Open Journal of Social Sciences
2013. Vol.1, No.2, 13-22
Published Online May 2013 in SciRes ( DOI:10.4236/jss.2013.12003
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 13
Causes of Victims of Campus Bullying
Behaviors and Study on Solutions
Shao-I Chiu
The Center for General Education, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Shil in District, Chinese Taipei
Received April 12th, 2013; revised May 15th, 2013; accepted May 21st, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Shao-I Chiu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribu-
tion License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
work is properly cited.
Campus bullying behavior is increasingly attracting people’s attention in recent years. The main objective
is to discuss the causes of victims of campus bullying behaviors, to analyze their needs and correlation,
and to offer suggestions on preventive strategies for victims. The research uses in-depth interview of the
qualitative research methods, and directs the interview by a semi-structured interview outline from 5 par-
ticipants. The research concludes the following main findings: Relevant factors influencing the students
being bullied in the public junior high school, and the styles of bullying behavior are numerous, including
verbal and physical bullying. Preliminarily, bullying behaviors mainly occurred after class, and the usual
site was in the classroom.
Keywords: Campus Bullying Behavior; Parents’ Teaching Style; Parent-Child Relationship;
Characteristics of the Victims; Qualitative Research Methods
Research Motivation
Campus bullying behavior is increasingly attracting people’s
attention in recent years. At present, the campus bullying be-
havior learned by the public includes malicious bullying, hurt
and devastating violence, mostly occurred between students,
but sometimes between teachers and students. The occasion of
bullying behavior was not limited to the campus, sometimes it
happened outside the campus. Commonly speaking, people of
any age or social rank may suffer bullying behaviors at any
places, even at working places or in prisons (Ireland, 2000), or
it may occur on the street, in the park, on the playground near
one’s home, or at other places (Boulton & Underwood, 1993).
In terms of frequency of its occurrence, the data of primary
school and university is far less than that of secondary school.
In other words, campus bullying behavior often occurs among
teenagers aging from 13/14 years old to 17/18 years old at
schooling years.
Those who often bullied the small or the weak ones are likely
to face adaptive and development difficulties in the future. The
research suggests that the campus bullies may form a habit and
continue to bully others on occasions outside the campus, and
finally may commit a crime (Bowers, Smith, & Binney, 1994;
Farrington, 1993; Rutter, 1995). Meanwhile, the bullied may
also face adaptive and development problems, the hurts at the
young age may be imprinted in their minds which cannot be
healed, and thus lead to unconfident, frustrated and overcau-
tious personality. Greenbaum (1989) pointed out in his research:
The likelihood for children who were once bullied at schooling
age committing severe crimes is five times more than those
who were not. When these children grow up and become
members in the society, they may exert negative influences on
their living a n d w o r k i n g envi r o nment.
Therefore, both the bullies and the bullied will cost more so-
ciety resources. In recent years, domestic campus violence
emerged endlessly. According to the research by Ireland (2000),
about 70% students committed verbal attacks against others, but
only few students committed other harmful attacks (about 1.5%).
Based on the above facts, campus bullying behavior has
deeply rooted for years, and tends to go further, which has
aroused concerns from people in education, psychology, tutor-
ship and social works, and become a common educational issue
in the world. Thus, to study the causes of victims of campus
bully ing behaviors and the status quo, to explore the approache s
of prevention and solution, and then to provide references for
psychological tutors and educators to plan education measures or
draft tutorship schemes are the motivations for the researcher to
focus on th e campus bull ying beh avior as the sub ject.
Research Objective
The main objective of the research is to discuss the causes
for victims of victims of campus bullying behaviors, to analyze
their needs and correlation, and to offer suggestions on preven-
tive strategies for victims on the basis of research findings, so
as to provide references for school education. The research
objectives are listed respectively as follows:
1) Analyze the causes of the victims of campus bullying be-
2) Discuss the forms of the vi ctims being bullied;
3) Discuss the time and place of the victims being bullied;
4) Learn the feelings of victims to campus bullying behav-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
5) Provide suggestions on solutions to prevent the students in
the Public Junior High School from being bullied as references
for education administration, school education, family educa-
tion and psychological instruction.
Literature Research
Definition of B ul l yi ng Behavior
Bullying behavior is a kind of attack including occasional,
short-term or frequent, long-term deliberate hurts, which is
repetitive and ranging from slight teasing to serious collective
violence (Clark & Kiselica, 1997; Farrington, 1993; Ireland,
2000; Sharp, Thompson, & Arora, 2000; Tattum, 1997). Bully-
ing behavior may cause physical, oral or mental attacks against
victims, thus it may easily psychologically terrify and hurt vic-
tims (Espelage, Bosworth, & Simon, 2000; Hoover, Oliver, &
Thomson, 1993; Ireland, 2000; Oliver, Oaks, & Hoover, 1994;
Peterson & Skiba, 2001).
According to the internationally prestigious scholar, Dan
Olweus’ point of view after researches, bullying behavior in-
cludes hurtful and deliberate attack behaviors, and the behave-
iors often last for several weeks, months even years (Olweus,
1993). From Olweus’ definition on bullying behavior, it can be
summarized from three aspects: First, on motivation, it is de-
liberate, hurtful attack behavior with objective and intention;
Second, on assessment of behavior result, it may hurt the victim
physically or psychologically to some extent; Third, on accu-
mulation of occurrence frequency, it is not occasional but a
continuous behavior in certain period of time (Sharp, Thomp-
son, & Arora, 2000).
Impacts of Campus Bullying Behavior to Students in
the Public Junior High School
Campus bullying behavior can be dated back to ancient times,
not something surprising, but current campus bullying behavior
is significantly changing in terms of nature and quantity, thus it
deserves our research on its impacts and exploration on its
causes to prevent it from occurrence and spreading. The cam-
pus bullying behavior not only hurts victims, but also exerts
short-term and long-term negative influences on the victims,
witnesses, families and criminal behaviors. This section focuses
on discussion on impacts of students’ bullying behaviors.
On the Bully
Because the bully may form a habit or misunderstand that
attack and bullying behaviors are effective, they may commit
more serious attacks, bullying behaviors and criminal behaviors
in the future. Peterson & Skiba (2001) believed that students
who attacked or bullied would easily turn into criminals after
adolescence. Eron and Huesmann (1984) pointed out in their
research that the students regarded as bullies by their fellows
were likely related to criminal records after they grew up. The
criminal rate of previous “campus conqueror” is usually much
higher than that of students with no bullying behavior (Olweus,
1991). Another research suggests that 60% boy bullies from
Grade 6 to 9 were sentenced to one-year imprisonment until the
age of 24 years old, among whom 35% to 40% were sen-
tenced for more than three years of imprisonment (Hoover &
Hazler, 1991).
