Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2013, 4, 391-397 Published Online August 2013 (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to
the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Oshevire Patrick1, Oladimeji Tolulolope1, Onohaebi Sunny 2
1Department of Electrical-Electronic-Engineering, College of Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 2Depart-
ment of Electrical-Electronic-Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
Email:,, tolulop
Received May 2nd, 2013; revised June 29th, 2013; accepted July 7th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Oshevire Patrick et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
It is a known fact that the epileptic power situation in Nigeria has become a recurring decimal. In the light of this stark
reality of a country like Nigeria which is constantly p lunged into pitch darkness all year round, it h as become expedient
for a sustainable and urgent remedy to be sought if our country will ev er think of rubbing sh oulders with the econo mies
of the world. We find ourselves in this pathetic scenario that it has given rise to this paper which tends to review possi-
ble ways and means of redressing the ugly trend. This paper examines the prospects and possible applications of Smart
Grid Technology (SGT) to the Nigeria Power System. Nigeria Power System consists of 28 buses, 32 Transmission
lines and 10 generating stations, with a view to reduce the high active and re a ctiv e tr an smission losses. The study shows
that smart grid system will make the present network more efficient and reliable by co nnecting different sources of dis-
tributed generators into the existing grid. Basic requirements necessary for the application of SGT using the Nigeria
Power System as a case study were discussed.
Keywords: Smart Grid Technology (SGT); Nigeria Power System; Distributed Generators; Losses
1. Introduction
Smart grid is the term generally used to describe the in-
tegration of the elements connected to the electrical grid
with an information infrastructure to offer numerous be-
nefits for both th e provid ers and consumers of electricity.
It is an intelligent future electricity system that connects
all supply, grid, and demand elements through an intelli-
gent communication system [1]. It is an electrical power
distribution network that includes two-way, digital com-
munications between suppliers & consumers (Depart-
ment of Energy, USA).
Smart Grid Network is an intelligent, managed, con-
trolled and ultimately self-healing electric distribution
network capable of closely matching supply with demand
while improving efficiency and reliability. Sensors and
contro l device s on the gr id, combin ed with integrated high-
speed communications and advanced analytic software,
provide utilities with actionable intelligence reports and
information. Such tools make the electric utility more
efficient and reliable, and in turn reduce the need for coal
burning power plants that generate high levels of green-
house gases. A Smart Electric Grid can identify where
electricity is lost or where the syste m is not in balance or
optimized. Such optimization can save 3% or more of
overall electric demand without requiring any change in
consumer behavior [2].
A common element to most definitions is the applica-
tion of digital processing and communications to the
power grid, making data flow and information manage-
ment central to the smart grid.
Figure 1 shows a pictorial view of the proposed Smart
Grid structure, from Generation to the Consumers.
2. Overview of Smart Grid System Domain
2.1. Generation
The smart grid can be applied to all areas of the power
system involving generation, transmission, distribution
and consumption.
Traditionally, the grid has been a centralized system
with one way electron flows from the generator, along
transmission wires, to distribution wires then to end cus-
One component of the smart grid allows for both
movement and measurement in both directions, allowing
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
Figure 1. A concept of smart grid [3].
small localized generators to push their unused locally
generated power back to the grid and also to get accu-
rately paid for it. The wind and the sun, however, gener-
ate energy according to their own schedule, not the needs
of the system. The smart grid is meant to manage inter-
mittency of renewable generation through advanced and
localized monitoring, dispatch and storage [2]. Figure 2
shows a proposed generating station of a proposed smart
grid using sha p e.
2.2. Transmission
In a conventional grid, transmission is the bulk transfer
of electrical power from generation sources to distribu-
tion through multiple substations. An electrical substa-
tion uses transformers to change voltage from high to
low or the reverse across the electric supply chain and it
contains switching, protection and control equipment.
In a smart grid system, a transmission network is typi-
cally operated by a Regional Transmission Operator or
Independent System Operator (RTO/ISO) whose primary
responsibility is to maintain stability on the electric grid
by balancing generation (supply) with load (demand)
across the transmission network.
