
fact that entrepreneurs are forced to spend most of their
profit for the purpose away from the needs of the indus-
try, and the fact that people feel a sense of helplessness
and futility of affirmative action, because what they have
already achieved will be confiscated by the high level of
economic non-freedom. According to experts, an in-
crease of one percentage indicator of economic non-
freedom leads to a drop in GDP in Russia in half a per-
cent. The ratio is specific to Russia, where a high propor-
tion of public corporations in the GDP, and they subject
to other laws.
3. Methodology
In the surveys used two types of interviews. The first is
based on the use of a special questionnaire, answering
questions which the respondent, among other things,
done the answer to the question of what level it assesses
the level of economic non-freedom in the country. The
second type of interview is a questionnaire that included
questions about the size of the organization, the area of
its operations, the amount of the transaction and the
number of participants in the transactions of the organi-
Below are various sources of information that used to
obtain other data.
The purpose of this article is to find ways to determine
the quantitative level of economic non-freedom in Russia
and elsewhere. This will provide the basis for giving spe-
cific recommendations for its leveling.
4. The Main Results
The quantitative level of economic non-freedom related
to the magnitude of the profits that the company spends
on your own. In the post-industrial society each company
on early stages of its activities fits into a certain market
niche. Then it begins to form market under its aspirations.
In the interests of the society firms need to achieve such
S. A. SURKOV 587
position when each company is controlling the maximum
part of its money flow. This part of their income, or,
rather, profits, the company must spend on its develop-
ment, modernization, creation of new products, services,
information and technologies. An important part of activ-
ity every modern company is the public benefit which its
work brings. The financial indexes of company must not
only reflect successfulness of entrepreneurial activity but
also the benefit to the society. Companies not publish
information about using the revenue for development.
Therefore, it may be hypothesized that this index may
reflect the degree of entrepreneurial responsibility before
the society. For carrying out researches was chosen the
method based on studying of parameter, equal to the re-
lation of revenue to profit. This parameter shows the
profit margin, which used to increase the revenue. This
indicator, or the ratio of revenue to profit, is considered
as the level of “consciousness” of entrepreneurs.
That is, it is accepted as degree of use net profit to ex-
pand production, and respectively for increase revenue.
This ratio should be presented in the form Ln (100 V/M),
where V-gain or income, M-margin or profit. The me-
thod proposed above, applies to the study of indicators
economic non-freedom. The analysis was conducted for
those countries for which the direct collection of infor-
mation on real projects and operations for any reason has
been difficult or even impossible. Therefore, the analysis
draws on information about the more general summary
indicators such as annual earnings, annual profit and total
employment for the eading firms in each country. These
data are included in annual reports, respectively are being
published, publicly available, for example, in the net-
work Internet. Analysis is possible for all countries on
the basis of the data found in a variety sources. This way
was conducted the determination of necessary index of
the level economical non-freedom for USA, Russia,
China, India, Germany, Japan and other countries (alto-
gether, for 51 countries).
Studies of the economic situation, in which can get re-
liable information, showed that it is appropriate to ana-
lyze the dependence in the coordinates “Ln (100 V/M) –
N”, where N—number of employees. Found that, in this
case, the relation is linear, as seen, for example, on
graphs of Figure 1, where shown examples with of the
most obviously expressed dependencies.
The definition is based on the fact that value Ln (100
V/M) for zero the number of employees, i.e., at intersect-
tion regression straight line axis of ordinates, is a mea-
sure economic non-freedom.
It follows from the fact that the company without em-
ployees does not have a profit, and the “residual” profit is
the price that the firm must pay for the ability to function
normally. If there is no employees, but the profit there is,
then exactly this quantity and must be considered as the
Figure 1. The dependence logarithm of revenue to profit
from the personnel number for various companies and
countries: (a) UK; (b) South Korea; (c) Russia; (d) Austria.
Open Access ME
level of illegal extortions and kickback from companies.
This is due to the fact that, in order to start the function-
ing they must pay not less than that amount. The author-
ized capital does not have to do with it, because almost
no effect on the actual movement of funds to organiza-
The coefficients of correlation for different countries
vary from 0.31 to 0.95, and are essential for all levels of
significance that exceed 0.01. There are several coun-
tries for which the data are insufficient, and the correla-
tion coefficients for them are low. One of these countries
was Venezuela, and had to exclude it from consideration
at all. The reason for this was that all attempts to clarify
data encountered significant distinctions in various
sources of information on the activities of Venezuelan
businesses. The number of enterprises, which published
their data, is extremely small.