From the above facts, it can be learned that the bullying be-
havior not only influences one’s behaviors in the process of
growth, but also will extend to the future, such as bad behaviors,
crimes and family problems, even will hamper societal security.
On the Victim
Usually, when the bullying behavior occurs, the bullied does
not dare to publicly tell or appeal to the teacher in afraid of
retaliation, thus the bullying behavior becomes more and more
severe. The students often suffer from bullying behavior at
school are usually the ones who cannot accommodate to col-
lective life, being characterized by slow in action, small and
weak body building, reserved, willful and unsociable personal-
ity. Hence, these students are likely to be late, be in low
self-respect and confidence, as well as fall back on academic
achievements, thinking lowly about themselves and looking
down upon themselves. Thus they can hardly make friends and
know how to acquaint with others, gradually they may lose
their interest in school, regarding it as an unhappy, unfriendly
and terrible place (Clarke & Kiselica, 1997). In addition, the
students being bullied at young are more likely to face the
challenge from adaptability in life, such as family violence,
violence crime and traffic violation (Hetherington & Parke, 1999).
For the victim of bullying behavior, they know they may
suffer from occasional bullying, worrying is the constant men-
tal state. Once being bullied they may feel “relaxed”, (at least
they do not need to worry about it any more), gradually they
may only confront the bullying behavior with somewhat “indif-
ference”, thinking this approach can relieve their pain. This
kind of defense mechanism is actually similar to that of the
victim of “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder” (or PTSD). Brown
(1996) also believes that the victim may develop the symptom
of PTSD for being exposed to the threats of violence for long
(Bosworth & Espelage, 1999).
One research shows that 29% victims once thought to leave
school, for they are afraid of going to school, 10% of them even
did so; Furthermore, the bullies often cause the victims’ low
self-respect, a sense of insulation and social withdrawal; these
influences may extend to their social anxiety, melancholy and
difficulty in dealing with relations of the other sex in their
adulthoods (Clarke & Kiselica, 1997). Some victims ma y com-
mit suicide to finish the sufferings under the unconfident, insu-
lated and helpless situation (Peterson & Skiba, 2001; Roberts &
Coursol, 1996).
On the Witness
As the bullying behavior occurred on campus, if other stu-
dents happened to see or witness the scene, while the bullying
behavior was not appropriately stopped or responded, the wit-
ness may have fallen into victims as well. Some witnesses may
have been forced to be another bully, and may have been the
next victim for being afraid or refused to join in (Atlas & Pepler,
1998). Some students may have kept silence or run away for
being afraid to be the next victim; some may have imitated to
become another bully; or have formed irrational or deviated
attitude or concept (Rigby, 1996).
Bosworth & Espelage (1999) believes when the victim is
only one person, the stander-bys may ea sily become te mporary
oppressor” or “bully” under the pressure of “conformity”. The
sociological concept of “responsibility diffusion” can be used to
explain the phenomenon i.e. when many people jointly do
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 15
something, the responsibility can thus be diffused on all par-
ticipants, without being shouldered independently, then the
likelihood to just do it may increase.
On the Family
Family is of decisive and inevitable influences to teenagers’
future developments. It can be proved that bullying behavior is
just like the involving door of effect, the one who is a bully at
school usually tends to be a victim at home (Floyd, 1895;
Greenbaum, 1989). The bullied children may vent their frus-
tration and anger from the bullying behavior to their parents or
family members; If “the parents do not further ask for the
cause and respond to their unusual behavior”, the parent-child
and family relations may be affected (Ambert, 1994). And the
adolescent bullying behavior is usually the source of family
violence and social violence in adulthood. In addition, Green-
baum (1989) pointed out in his research: The children often
being bullied in childhood may easily bully their wives and
beat their children in adulthood. Similarly, many bullies may
extend their early behaviors to their adulthoods, which may
even affect their families. Usually, if their early bullying be-
havior extends to the next generation, or they directly bully,
abuse or use violence against their spouses and children, which
may form serious “family violence” (Clark & Kiselica, 1997;
Farrington, 1993; Scott, 1998).
The Form of Bullyi ng Beh a vi ors
On campus, the common bullying behaviors include: hide
other’s articles to embarrass him/her; loudly call other’s em-
barrassing nickname to tease at others; order him/her to buy
something for others at welfare shop; write or paint insulting
words or pictures on the blackboard or wall; even extort money
or property or threaten others to steal (Clarke & Kiselica, 1997).
Thus it can be acknowledged that bullying behavior is not only
limited to physical attack, but also psychological attack, while
campus bullying behavior often occurs in the form of “group
bullying individual”, in contrast to less “individual bullying
individual”. In bullying form, verbal bullying is more usual
than physical bullying (Boulton & Underwoo, 1992; Kochen-
derfer & Ladd, 1996; Perry et al., 1988), and this result is
similar to that of domestic researchers (Clarke & Kiselica,
Ireland (2000) divided bullying behavior into direct and in-
direct. The direct bullying behavior includes: verbal abuse,
physical attack, threat etc; indirect bullying behavior includes:
teasing, exclusion, gossip spreading or rumor running. Whether
being direct or indirect bullying behavior, the victim cannot
defend himself/herself under the circumstance (Atlas & Pepler,
1998). Boulton and Underwood (1993) pointed out in their
research: 58% students said they were once teased, 33% stu-
dents were kicked or beat, near 10% were bullied in other ways,
such as being pulled hair or abused by dirty words. Sharp,
Thompson, & Arora (2000) believes there are not only one
form of bullying behavior, but includes verbal and physical
ones instead. It may be some indistinct mischief or jokes pre-
liminarily, the commonest form is to nickname others viciously,
then it may further to be assaults as teasing, insult or threat. If
the bullied or stander-bys does not fight against or stop it, the
verbal bullying may turn into physical bullying as beat, kick,
push, bump, rob or damage other’s articles, and sexual harass
or other violence may occur as a result. Sharp and Smith (1994)
categorized bullying behaviors as three: 1) Physical bullying:
beat, kick or damage other’s clothes; 2) Verbal bullying: abuse,
insult, repeated teasing, or ethnic gossip; 3) Indirect bullying:
rumor running or repulsion against others.
Causes of Bullying Behaviors
Campus bullying behavior has aroused close concern and
emphasis of all social ranks. Many factual research results
showed most believed that campus bullying behavior was at-
tributed to family, emerged at school and deteriorate in society.