Examples of actors in the smart grid transmission do-
main include remote terminal units, substation meters,
protection relays, power quality monitors, phasor meas-
urement units (sensors), sag monitors, fault recorders,
and substation user interfaces.
The transmission domain will also contain distributed
energy resources such as electrical storage or peaking
generation uni ts [3,4].
Figure 3 shows a proposed transmission domain of a
proposed smart grid using shape.
2.3. Distribution
The Distribution domain is the electrical interconnection
between the Transmission domain, the Customer domain
and the metering points for consumption, distributed
Operations Generation
Figure 2. Smart generating station [4].
External Communication Interface
Electrical Interface
Figure 3. Overview of the transmission domain in a smart
grid [4].
storage and distributed generation.
The reliability of the distribution system varies de-
pending on its structure, the types of actors that are de-
ployed, and the degree to which they communicate with
each other and with the actors in other domains. The
primary installed sensor base in this domain is the cus-
tomer with a telephone, whose call initiates the dispatch
of a field crew to restore power.
In the smart grid, the Distribution domain will com-
municate more closely with the Operations domain in
real-time to manage the power flows associated with a
more dynamic Markets domain and other environmental
and security-based factors [2]. Figure 4 shows a pro-
posed Distribution domain of a proposed Smart grid us-
ing shape.
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
External Communication Interface
Electrical Interface
Figure 4. Distribution domain diagram [4].
3. Overview of Nigeria Power System
3.1. Generation
The total installed capacity of the currently generating
plants in Nigeria is 7876 MW, but the available Capacity
is less than 4000 MW as at September 2011 [5 ]. Seven of
the fourteen generation stations are over 20 years old and
the average daily power generation is below 2700 MW,
which is far below the peak load forecast of 8900 MW
for the currently existing infrastructure.
Through the planned generation capacity projects for a
brighter future, the current status of power generation in
Nigeria presents challenges, such as inadequate genera-
tion availability, inadequate delayed maintenance of fa-
cilities, insufficient funding of power stations, obsolete
equipment, tools, safety facilities and operational vehi-
cles, obsolete communication equipment, lack of explo-
ration to tap all sources of energy from the available re-
sources and low staff morale [6].
3.2. Transmission
The current transmission system in Nigeria comprises
5523.8 km of 330 kV, 6801.49 km of 132 kV, 32No.
330/132 kV Substations with total installed transforma-
tion capacity of 7688 MVA.
105No. 132/33/11 kV Substations with total installed
transformation capacity of 9130 MVA. The average
available capacity on 330/132 kV is 7364 MVA and
8448 MVA on 132/33 kV. [7]
The Nigeria 330 KV transmission grid is characterized
by high power losses due to the very long transmission
lines. Some of these lines include Benin—Ikeja West
(280 km), Oshogbo—Benin (251 km), Oshogbo—Jebba
(249 km), Jebba—Shiroro (244 km), BirninKebbi—
Kainji (310 km), Jos—Gombe (265 km) and Kaduna—
Kano (230 km).
Power losses result in lower power availability to the
consumers, leading to inadequate power to operate the
appliances. Thus, the high efficiency of the power system
is determined by its low power losses. Increased power
demand pushes the power transmission and distribution
networks to their upper limits and beyond, resulting to
shortening of the life span of the network or total col-
lapse [8].
The transmission system in Nigeria system does not
cover every part of the country. It currently has the ca-
pacity to transmit a maximum of about 4000 MW and it
is technically weak, thus very sensitive to major distur-
bances. Major problems associated with transmission
systems include poor funding by the Federal Government,
it is yet to cover many parts of the country, it’s current
maximum electricity wheeling capacity is 4000 MW
which is awfully below the required national needs, some
sections of the grid are outdated with inadequate redun-
dancies as opposed to the required mesh arrangement,
regular vandalization of the lines, associated with low
level of surveillance and security on all electrical infra-
structure, technologies used generally deliver very poor
voltage stability and profiles, there is a high prevalence
of inadequate working tools and vehicles for operating
and maintaining the network, there is a serious lack of
required modern technologies for communication and
monitoring, transformers deployed are overloaded in
most service areas, inadequate of spare parts for urgent
maintenance, poor technical staff recruitment, capacity
building and training programme [6].