The published data refer to large firms with significant
turnover, what necessary to consider. They can afford to
hire experienced lawyers, and for these firms, some is-
sues related to economic non-freedom, do not play a sig-
nificant role. Accordingly, they do not have such a strong
influence, as it happen for smaller business entities. Total
analyzed data on 894 firms from 32 countries worldwide.
Types of economic behavior of enterprises vary for
different countries, and, as expected, the regression lines
for them have a different slope. In addition, there are
different values of the absolute term in the regression
equation, or, respectively, the level of economic non-
freedom for each country.
Two more methods were used to assess the level of
economic non-freedom in Russia. The first method con-
sisted of the direct collection of data about the level of
margin (profitability) of Russian enterprises by polling
the employees of these enterprises. The most different
economic agents, from the small particular stores and the
workshops to the important commercial firms and the
industrial enterprises are selected as the sources of such
data. At the list of analyzed organizations have been in-
cluded food processing companies, trading companies,
enterprises producing equipment, enterprises producing
chemicals, organizations carrying out construction, or-
ganizations, providing various services on the market,
including training and information services. In total data
were obtained from 35 professionals and owners of firms
from 46 projects. In each case, the respondents reported
data about the average value of the bargain on their en-
terprise, about the level of the real profit, about quantity
of people involved in the formation and closing of the
bargains. All values were real, rather than evaluative. In
addition, some data were taken from the literature.
They, as it was found, do not contradict the collected
data. In particular, in an interview with the champion of
the Turin Olympics, vice speaker of the Duma S. Žurova
newspaper “Vzglayd” [21] was given the layout of the
value of a bottle of vodka. She identified profit and sell-
ing price like 2.4 percent, and 89 rubles, respectively.
According to a source of [22] average cost of 1 ton of
fish production from the producer (regardless of breed)
in 2008 was fixed at level of 27,500 rubles. In the retail,
it amounted no less than 79,700 rubles.
All indicated data were brought together, and was built
the graph of the dependence the ratio of gain and profit
from a quantity of people, which participated in the
transaction (Figure 2). The semi-log scale is used for a
more clear representation of the data. The correlation
coefficient for the dependence in Figure 2 totaled 0.625,
which is essential for all significance levels exceeding
The comparatively high scatter associated with differ-
ences in organizational culture, work experience and
term functioning of various organizations. Even so, the
general trend of the resulting graph is visible. The re-
gression equation has the form of 1.215n + 3.063, where
n-number of people involved in the transaction.
The obtained equation of regression shows that at a
zero quantity of people, which participate in the transact-
tion, the index of the ratio the revenue on profit, or more
accurate, its logarithm, is not equal to zero, but is equal
to 3.063. The value, obtained after conversion of the
logarithm, is equal to 21.388. For recalculate in the level
of conditional “profit” is necessary to divide the value of
harmonic mean from the revenue of all deals by this
value. In this case, the calculations give a value of this
parameter equal to 888.246. This is due to the use of in-
verse values. As a result we find that for lack of the
transaction participants the profit level makes 41.5 per-
cent. This magnitude can be accepted as excess of cost of
products because of economic non-freedom, or level of
economic non-freedom in Russia. A similar analysis can
be carried out for to receive real value of level non-free-
dom other countries.
Poll of experts about level economic non-freedom in
Russia was chosen as second analysis method. It was
Figure 2. The graph of dependence the ratio profit to reve-
nue on the number of people, involved in the deal.
Open Access ME
S. A. SURKOV 589
necessary to eliminate influence of ordinary conscious-
ness and narrow-minded representations. They are large-
ly shaped by the media, where this information is often
served in a distorted form. Managers and owners of the
enterprises, who directly conduct economic activities,
have been involved In this regard, as experts. Their views
are formed in accordance with the economic realities that
surround them in their direct activities, and they are free
from the influence of the media.
To get the data have been used four groups of referents.