Today’s adolescent campus bullying behavior is so common,
the cause is multiple, complex instead of single factor. Bullying
behavior is formed gradually. Once a child is found to commit
bullying behavior, it may cause many negative impacts to their
adulthood if not being early corrected or prevented (such as
antisocial behavior and criminal behavior) (Hazler, 1998; Ol-
weus, 1984).
From the theoretical perspective of psychological frustration
attack, when people are suffering frustration, they may easily
attack others. The more the frustration accumulates, the easier
to cause attacking behavior, and bullying behavior is one of the
main approach of human attacks. The so-called frustration re-
fers to the serial behaviors from an individual being impaired to
certain destination (Ireland, 2000). Hence, when the students
face setbacks at school (such as poor academic performance,
and low spirit for self-worth), the campus bullying behavior
may thereby occur. Duncan (1999) thinks if there is bullying
behavior between brothers and sisters, then there is more simi-
lar bullying behavior between fellow students.
From the theoretic perspective of social learning, Bandura
(1977) thinks human behavior is from observation, imitation
and learning. Bullying behavior, same as other behaviors, is
caused by learning, while observation and imitation are the
main learning processes in teenagers’ growth. Olweus (1984)
thinks bullying behavior may come from the influence of one’s
fellow group through observation and imitation. Patterson
(1986) suggests in his research that the child will imitate bully-
ing behavior, if he/she found that people of higher social ranks
practiced bullying behavior but praised and encouraged in-
stead of being punished. Many bullies extend their early bully-
ing behavior into their adulthood. From the above points of
view, schoolchild’s bullying behavior originated from their
family to prevent and correct the bullying behavior or instruct
victims should start from family.
Analysis on the Characteristics of the Bullying and
the Victims
Characteristics of the Bullies of Campus Bullying Behaviors
After summarizing some researches of bullying behavior, we
can find that the bullies have the following common character-
istics (Besag, 1989; Bosworth & Espelage, 1999; Boulton &
Smith, 1994; Duncan, 1999; Olweus, 1994; Peterson & Skiba,
2001; Rigby & Slee, 1992; Salmon & James, 1998).
The bullies are usually impulsive and bad-tempered (Bos-
worth & Espelage, 1999; Hoover & Hazler, 1991; Olweus,
1994), extroverted (Rigby & Slee, 1992), highly depressed
(Peterson & Skiba, 2001; Salmon & James, 1998), and aggres-
sive to teachers, parents, fellows, brothers and sisters (Besag,
1989), but unhappy inside (Rigby & Slee, 1992) and less anx-
ious (Besag, 1989; Salmon & James, 1998).
The bullies are usually strong, forceful, vigorous, confident
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
and older than the victims (Besag, 1989).
1) They lack of empathy towards the victims: when bullying
others, they often feel they are playing jokes instead of ex-
periencing other’s hurts on the victims’ positions, i.e. they do
not feel guilty or shameful, and do not show sympathy to-
wards the victims (Besag, 1989; Olweus, 1994). But the bullies
will not be repulsed by their fellows, since they do not bully
others causelessly and aimlessly, thus they are not repulsed by
the most (Hoover & Hazler, 1991);
2) They are often good at communication and quick-witted
(Besag, 1989), but reluctant to accept other’s ideas, poor in
cooperation with others, and uncompromising to others in play-
ing (Hoover & Hazler, 1991);
3) Their family functions are usually unhealthy and incom-
plete (Besag, 1989), with poor relationships among parents,
brothers and sisters. Their families usually provide less emo-
tional supports and lack of family cohesion (Bowers, Smith, &
Binney, 1994; Rigby, 1994).
The Characteristics of the Victims of Campus Bullying
After summarizing some researches on bullying behavior, we
can find that the victims have the following common charac-
teristics (Besag, 1989; Bosworth & Espelage, 1999; Clarke &
Kisekica, 1997; Duncan, 1999; Hoover & Hazler, 1991; Ol-
weus, 1994; Peterson & Skiba, 2001; Rigby & Slee, 1992; Sal-
mon & James, 1998):
1) The victims are usually anxious (Olweus, 1994; Peterson &
Skiba, 2001; Sa lmon & James, 1998) , lackin g of a s ense of s ecur ity
(Besag, 1989; Peterson & Skiba, 2001), highly depressed (Ol-
weus, 1994), low self-respected (Olweus, 1994; Peterson & Skiba,
2001; Rigby & Slee, 1992), less confident (Hover & Hazler, 1991;
Perry, Kusel, & Perry, 1988), unpopular (Peterson & Skiba, 2001),
relatively introverted (Olewus, 1993), relatively quiet (Siann, Cal-
laghan, Lockhart, & Rawson, 1993), relatively reserved (Olewus,
1993), and unhapp y (Rigby & Slee, 1992);
2) The victims are usually younger than their fellows, phy-
sically thin and weak (Olweus, 1993) and strange-looking
(Hoover & Hazler, 1991). Once being bullied at school, they
usually cry or escape (Peterson & Skiba, 2001);
3) At school, the victims are sometimes insulated or repulsed
by their fellows (Hoover & Hazler, 1991; Perry, Kusel, & Perry,
1988; Peterson & Skiba, 2001), poor in academic achievements
or logging behind, afraid of going to school or reluctant to go to
school, often late for school, or they suddenly change previous
habit to go to school by bus or train, or change previous route
to school (Besag, 1989);
4) The victims may show increasingly lower confidence after
being repeatedly bullied (Hover & Hazler, 1991), and more and
more overcautious and helpless, giving others a feeling of vul-
nerability to hurt and criticism (Floyd, 1985). The vicious circle
makes him/her become the object of bullying more easily, thus
causes the bullies become more and more aggressive (Peterson
& Skiba, 2001);
5) The victims’ family functions are usually not so good, and
they are usually not on good terms with their mothers (Rigby,
1993), although they are overprotected and spoiled (Oliver,
Oaks & Hoover, 1994; Olweus, 1993).
Research Approach
Method of Data Collection
The research uses in-depth interview of the qualitative re-
search methods, and directs the interview by semi-structured
interview outline.