3.3. Distribution & Marketing
In most locations in Nigeria, the distribution network is
poor, the voltage profile is poo r and the billing is inaccu-
rate. As the department, which inter-faces with the public,
the need to ensure adequate network coverage and provi-
sion of quality power supply in addition to efficient
marketing and customer service delivery cannot be over
emphasized. Some challenges identified are, weak and
inadequate network coverage, overloaded transformers
and bad feeder pillars, substandard distribution lines,
poor billing system, unwholesome practices by staff and
very poor customer relations, inadequate logistic facili-
ties such as tools working vehicles, poor and obsolete
communication equipment, low staff morale and lack of
regular training, insufficient funds for maintenance ac-
tivities. [6]
4. Basic Requirement for Smart Grid
Some of the technologies are actively being deployed
and are considered mature in both their develop ment and
application, while others require further development and
demonstration. However, not all technology areas need to
be installed to increase the “smartness” of the grid [9].
Table 1, summarizes the technology involved in a
proposed smart grid while Table 2, provides a concise
summary of some of the differences between the current
grid in Nigeria and proposed smart grid.
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
Table 1. Proposed smart grid technologies [9].
Technology Area Hard Ware Systems and Software
Wide-area monitoring
and control
Phasor measurement units (PMU) and other sensor
equipment like accelerometers, infrared sensors,
strain guage and magnetic sensors.
Supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA), wide-area monitoring systems
(WAMS), Grid lab view user interface.
and communication
technology integration
Communication equipment (Power line carrier ,
WIMAX, LTE, RF mesh network, cellula r), routers,
relays, switches, gateway, computers (servers)
Enterprise resource planning software (ERP),
customer information system (CIS)
Renewable and distributed
generation integration
Power conditioning equipment for bulk power and
grid support, communication and control ha rdware
for generation and enabling storage technology
Energy management system (EMS),distribution
management system (DMS), SCADA, geographic
Information system (GIS)
Transmission enhancement
Superconductors, Flexible AC Transmission
Systems(FACTS), High Voltage Direct Current-
Voltage Sourced Converter (HVDC-VSC), Sensors
and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for
voltage magnitude control, active and reactive
power flow control.
Network stability analysis, automatic recovery
Distribution grid
Automated re-closers, switches and capacitors,
remote controlled distributed generation and stor age,
transformer sensors, wire and cable sensors
Geographic information system (GIS), distribution
management system (DMS), outage management
system (OMS), workforce management system
Advanced metering
infrastructure Smart meter, in-home displays, servers, relays Meter data management system (MDMS)
Table 2. Difference betw een Nigeria networ k and proposed smart grid (compiled by Author).
Criteria Nigeria Current Power Grid System Proposed Smart Grid
Communications None or one-way; typically not real-time Two-way, real-time
Customer interaction Limited Extensive
Metering Mainly electromechanical Digital (enabling real-time pricing and net metering)
Operation and maintenance Manual equipment checks. Remote monitoring, predictive, time-based
Generation Majorly centralized stations Centralized and distributed
Power flow control Limited Comprehensive, automated
Reliability Prone to failur es and cascading
outages; essentially reactive Automated, pro-active protection; prevents outages
before they start
Restoration following
disturbance Manual Self-healing
System topology Radial; generally one-way power flow Closed network; multiple power
flow pathways
Transmission/Distribution line
losses Above ten percent (10%) loss of the total power in
the transmission/distribution lines. About two percent (2%) loss of the total power in the
transmission/distribution lines.