In the survey were participating entrepreneurs from Rus-
sia, Ukraine, USA, Germany and Kazakhstan. For elimi-
nation the influence of the groups sequence effect was
used the mutual moving of the indicators where was
conducted the poll. The results obtained in polls, were
statistically indistinguishable. Therefore, it was possible
to use them as united sampling from population. In addi-
tion, on the same subject have been interviewed more
167 experts-managers, so overall sample exceeded 200
people. Besides the question about the level of economic
non-freedom in the questionnaire also were included
questions about the level of poverty and about mutual
influence of poverty and economic non-freedom. In a
survey found that, according to respondents, the poverty
rate in Russia amounts to 60.4 percent. This value is sig-
nificantly different from the official figure for a living
wage, which ranges from 13.1 percent [23] to 14.7 per-
cent [24]. By comparing the different sources were ob-
tained the data on the proportion of poor in Russia, that is,
those who lives on low income. Change by years is
shown in Figure 3.
From the data in Figure 3 we can see significant fluc-
tuations in the level of poverty, with an overall trend of
decline. These fluctuations can be partly explained by
changes in calculation methods. The difference between
official data and poll results in this study is probably due
to the so-called “hidden” poverty. This kind of poverty
means the inability to implement the simplest human
wants. It is possible to assume that and the fluctuation of
the officially fixed level of poverty occur, among others,
under the effect of this factor. The Influence of economic
Figure 3. Change by years the proportion of poor in Russia.
non-freedom on poverty is defined by level of 58.3 per-
cent, and poverty on economic non-freedom—level of
49.6 percent. This discrepancy is substantial, which
means the dominance of economic non-freedom in this
pair. In other words, the economic non-freedom leads to
poverty, not vice versa. Therefore, the fight against pov-
erty must begin with the elimination of economic non-
freedom in the country.
The average rate of economic non-freedom, according
to experts, made up 48.7 percent. The comparison of the
obtained by three methods values of this index with the
aid of the simplest criterion of Student made it possible
to establish that the divergence is unessential. This means,
that data are indiscernible, and is possible to use their
average value, for example, an average arithmetic, equal
48.9 percent.
Probably for eliminate of corruption as a base and the
main component of the economic non-freedom in Russia,
it will be necessary to reduce the level of prices namely
on the value of 48.9 percent. It will exclude possible
sources of any requisitions and will lower possibilities
The level of economic non-freedom in 48.9% means
that Russian entrepreneurs have to pay at least almost
half of the profits in order to continue to exist only as an
economic agent. This money does not get the economy
and they are spent on consumption of other non-partici-
pants in the economic process.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to carry out in addition
whole complex of measures. Global experience shows
that it is possible. So, for example, China is trying to in-
fluence on bribe takers conscience, looks for new com-
modity markets and, the main thing, is using crisis to de-
velop the country [25].
In general, a significant scatter the data of the level of
economic freedom is typical for countries of the world.
This is associated with the following features: with vari-
ous national and economic traditions, with level of eco-
nomic development, with the presence or absence of the
national bourgeoisie, possession of mineral resources,
with tradition of intellectual capital using, etc. If we
compare the data obtained by the calculated way with the
information presented on the site Heritage Foundation
and The Wall Street Journal on this subject [26], then we
can receive a graph, shown in Figure 4.
From the graph Figure 4 it is visible, that the values
obtained by an offered method and expert data from a
site are connected by linear dependence. The interrela-
tion of these values characterizes the factor of correlation
0.71, that is substantially to all significance levels, ex-
ceeding a level 0.01. This confirms the validity of the
proposed approach, which additionally allows determine
the specific level of economic non-freedom. The equa-
tion of regression has the form y = 0.326x + 72.63, in
Open Access ME
Figure 4. The comparison calculated and expert data in
terms of the level economic non-freedom for various coun-
normalized form y = 0.903x + 1.276. Form of the equa-
tions shows that there is an understatement of the calcu-
lated index compared with expert index. The direction of
the regression line is associated with different directions
of the scales on the axes. However, it is necessary to re-
member, that for reception of considered two versions of
a parameter economic non-freedom are used different
factors. The part from them has the scattering owing to
variety reasons of the social character. Therefore vari-
ability of data and their incomplete coordination are
within acceptable levels. Thus, the hypothesis, put for-
ward above, can be considered confirmed.