Interview is one of the important methods in ethnographical
research, the researcher not only observes and studies the ex-
ternal behaviors of the objects, but also understands internal
viewpoints of them, and to further discuss their beliefs, dreams,
motives, judgments, values, attitudes and emotions (Ambert,
The interviews can be divided into informal and formal ones:
1) Informal interview: Informal interview is a kind of free
and natural talk, whose topics are completely chosen from
natural circumstances, just like chatting without preset goals
but going freely consistent with emotion, and the topics may
cover everythi ng;
2) Formal interview: After the researcher and the participant
fully established relationships, the talking style tends to be for-
mal. The content of interview is well structured, starting from
issues needed by the researcher to collect data by a set of sys-
tematic and ordered questions. In the research, five participants
were interviewed individually according to the preset interview
Semi-Structured Interview Outline
The semi-structured interview outline provides basic list of
interview subjects, instead of pre-setting any standardized
questions, whose order is determined according to actual cir-
cumstance in the interview. This kind of interview makes the
data collection more systematic and flexible.
Research Objects
The research aims at victims of bullying behaviors in the
Public Junior High School. The interviewed victims in the
school are those who were “often bullied by others at school”.
Sampling Method
Although there are many victims of bullying behaviors in
Public Junior High School at present, we used “convenient
sampling” method in consideration of the willingness of co-
operation by the school and students. The researcher first ob-
tained consents of the headmaster and dean of the school, then
looked for the victims receptive to interview with the help of
the head of the material group. At last, total five students par-
ticipated the interview.
Basic Data Information of Interviewees
Total 5 students were interviewed in this research, their data
was listed in Table 1.
Research Tool
The researchers personally talked with each interviewee se-
parately according to a self-made interview outline, and re-
corded the whole process upon the consent of the interviewees.
Afterwards they transcribed the records into literal scripts as
foundation for encoding analysis after collation by the re-
searchers themselves.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 17
Table 1.
Basic data information of the interviewees.
Interviewee Sex Grade Code
Case I F 2 21
Case II F 1 22
Case III F 2 23
Case IV M 1 11
Case V M 3 12
Material Settlement & Analysis
The researchers encoded according to the interviewees’ an-
swers after careful reading of each interview script, then cate-
gorize, settle, and organize the collected materials, then the
materials became useful resources.
Research Limitations
The research only interviewed 5 students being frequently
bullied by others as the limitation of time, willingness of the
school and the students for cooperation. The research findings
cannot be extended to other victims of bullying behavior in the
school, for its focus lies on finding phenomenon but not making
any deduction. Since the interview method can only collect
self-reporting” materials, the interviewees may be reluctant to
provide actual data for once suffered negative school life or
being limited to oral expression ability and memories (Chow et
al., 1996).
Research Findings
No. 1 Student (Code 21)
Family Structure
No. 1 student is now studying in Grade 2 of the Public Junior
High School, and living with “her father, mother and sister”
(21-014), her “parents are working in the insurance company”.
Economic Status
No. 1 student is not taking remedial courses, “…before I did
take, but now I do not.” (21-008) “My mother canot afford it,
the more remedial course I took, the worse my study was, I
once took Maths course, the more, the worse, but my English
was not like that, now I am not taking English remedial course
because my mother cannot afford the cost.” (21-010)
Parents’ Education Style & Parent-Child Relation
No. 1 student “sometimes did, sometimes did not” (21-034)
chat with parents at home, usually “talked about something at
school” if we chatted (21-036). As for the problems she en-
countered in daily life, “…I would not tell my mother, except
something very serious.” (21-042) Before, her parents were not
very strict to her, “…but now they rule me with a rod of iron
because of my study.” (21-048) My father once beat me at home,
my sister likes to go shopping, I wanted to go with her, but she
didnt want me, I wouldnt listen to her regardless of her re-
fusal, my father then beat me with a stick.” (21-058)
Relationship with Her Sister
I am not on good terms with my sister, “…sometimes we kept
quarrelling with each other until my parents stopped us.” (21-
016), “She beat me each time we quarreled, if I cried.” (21-022)
The reason for quarrelling was usually that “she scolded me
when I wanted to buy something, I would talked her back that
why you could but I couldnt.” (21-018).
Relationship with Classmates and Teachers
She felt that her teachers treated her “very well” (21-112),
and did not have good friends in her class, “…I am excluded
always.” (21-134) “Because they think I am very strange and
difficult.” (21-136) But she got no way to learn why they
thought like that, “…they only think I am weird.” (21-138)
Time, Site and Cause of the Bullying Behavior
No. 1 student was bullied by her classmates from the “second
semester in Grade 1 in the school” (21-090), “…now I am often
bullied, too.” (21-072). Usually the bullying happened when we
did cleaning or class finished.” (21-100), and the site was
usually “in the classroom” (21-098). The cause “should have
been I often complained to our teacher, I did so in the second
semester of Grade I.” (21-092) “…Also I often cried, so they
did not want to make friends with me.” (21-140)
Form of Being Bullied
“…Once, someone numbered as No. 6, but he wrote down as
No. 36, our teacher asked me about that, I told that it was not
me, then said nothing more. Then our teacher asked others in
the classroom, all the others said they disliked me.” (21-088)
Besides, they “cursed me as dirty and ugly.” (21-074)
Handling Style of the School and the Parents
No. 1 student usually didn’t tell her teacher after she had
been bullied at school, other students did not tell the teacher,
either” (21-108) even they did saw everything, “…so the
teacher had not known the matter.” (21-106) As for her parents,
they often told me not to care about it.” (21-122)
Feeling & Idea on the Bullying
When being bullied by others, she felt “…very strange, why
did they bully me?” (21-102) However, “I did not want to care
about that” (21-082), “…I thought it had nothing to do with me,
and I told myself not to care about it, otherwise it meant I ad-
mitted everything, so I ignored it at all.” (21-084) “Just like
nothing had happened, just live my own life happily.” (21-144)
No. 2 Student (Code 22)
Family Structure
No. 2 student is studying in Grade 1 of the Public Junior
High School at present, and now living with her “father, mother
and younger brother.” (22-018) Her “mother is a housewife
and father works in a construction company.” (22-032)
Parents’ Teaching Style & Parent-Child Relation
No. 2 student “sometimes did” (22-034) chatted with her pa-
rents, usually talked about “something interesting.” (22-036),
but “seldom” (22-038) talked about things happened at school.
My parents’ education style could be told as “democratic.” (22-
042) Sometimes they beat me, “because I performed poorly,”
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
(22-052) “usually because of my study!” (22-056).
Relationship with Her Brother
I am on good terms with my brother.” (22-020), I do not
bully him intentionally, “sometimes I quarreled with him” (22-
024), usually because “…he took my things away.” (22-028) I
did not beat him but scolded him verbally.” (22-030)
Relationship with Classmates & Teachers
She thought the teachers treated her “very well” (22-100) and
cared her very much” (22-102), she could “get along with half
of the classmates well but bad with another half” (22-132), she
felt she could get along with her classmates “without any diffi-
culty” (22-134) and did not be “excluded.” (22-1 36 )
Time, Site and Cause of the Bullying Behavior
No. 2 student was bullied by others from “the beginning of
the second semester of Grade 1 in the Public Junior High
School” (22-084), usually when “class was over” (22-094).