5. Requirements for Application of Smart
Grid Technology in Nigeria Power
5.1. Transmission Enhancement
Equipment typically found in PHCN substations includes
the following: switch gears, high rupturing capacity fuses
(HRC), air-cored ring shielded reactors, lightening ar-
resters, circuit breakers, power transformers, isolators,
and bus bars, among other items, while the network com-
ponents include power lines, cables, circuit breakers,
switches, transformers, large size conductors, steel lattice
towers, steel tubular poles, wooden poles, earthing
In Nigerian transmission power system, it will become
important to fully utilize the existing transmission facili-
ties instead of building new power plants and transmis-
sion lines that are costly to implement and involve long
construction times. Flexible Alternating Current Trans-
mission Systems (FACTS) controllers can be introduced
in power systems to solve the above problems. FACTS
make it possible to control the voltage magnitude of a
bus, active and reactive power flows through transmis-
sion line of a power system.
Line sensors can also be introduced to monitor real
time situations of the Network.
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
5.2. Renewable, Distributed Generation
Integration and Micro Grid
Nigeria generates electricity through large centralized
hydro plants scattered around the country and thermal
plants also. Regardless of where power plants are located,
their power must be brought from the plant to the users.
It lies within a high sunshine belt and thus has enor-
mous solar energy potentials. The average of total solar
radiation varies from about 3.5 kWhm–2·day–1 in the
coastal latitudes to abou t 7 kWhm–2·day–1 along the semi
arid areas, the country receives solar radiation at the level
of about 19.8 MJm–2·day–1. Average sunshine hours are
estimated at 6 hr per day. Solar radiation is fairly well
Given an average solar radiation level of about 5.5
kWhm–2·day–1, and the prevailing efficiencies of com-
mercial solar-electric generators, then if solar collectors
or modules were used to cover 1% of Nigeria’s land area
of 923,773 km2, it is possible to generate 1850 × 103
GWh of solar electricity per year, [10], in this vein, if
solar electricity is developed in Nigeria it can be used for
power supply to remote villages and locations not con-
nected to the national grid. It may also be used to gener-
ate power for feeding into the nation a l grid.
Wind—Nigeria has significant onshore and offshore
exploitable wind energy reserves, but so far this remains
an under-explored sector. Wind, which is an effect from
the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun and
its resultant pressure inequalities, is available at annual
average speeds of about 2.0 m/s at the coastal region and
4.0 m/s at the far northern region of the countr y [10].
Wind energy is considered a viable solution to the en-
ergy challenges of Nigeria especially in the rural areas of
the country and to the restrictions posed by the rising
cost of conventional or traditional energy.
Implementing distributed generation can be as simple
as installing a small generator to provide back up or it
can be a complex system, highly integrated with the elec-
tricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, en-
ergy storage and power management systems. Distrib-
uted generation can support and strengthen the central
station model of electricity generation, transmission and
distribution. While the central g enerating plant continues
to provide most of the power to the grid, the distributed
resources can meet the peak demands of local distribu-
tion feeder lines or major customers.
Microgrids can be utilized as the framework of system
that can reduce the negative effects of power fluctuation
on existing power systems, simultaneously pursuing the
coexistence of environment and supply, and existing
power system and distributed power generation. They
can also be considered to be a flexible load. It keeps the
power demand and supply balance by connecting to the
external power system for maintenance of frequency and
voltage. Microgrid operators buy power through tie-line
from the utility company when power in the microgrids
is deficient, and sell power when the power generated is
in excess [11].
5.3. Advanced Metering Infrastructure
Presently electromechanical meters are used by consum-
ers of Power Holding Company of Nigeria, they have
mechanical parts that spin as electricity is consumed in
the premises, and they show usage readout on small dials
that a utility meter reader reads while on the property of
your home.