5. Conclusions
On the basis of the carried-out researches it is possible to
draw the following conclusions:
1) Reducing the level of economic non-freedom, par-
ticularly corruption, probably, could be achieved by re-
ducing the price by a certain amount, identified by the
proposed method. For Russia it makes up 48.9 percent.
Nevertheless, such decision, accepted by an administra-
tive way, can cause an undesirable decreased level of
economic freedom. Such an approach should be accom-
panied by a complex of administrative, economic, psy-
chosociological measures.
2) It was established that dependences of the ratio of
revenue to profits from the number of employees has
linear character. The deviations from the straight lines
characterizing the vast majority of the companies for
each of the countries testify to either of deficiencies in
the management of the company or about tax incorrect-
ness in activity of the enterprises.
3) Existence of steady interrelation between the rela-
tion of revenue to profit, and of the company personnel
number, testifies to existence of a certain general model
of development firms, and financial mechanisms of their
functioning. It consists in use not less than a certain share
of profit on the expanded reproduction or enterprise ex-
The study of the inverse relation of the profit to reve-
nue allows us to obtain more complete data on the activi-
ties of firms and, in particular, multinational corporations.
This gives the chance to analyze more fully economic
processes in the global community.
6. Acknowledgements
I express my gratitude Elena Trofimova for assistance in
obtaining and processing information and Nadine Kalin-
ina for help in translating this article.
[1] A. Kaledina, “Russia Recognized the Country’s Econo-
mic Non-Freedom,” 2009.
[2] S. Bavetta “Economic Freedom and Its Measurement,” In:
C. K. Rowley and F. Schneider, Eds., The Encyclopedia
of Public Choice, Springer, England, 2003, pp. 485-487.
[3] C. R. Williamson and R. L. Mathers, “Economic Freedom,
Culture, and Growth,” 2009.
[6] J. Gwartney and R. Lawson, “The Concept and Meas-
urement of Economic Freedom,” European Journal of
Political Economy, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2003, pp. 405-430.
[7] Unequal Exchange: The Social Responsibility of Busi-
ness and Its Recognition of the Russian Society,” 2010.
[8] G. Diligensky, “Business and Public Opinion,” 2013.
[9] O. Savelyev, “Attitude towards Entrepreneurs/Levada
Center,” 2008.
[10] S. Schelin, “Scoops of the XXI Century. Herald. Com-
ments,” 2010.
[11] T. Ferris, “The 4 Hour Workweek,” Crown Publishers,
New York, 2007.
week-excerpt (accessed July 30, 2013).
[12] The Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights,
“Corruption in Russia: The Annual Report of the Inde-
pendent Public Reception of the All-Russian Anti-Cor-
ruption,” Moscow, 2 July 2009-30 July 2010.
[13] Russian Federation, “A Bumpy Recovery: Russian Eco-
nomic Report. Worldbank-Russia,” The World Bank Coun-
try Office in Russia, Moscow, 2010.
Open Access ME
Open Access ME
[14] E. Zibrova, “Corruption Grows Moscow,” 2010.
[15] Information Channel, “Is It Possible to Era-
dicate Corruption in Russia?” 2010.
[16] A. Sotnyk, “On the Strangeness of Business Ethics,” 2010.
[17] P. Spelova, “Bribes Have Flown a Lot of Money,” 2010.
[18] E. Belyakov and E. Panfilova, “Is It Possible to Live in
Russia without Paying Bribes?” Komsomolskaya Pravda,
Moscow, 2010.
[19] D. Crawford and D. Searcey, “U.S. Joins H-P Bribery
Investigation,” 2010.
[20] Rambler Media Group Lenta. Ru, “The Germans Will
Force Foreigner to Abandon of Bribery in Russia,” 2010.
[21] M. Shuvalova, “S. Zhurova 2010. Buy a Bottle I Did Not
Succeed,” 2010.
[22] RBC’s Market research, “Retail Is in No Hurry to Lower
Margins for Fish Products,” 2009.
[23] “The Poverty Rate in Russia Fell to an Absolute Mini-
mum”. 2010.
[24] “The Poverty Rate in Russia Has Decreased by Almost
15%,” 2010.
[25] G. Zotov, “For Us, the Crisis—Hell, and for China—the
Gift of God?” 2010.
[26] 2010 Index of Economic Freedom, “The Link between
Economic Opportunity & Prosperity,” A Product of Heri-
tage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, 2012.