And the site was usually “in the classroom” (22-092). Some-
times I quarreled with my classmates at school, usually because
he refused to lend me something I needed, then I quarreled
with him.” (22-062) Sometimes my classmates “…abused me
without any reason.” (22-066)
Style of Being Bullied
They did not beat me, but abused me,” (22-088) “sometimes
abused me without any reason.” (22-066) She would talk them
back once being cursed. In addition, to her knowledge, some
other students were often bullied by others, “boys often quar-
reled with each other and fought each other.” (22-124)
Handling Style of the School and the Parents
No. 2 student would “tell the teacher” when being bullied at
school (22-072), the teacher would “called us together and told
him not to bully others like this.” (22-074) In addition, her
friends in the class knew that she was bullied sometimes and
told her, “dont behave like that, never do it again.” (22-116).
As for her parents, they were “impossible” (22-104) to know
she was bullied, because “…I did not tell them about it,” “I am
afraid they would have been very sad.” (22-110)
Feeling and Attitude of Being Bullied
When being bullied by her classmates, she felt “very sad,
why did they bully me?” (22-096) And she thought campus
bullying behavior “cannot be stopped, because the school only
care about scores, and does not care about studentsfeeling at
all, so there would be someone being bullied at school, I pitied
those being bullied.” (22-138)
No. 3 Student (Code 23)
Family Structure
No. 3 student is now studying in Grade 2 of the Public Junior
High School. “My father divorced my mother,” (23-012) “and I
have no brother or sister.” (23-016). I often “watched TV, did
some cooking and washing, or mopped the floor after class,”
(23-008) because “I am living in a single-parent family, my
father had to work outside, and I had to do everything by my-
self.” (23-010) Her father is “a passenger bus driver commuting
between Taipei and Taizhong.” (23-018) “Sometimes he came
back home at night, sometimes did not.” (23-020) “Most of time
he didnt live at home, but in his dormitory.” (23-022)
Parents’ Education Style and Par e nt-Child Relation
My father was not very stern at home, his education style
should be called authoritative.” (23-028), she felt that her
father “cared about me enough.” (23-034) As for her behavior
at school, “I can discipline myself, so he does not have to worry
about that.” (23-038) “I am a poor student, so he does not want
to care about it, otherwise he would get angry.” (23-040) “Un-
til now he did not” (23-042) beat her, but before he did since
she was “ignorant and always committed mistakes.” (23-046)
Relations with Classmates and Teachers
She felt that the teacher “cared her very much” (23-092),
because she loved all her students” (23-096). “…When we
went to Jianhu Mountain, my father did not come back, I got no
money to buy food, and my teacher gave me NT$100.” (23-098)
She does not have good friends in her class, “…I have friends
in other classes” (23-110), “because I got acquainted with stu-
dents in other classes, and I don’t know how to make friends, so
my friends are all students in other classes. I dont know how to
make friends since I was in primary school” (23-112), “I can
get along well with friends outside my class, since my class-
mates are far too excellent.” (23-114) She feels her relation
with her classmates “was not good” (23-138), and she was re-
pulsed by boy students, “I can get along with girl students bet-
ter than with boys.” (23-140) “Boys are exceptionally difficult
to get along with, since they are all ganged up, then they would
tell youthis girl is so and so, that girl is so and so, finally all
boys would dislike her.” (23-142)
Time, Site and Cause of the Bullying Behavior
No. 3 student had been bullied by classmates in primary
school, after she came to the Public Junior High School, “in
Grade 1, I was seldom bullied but in Grade 2, I was bullied
even worse,” (23-072) “because I was a poor student.” (23-082)
“…My classmates disliked me.” (23-050) Usually, it was “her
classmates” who bullied her (23-054) “after class.” (23-080)
the site was “certainly in classroom” (23-076).
Style of Being Bullied
Boys in the Public Primary School were naughty, they beat
meI ran after themvery fast, later they would ask me to run
a race at games.” (23-078) In the Public Junior High School,
my classmates “…all disliked me.” (23-050) “They said I was a
poor studentand teased me as dirty when they saw my dirty
clothes,” (23-052) “and they intentionally tramped me on my
foot, or bumped me deliberately.” (23-064) In addition, accord-
ing to her there are other students being bullied, “I feel that the
girl students in my class are from matriarchal society.” (23-128)
In matriarchal society, women were usually older than men,
and tended to bully men as well, thus men were afraid of
women.” (23-130) e.g., “there is a girl in our class it is so ter-
rible that she wouldonce she caught someone who did not
know how to protect himself. You could never run away from
her, she sometimes pushed him down with a besom.” (23-132)
Handling Style of the School and the Parents
When No. 3 student was bullied, others who saw the bullying
would” (23-122) tell the teacher, “and also…” (23-124)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 19
stopped them. When the teacher knew about it, “…the teacher
would tell them not to do so, and said they should not have
been naughty, ignorant, so and so,” (23-090) “only mentioned
again and again.” (23-160) “If they went too far, the teacher
would punish them.” (23-163) As for her parents, “he knew
about it already, he understood me very well.” (23-102) How-
ever, “he did not know how to handle this kind of matter.”
(23-104) “I handled everything by myself, he never worried
about me.” (23-106)
Feeling or Attitude of Being Bullied
When being bullied, she “only felt unhappy, only being un-
happy, nothing more, it could be soon forgotten.” (23-084)
You will get used to it.” (23-086) Later on, “I didn’t want to
care about it.” (23-070) “If you do not care about them, they
would feel it was not interesting.” (23-150) She feels that cam-
pus bullying behavior “is very common, and disgusting, teach-
ers should have been stricter.” (23-154) She thinks that teach-
ers can “beat students. Before in the Public Primary School,
teacher would beat the students who bullied others. Then they
did not dare to do that again, but once the teacher neglected,
they would bully others again.” (23-156) “If I feel they went too
far, I would fight against them. If not, I would ignore them. But
it is bad that someone was always bullied, so to fight back is
better.” (23-167) Although “it couldnt always work, but it
could frighten them for a while, at least they would no longer
so arrogant.” (23-169) Now “I hope my study can be better,
maybe they will not bully me any longer.” (23-126)
No. 4 Student (Code 11)
Family Structure
No. 4 student is now studying in Grade 1 of the Public Junior
High School and living with her “mother, father and older sis-
ter.” (11-014) Her “father graduated from senior vocational
school, and mother graduated from the Public Junior High
School.” (11-022) “My father works in Taipei, and my mother
worked for one of her friends.” (11-020)
Parents’ Education Style and Par e nt-Child Relation
No. 4 student “seldom chatted with parents, sometimes did,
sometimes did not” at home (11-024) and described his rela-
tionship with his parents as “very common” (11-040), they did
not limit him too much. His parents cared about his study and
performance at school, and once beat him because of his “bad
performance in examination.” (11-044)
Relation with Sister
His relationship with his sister was “good” (11-016), his sis-
ter did not bully him.