Smart meters, otherwise referred to as Advanced Me-
tering Infrastructure (AMI) or two-way meters, are elec-
tric meters which utilize two-way communications be-
tween the meter and the utility co mpany and enable two-
way power flows to consumers. This technology enables
users to monitor their consumption patterns in real-time
and enables features which include time stamping of me-
ter data, outage reporting, communication into the cus-
tomer premise and on-request reads. It also enables the
consumer to supply power back to the grid from solar
panels or other local renewable sources and enables load
management by responding to fluctuations in demand.
5.4. Wide Area Monitoring, Control and Storage
The use of sensors, phasor measurement units (PMU),
accelerometers, infrared sensors, strain guage and mag-
netic sensors, if mounted in Nigerian System can be
monitored by intelligent systems throughout the network
is intended to allow the system to automatically adapt
and respond to changing conditions. It is expected that
distribution devices will become intelligent remote
agents on communication networks providing data col-
lected through sensors back to operations control centers.
With current technology it is difficult to monitor power
flows throughout the distribution grid as measurements
are typically only available at th e distribution substations.
Sensors located throughout the network along with smart
metering will be able to collect this information.
Energy storage technologies such as Hybrid Air Con-
ditioning systems can convert electrical energy to ther-
mal energy and store it. This is more economical than
storing electricity in batteries. Such storage capabilities
will be needed to grow the alternative energy sources,
where unstable pow er flow from renewable energy plants
such as wind and solar farms can be stored and better
controlled. It can also supply power to the grid when it
goes into island mode [11].
Modern means of data monitoring and analysis in a
Smart Grid Power Network.
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems
(SCADA) has been introduced into Nigeria Power Sys-
tem by PHCN for data collection and monitoring of the
generating station. Other softwares that were also studied
Distribution Management System (DMS) power flow
monitoring software that can be used to run different grid
operation scenarios pulling data from a centralized data-
base that is always updated and synchronized with the
network. This database has all the information needed
to simulate situations such as three-phase unbalanced
power flow, or perform contingency and short circuit
Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth
(VERDE) similar to Google Earth, VERDE simulation
allows grid modeling with geographical information us-
ing real-time sensor data and weather information. This
will enable the operator to visualize the condition of the
grid at different levels, switching the view of the grid
display from national to regional or even street level, all
within a few seconds.
GridLAB-D is a flexible simulation environment that
can be integrated with a variety of third-party data man-
agement and analysis tools.
The GridLAB-D system includes modules to support
implementation of the following system simulatio n func-
tions; power flow controls, including distributed genera-
tion and storage, end-use appliance technologies, equip-
ment, and controls, consumer behavior including daily,
weekly, and seasonal demand profiles, price response,
and contract choice, energy operations, such as distribu-
tion automation, load-shedding programs, and emergency
operations, business operations, such as retail rate, billing,
and market-based incentive programs.
Advanced Power Quality software, such as labview,
allows detailed power quality data to be examined rap-
idly and easily, making best use of human pattern recog-
nition and an alysis skills.
Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management, smart me-
ters may be monitored by th is software, essentially proc-
essing meter data. Other oracle software include: Oracle
Utilities Customer Care and Billing, Oracle Utilities
Load Analysis, Oracle Utilities Work and Asset Manage-
ment, Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management, Oracle
Database [13,14].
6. Benefits Derivables of a Smart Grid
1) The grid will heal itself. The modernized grid will
perform continuous self assessments to detect, analyze,
respond to and as needed, restore grid components or
network sections. It will handle p roblems too large or too
fast moving for human intervention. Acting as the grid’s
“immune system”, self healing will help maintain grid
reliability, security, affordability, power quality and effi-
2) It will motivate consumers to be an active grid par-
ticipant and will include them in grid operations. In the
modernized grid, well-informed consumers will modify
consumption based on the balancing of their demands
and the electric system’s capability to meet those de-
mands. Demand for new cost-saving and energy-saving
products will benefit both the consumer and the power
Consumers help balance supply and demand, and en-
sure reliability by modifying the way they use and pur-
chase electricity. These modifications come as a result of
consumers having choices that motivate different pur-
chasing patterns and behaviour. These choices involve
new technologies, new information about their electricity
use, and new forms of electricity pricing and incentives.