Relationship with Classmates and Teachers
He feels that his teacher “cared him very much” (11-098) and
he was “on good terms” with his teacher (11-100). He feels his
relationship with others is “common” (11-130), but he is “un-
popular.” (11-134) “All my classmates bullied me,” (11-050) “I
couldnt make good friends.” (11-142)
Time, Site and Cause of Bullying Behavior
No. 4 student was bullied since “the beginning of Grade 1”
(11-076) and now is often bullied, too. Usually the time was
when “he just went into the classroom for music class.” (11-086)
And the site was usually in the “music classroom” (11-084). He
didn’t know why his classmates always chose him as an object,
“…they always beat me without any reason.” (10-082)
Style of Being Bullied
In primary school, I was beaten sometimes.” (11-080) In the
Public Junior High School, “…Boys always bullied me,”
(11-054) “each time two or three did so.” (11-066) “Sometimes
I wanted to get into the classroom, they closed the door when I
went to the threshold.” (11-056) “Sometimes they abused me.”
(11-060) His classmates often teased at him and freely nick-
named him. He knew there were other students in his class
was abused” (11-122). “That girl is so pale that like a ghost.”
Handling Style of the School and the Parents
When being bullied at school, No. 4 student “would tell the
teacher about the minor things.” (11-068) Other students also
told the teacher.” (11-118) “Having learnt everything, the
teacher usually asked them about it.” (11-070) “Sometimes the
teacher punished them to write self-criticism, sometimes beat
them.” (11-104) As for my parents, they “did nothing at all.”
Feeling or Attitude of Being Bullied
When being bullied, he felt it “boring, and hoped they would
not do like that.” (11-092) “I hope they will not bully others.”
No. 5 Student (Code 12)
Family Structure
No. 5 student is studying in Grade 3 of the Public Junior
High School and living with his “father, moth er, younger
brother and sister.” (12-012) “His father is a university gradu-
ate, so is his mother.” (12-026) “My father works in the tele-
communication office, and mother works in Shinmin Commer-
cial & Industrial Library.” (12-024) “My brother is studying in
Grade 1 of the Public Junior High School and sister in Grade 3
of the Public Primary School.” (12-014)
Parents’ Education Style and Par e nt-Child Relation
No. 5 student “…only chatted with my younger brother and
sister” at home (12-028), but never chatted with his parents
because of his bad temper.” (12-030) “…All our three are
afraid of him.” (12-050) “He would beat us once we committed
mistakes.” (12-052) “Sometimes it was not me who did things
wrong, but he smeared it was me.” (12-056). His parents were
not strict with him, “my mother often worked on night shift, my
father watched TV and attached no attention on us.” (12-036)
As for his study, “they only pay little attention on it, my father
does not at all, he only cares about my brother.” (12-042) As
for my behavior and performance at school, “my father does
not care, my mother cares a little.” (12-044)
Relation with Brother and Siste r
He is on good terms with his brother and sister, “…some-
times we three fought against each other.” (12-016) But “usu-
ally we only pretended to fight, however we fought but not real-
ly fought, only playing fists there.” (12-018) “Sometimes we
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
quarreled with each other when playing together, and became
angry, then fought each other.” (12-022) “Sometimes my bro-
ther beat my sister into tears.” (12-020)
Relationship with Classmates and Teachers
He feels that the teacher treated him “not bad”. (12-138) He
does not have good friends in his class, “because his interper-
sonal relationshipis not that good.” (12-150), “because I like
staying alone.” (12-152) He thinks he “is not only famous, but
very famous, because all the classmates know me well, I am the
No. 1 in the class.” (12-168) He “thinks that being the No. 1 is
awe-inspiring.” (12-172)
Time, Site and Cause of Being Bullied
No. 5 student was bullied by classmates from he was in pri-
mary school, “…I was bullied seriously.” (12-100) “In primary
school, I was a coward, not daring to talk back.” (12-102) In
the Public Junior High School, “I was not bullied in Grade 1,
but was bullied since Grade 2.” (12-094) Usually, the bullying
behavior happened when they had “P. E. class,” (12-110) on
the basketball court…” (12-108) “The bullying is not physical
bullying, but verbal bullying.” (12-112) The cause was “I was
short.” (12-098) “They thought I was vulnerable and did so,
well, why was I so thinmy mother gave birth to such a bony
child.” (12-132)
Style of Being Bullied
No. 5 student “sometimes bickered” with his classmates
(12-062), “because they called me monkey” (12-064). “They
said I looked like a money, and called me Harry Porter, too.”
(12-070) Students liked to randomly nickname others, “…there
are many animals in our class, such as camel, cattle and ba-
boon.” (12-068) They “randomly took pictures with my camera,
I stopped them but it did not work. Finally the teacher stopped
them.” (12-072) “Sometimes a group, and sometimes one stu-
dent” bullied him (12-078). “Sometimes three or four students
beat you, played tricks on you, girls in our class liked to fool
me.” (12-080) e.g., “she said she would paint me as a Picachu,
I told her not to do that because Picachu was ugly.” (12-084)
Sometimes she sang some indistinguishable songs, I asked
what you were singing, so terrible.” (12-106) “I once was
beaten in Grade 1, three students beat me together, I resisted
with something, at the very morning of flagraising, I was criti-
cized by the teacher in the Education Department…” (12-122)
Handling Style of the School and the Parents
No. 5 student would “tell the teacher” when being bullied
(12-090), the teacher would “warn, and nothing elseafter
warning” (12-136). Once, “…I spit to him, he shook his head
there.” (12-130) When he was bullied, other classmates “learn-
ed about it” (12-154), “the kind-hearted ones would tell the
teacher, but others would leave at once.” (12-156) As for his
parents, “I usually first told my parents, and my mother would
told my teacher.” (12-146)
Feeling or Attitude of Being Bullied
When being bullied, he felt “they said so many undue
thingsthose bad eggs.” (12-118) “Sometimes I wanted to retail-
ate,” (12-120) and thought those students who bullied others “dis-
gusting.” (12-194) He thought as long as he “stuck to physical
exercises,” (12-158) t hen he would not be bullied any long er .