3) The modern grid will resist attack. Security re-
quires a system-wide solution that will reduce physical
and cyber vulnerabilities and recovers rapidly from dis-
ruptions. Both its design and its operation will discourage
attacks, minimize their consequences and speed service
Resiliency refers to the ability of a system to react to
unexpected events by isolating problematic elements
while the rest of the system is restored to normal opera-
tion. These self-healing actions result in reduced inter-
ruption of service to consumers and help service provid-
ers better manage the delivery infrastructure.
4) The modern grid will provide the level of power
quality desired by the users.
New power quality standards will balance load sensi-
tivity with delivered power quality at a reasonable price.
The modernized grid will supply varying grades of
power quality at different pricing levels.
Not all commercial enterprises, and certainly not all
residential customers, need the same quality of power. A
smart grid supplies varying grades (and prices) of power.
The cost of premium power-quality features can be in-
cluded in the electrical service contract. Advanced con-
trol methods monitor essential components, enabling
rapid diagnosis and solutions to events that impact power
quality, such as lightning, switching surges, line faults
and harmonic sources.
5) The modern grid will accommodate all generation
and storage options. It will seamlessly integrate many
types of electrical generation and storage systems with a
simplified interconnection process analogous to “plug-
and-play” technology of the retail computer industry.
A smart grid accommodates not only large, centralised
power plants, but also the growing array of customer-
sited distributed energy resources. Integration of these
resources—including renewables, small-scale combined
heat and power, and energy storage—will increase rap-
idly all along the value chain, from suppliers to market-
Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. SGRE
ers to customers.
6) The modern grid will enable markets to flourish.
Open-access markets, expose and shed inefficiencies.
The modern grid will enable more market participation
through increased transmission paths, aggregated de-
mand response initiatives and the placement of energy
resources including storage within a more reliable distri-
bution system that is closer to the consumer.
Correctly designed and operated markets efficiently
create an opportunity for consumers to choose among
competing services. Some of the independent grid vari-
ables that must be explicitly managed are energy, capac-
ity, location, time, rate of change and quality. Markets
can play a major role in the management of these vari-
ables. Regulators, owners/operators and consumers need
the flexibility to modify the rules of business to suit op-
erating and market conditions.
7) Optimises asset utilisation and operating efficien-
cy—A smart grid applies the latest technologies to opti-
mise the use of its assets. For example, optimised capac-
ity can be attainable with dynamic ratings, which allow
assets to be used at greater loads by continuously sensing
and rating their capacities. Maintenan ce efficiency can be
optimised with condition-based maintenance, which sig-
nals the need for equ ipment maintenance at precisely the
right time. System-control devices can be adjusted to re-
duce losses and eliminate congestion. Operating efficien-
cy increases when selecting the least-cost energy-de-
livery system available through these types of system-
control devices [9,14].
7. Conclusions
We have seen that the present Nigerian grid is facing the
problem of poorly maintained long transmission lines,
inadequate communication facilities and insufficiency in
power generation .
We have proposed a method of supply reliability eva-
luation for microgrids, including renewable energy sources,
installation of elect ric e nergy st orage system s etc.
Renewable energy is considered a viable solution to
the energy challenges of Nigeria especially in the rural
areas of the country and to the restrictions posed by the
rising cost of conventional or traditional energy.
The goal of a smart grid, as it relates to consumers, is
to manage energy use more efficiently, save money on
electricity, and provide technology and processes that are
integrated in to the appliances and devices consumers use
in their everyday lives, all without causing significant
disruption. A successful smart grid will allow consumers
to receive valuable and understandable information that
enables them to make intelligent and informed choices
about how they use energy, all while minimizing con-
sumer cost and out-of-pocket expenses that could arise
with the implementation of the smart grid. The willing-
ness of consumers in Nigeria to accept and participate in
the smart grid could be severely impaired if the cost
outweighs the benefits.
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