Conclusion & Suggestion
According to the above mentioned interviewees’ answers and
qualitative analyses, the research concludes the following main
Relevant Factors Influencing the Students Being Bullied in
the Public Junior High School
The bullies are not foolish, and they chose the right ones in-
stead of bullying others randomly. These students may have
some characteristics on their bodies, or some special features in
their personality, or some features on their behaviors, which
indicate they would not and dare not fight against, although
being bullied. As for what kind of students easily fall into vic-
tims, we discuss from four aspects as follows:
1) Physical characteristics of the victims: The bullied stu-
dents are usually short, thin, and comparatively weak as well;
2) Features on their personality: The bullied students are
usually reserved, timid and unpopular, after being bullied re-
peatedly. As their confidence reduced, they seemed more cra-
ven and more helpless, giving others a sense of vulnerability to
hurt and criticism. This kind of vicious circle made them more
likely to be the objectives of bullying behaviors, and caused the
increased arrogance of the bullies;
3) Several special behaviors of the victims: a) Less friends:
The bullies knew that these students were excluded or repulsed
by their classmates, and usually bore everything alone without
any reliable friends to help them, thus it was safe to bully these
students; b) Frequently complain to the teacher: These students
tended to complain to the teacher, thus they were repulsed by
their classmates. To bully them made the bullies heroes in
other’s eyes; c) Poor students: These students were usually poor
students on study, feeling themselves stupid, disgraceful and
unpopular, for which they were looked down upon by their fel-
lows, and suffered low confidence. The bullies tended to aim at
these students; d) Dirty and undisciplined: These students were
usually slovenly and lazy, being unpopular in appearance;
4) Family background: These students usually couldn’t get
along well with parents, brothers and sisters, between whom
there were usually conflicts. Their parents did not discipline
them strictly, and their family usually provided less emotional
support and family cohesion.
The Styles of Bullying Behaviors
The styles of bullying behaviors are numerous, including
verbal and physical bullying. Preliminarily, the bullying be-
havior may be only indistinct mischief or trick, and the most
common form was to nickname somebody embarrassingly, then
the bullying behavior may further to be personal assault, such
as teasing or insulting. If the bullied or the stander-bys did not
resist or stop, the verbal bullying would turn into physical bul-
lying, such as beating, kicking, pushing, shoving, robbing or
damaging other’s articles.
Time and Site of Being Bullied
Bullying behaviors mainly occurred after class, and the usual
site was in the classroom.
Feeling of the Victim to Campus Bullying Behaviors
For the victims of bullying behaviors, when being bullied,
most of them would ask “why did they b ully me?” And they felt
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 21
very sad”, “unhappy” and “boring”. As time passed by, they
got used to” the bullying behavior, and didn’t want to care
about it. Later, they lost interest in school, even regarded it as
an unfriendly and terrifying place.
Although campus bullying behavior is a complex social
problem, it can be overcome. To build a safe school environ-
ment is not something easy. The research provides the fol-
lowing four suggestions for preventing students in the Public
Junior High School from being bullied on the basis of educa-
tion and instruction.
Encourage the Victim to Tell the Truth, to Find and
Prevent Bullying Behaviors as Early as Possible
No matter being what kind of problem, the earlier to find or
learn about, the easier to solve. So does the prevention of bul-
lying behaviors. If the unusual start is recognized at the very
beginning, more attention would be put into to avoid problems
from being expanded or deteriorated.
Because most of the bullied students are lonely and they
don’t have friends, they tended to bear all unfairness instead of
fighting against the bullies. However, when things were beyond
their endurance, some of them would revenge the bullies, for
which they may have incurred worse bullying. If being told
about the bullying behavior, teachers should first comfort the
bullied as they have experienced the same. On one hand, it may
mentally support the bullied, on the other hand, it may win
his/her trust to facilitate future follow-up works. In the past, the
focus of instruction was usually pinned on the campus con-
querors, while the bullied children were ignored. Sometimes
they did not dare to tell the truth to their parents or teachers
because the adults were not concerned about it, or they were
afraid of being laughed at for complaining, thus the bullies
were encouraged to run amuck.
To solve the problem thoroughly and completely, we must
provide trainings on decisive expression skills to the passive
victims, and help them to foster supports from their fellows,
which may reduce the likelihood of being bullied. The re-
searchers suggested the school to provide self-protect training
plan for the mostly endangered victims earlier. When the stu-
dents can decisively express themselves, others would not bully
them freely.
Encourage the Victims to Make More Friends
Many victims got no way to make new friends, because they
couldn’t accommodate to the collective life. In the community,
they were either rash or timid, not knowing what they should
say or do at all. Since they didn’t know what influence their
behaviors would cause, they often talked or acted inappropri-
ately, and couldn’t make friends with others.
Teachers should encourage the victims to make friends with
most of their classmates as more as possible. Some of the bul-
lied students lack of social skills, thus they need the teachers’
encouragement. In addition, some of the victims lack of the
ability to learn about the social status, so they may have prob-
lems when getting along with classmates and friends. If the
teacher does not help to handle the situation, it will cause their
failure in making friends, which will further reduce his/her
confidence. As long as the above problems being properly dealt
with, the teacher may help students to solve many problems,
enabling him/her to make many friends in the class.
Focus on Five-Quality Development Education
Being influenced by the emphasis on higher-school enroll-
ment rate, the school believes to study diligently is the students’
only duty. In order to help the students to enter higher schools
efficiently, the school spends most time on teaching. Overem-
phasis on course teaching seriously distorted and twisted school
education, failing to consider needs of different students. The
lack of appropriate help caused some students to give up learn-
ing, even pursues unsound recognition. Therefore, it leads to
unhealthy personality development of some teenagers, further
evolves into bullying behaviors or attacking behaviors.
Pay attention to Students’ Behavioral Perfor mance
At school, teachers should spend more time and energy on
students’ relationship with others, since the bullying behavior
may be misunderstood as a kind of trick, or common conflict,
which may be easily ignored. The beginning of bullying be-
havior always shows some evidence. If teachers can instantly
find and correct it, the campus bullying behavior may not have
occurred repeatedly, which may avoid these students from be-
coming criminals in the future.
In a word, teenagers’ physical and psychological develop-
ment, personal violence and handling of campus problems are
necessary basic courses and trainings for counselors in primary
and secondary schools. The research and discussion on pre-
venting campus bullying behavior should be conducted in do-
mestic instruction meetings, or symposiums, on periodicals or
monthlies, which may stimulate emphasis and enable practical
experience for the counselors to solve the problems in combi-
nation with the school counselors’ efforts. At present, the cam-
pus bullying behaviors mostly were dealt with by instructors,
the counselors should take an active role to provide information
and handling methods, and to closely cooperate with the in-
structors. Only in this way, we can efficiently handle students’
problems and enhance communications among school, students
and their parents, so as to ensure students’ and teachers’ safety,
as well as to maintain the campus harmony and security.
Ambert, A. M. (1994). A qualitative study of peer abuse and its effects:
Theoretical and empirical implications. Journal of Marriage and
Family, 56, 119-130. doi:10.2307/352708
Atlas, R. S., & Pepler, D. J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the
classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92, 86-99.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behave-
ioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Besag, V. E. (1989). Bullies and victims in schools. Britain: Open Uni-
versity Press.
Bosworth, K., & Espelage, K. L., (1999). Factors associated with bully-
ing behavior in middle school students. The Journal of Early Ado-
lescence, 19, 341-363. doi:10.1177/0272431699019003003
Boulton, M. J., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Bully/victim problems in mid-
dle-school children: Stability, self-perceived competence, peer per-
ceptions and peer acceptance. British Journal of Developmental Psy-
chology, 12, 315-329. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835X.1994.tb00637.x
Boulton, M. J., & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/victim problems
among middle school children. British Journal of Educational Psy-
chology, 62, 73-83 . doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.1992.tb01000.x
Boulton, M. J., & Underwood, K. (1993). Bully/victim problems
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
among middle school children. European Education, 25, 18-37.
Bowers, L., Smith, P. K. & Binney, V. (1994). Perceived family rela-
tionships of bullies, victims and bully/victims in middle childhood.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 215-232.
Chow, S. et al. (1996). Dropping out in Ogden city schools: The voice
of students. Final draft. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
Clarke, E. A., & Kiselica, M. S. (1997). A systemic counseling approach
to the problem of bullying. Elementary School Guidance & Coun-
seling, 31, 310.
Duncan, R. D. (1999). Peer and sibling aggression an investigation of
intra- and extra-familial bullying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
14, 871-887. doi:10.1177/088626099014008005
Eron, L. D. & Huesmann, L. R. (1984). The control of aggression be-
havior by changes in attitudes, values, and the conditions of learning.
Advances in the study of aggression. Orlando, FL: Academic.
Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the
social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of
Counseling & Development, 78, 326-333.
Farrington, D. P. (1993). Understanding and preventing bullying. In M.
Tonny, & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice, 17. Chicago: Univer-
sity of Chicago Press.
Floyd, N. (1985). Pick on someone your own size: Controlling victi-
mization. Pointer, 29, 9-17. doi:10.1080/05544246.1985.9944687
Greenbaum, S. (1989). Set straight on bullies. California: National
School Safety Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED-
Hazler, R. J. (1998). Promoting personal investment in systemic ap-
proaches to school v i olence. Education, 119, 222-232.
Hetherington, E. M. & Parke, R. D. (1999). Child psychology: A con-
temporary viewpoint. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill College.
Hoover, J. H., Oliver, R., & Thomson, K. (1993). Perceived victimiza-
tion by school bullies: New research and future directions. Journal of
Humanistic Education and Development, 32, 76-84.
Hoover, J., & Hazler, R. J. (1991). Bullies and victims. Elementary
School Guidance & Counseling, 25, 212.
Ireland, J. L. (2000). “Bullying” among prisoners: A review of research.
Aggression and Violent , 5, 201-215.
Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer victimization: Cause
or consequence of school maladjustment. Child Development, 67,
1305-1317. doi:10.2307/1131701
Oliver, R., Oaks, I. N., & Hoover, J. H. (1994). Family issues and inter-
ventions in bully and victim relationships. School Counselor, 41,
Olweus, D. (1984). Development of stable aggressive reaction patterns
in males. In R. J. Blanchard, & D. C. Blanchard (Eds.), Advances in
the study of aggression (pp. 103-138). Orlando, FL: Academic.
Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among school children:
Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In I.
Rubin, & D. Pepler (Eds.), The development and treatment of child-
hood aggression (pp. 411-447). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school, what we know and what we can
do. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Olweus, D. (1994). Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a
school-based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and
Psychiatry, 35, 1171-1190.
Patterson, G. R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. Ame-
rican Psychologist, 41, 432-444.
Perry, D. G., Kusel, S. J., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Victims of peer ag-
gression. Development Psychology, 24, 807-814.
Peterson, R. L., & Skiba, R. (2001). Creating school climates that pre-
vent school violence. Clearing House, 74, 155-163.
Rigby, K. (1993). School children’s perceptions of their families and
parents as a function of peer relations. Journal of Geneti c Psychology,
154, 501-514. doi:10.1080/00221325.1993.9914748
Rigby, K. (1994). Psychosocial functioning in families of Australian
adolescent schoolchildren involved in bully-victim problems. Jour-
nal of Family Therapy, 16, 173-187.
Rigby, K. (1996). Bulling in schools: And what to do about it. London:
Jessica Kingsldy.
Rigby, K., & Slee, P. T. (1993). Dimensions of interpersonal relation
among Australian children and implications for psychological well-
being. Journal of Soci a l Psychology, 133, 33-42.
Roberts Jr., W., & Coursol, D. H. (1996). Strategies for intervention
with childhood and adolescent victims of bullying, teasing, and in-
timidation in school settings. Elementary School Guidance & Coun-
seling, 30, 204-213.
Rutter, M., (1995). Psychosocial disturbances in young people: Chal-
lenges for prevention. Ne w Yo rk: Hambridge University Press.
Salmon, G., & James, A. (1998). Bullying in schools self reported
anxiety depression and self esteem in secondary school children.
BMJ: British Medical Journal, 317, 924-926.
Scott, S. (1998). Aggression behavior in childhood. British Medical
Journal, 316, 202-207.
Sharp, S., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Tackling bullying in your school—A
practical handbook for teachers. New York: Routledge.
Sharp, S., Thompson, D., & Arora, T. (2000). How long before it hurts?
An investigation into long-term bullying. School Psychology Inter-
national, 21, 37-46. doi:10.1177/0143034300211003
Siann, G., Callaghan, M., Lockhart, R., & Rawson, L. (1993). Bully:
Teachers’ views and school effects. Educational S t udies, 19, 307-321.
Tattum, D., & Herbert, G. (1997). Bullying home, school and commu-
nity. London: David Fult on.