Vol.2, No.12, 1397-1400 (2010) Health
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
Anti-respiratory p assage virus of Chinese herbal medicine
Zhiqiang Wang, Yi Zhu*
Department of Acupuncture and Massage, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China;
wangzhiqiangshow5@163.com; *Corresponding Author: zhuyi1010@163.com
Received 20 April 2010; revised 20 October 2010; accepted 22 October 2010
Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus
infection of viral respiratory disease has be-
come a major killer of mankind, but there is no
effect of vaccines and therapeuticmdrugs. Chi-
nese herbs can inhibit the proliferation and
strengthen the human immune virus, and so on
to play a very good antiviral activity. Single-
flavor compound in accordance with two dif-
ferent drugs and the object of study, the herbal
anti-influenza virus and respiratory syncytial
virus, a comprehensive overview of research
and clinical outlook of the Chinese herbs to
good use.
Keywords: Antiviral; Chinese Herbal Medicine;
Influenza Virus; Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Viral respiratory disease is a class of common disease
that have high incidence, all ages are susceptible, infec-
tion in children and the elderly often lead to more se-
rious complications, a pandemic would bring a high
mortality rate, that to be a serious harm to human health.
So far western medicine has not found a way that have a
good efficiency and have no toxicity. But anti-viral drugs
of chinese herbal medicine use natural medicine, which
has many features that chemical drugs do not have, and
have extensive source, low price, easy to spread. Be-
cause of the above reasons, the present stage of Chinese
medicine is committed to anti-virus research, to explore
this vast treasure house of Chinese medicine, which has
obviously found a lot of antiviral drugs. This passage
review on Chinese herbal medicine research about the
influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus in the
last ten years.
Influenza viruses easily lead to acute respiratory dis-
ease, not only affect people's normal life, but also easily
lead to serious complications. Although the inactivated
vaccine and live attenuated vaccines have achieved some
results, but we still did not overcome the difficulties of
the surface glycoprotein of influenza virus variation to
the traditional vaccine [1]. And because the current
drugs used to combat influenza based mainly synthetic
drugs such as amantadine, rimantadine and zanamivir,
But it has problem of toxic side effects and inconvenient
to take the issue [2,3]. Therefore, it is necessary to de-
velop low toxicity and effective Chinese herbal medicine
to Anti-influenza virus.
2.1. Single Medicine Research
Zheng Qun [4] et al used mouse lung virus with in-
fluenza virus infection in mice adapted strain A/FM/1/47
pneumonia model to study catechu extract on influenza
virus infection in the body on body immune function,
but also on Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and the
impact of neutralizing antibodies. The results showed
catechu extract 12.5 g/L mice infected with pneumonia,
which has a good protective effect of the death, catechu
extract 6.25 g/L can significantly prolong the average
survival time of infected mice. This indicates that the
catechu extract in mice with effective anti-influenza vi-
rus effect. At the same time,research also shows that
catechu extract can enhance the influenza virus infection
and cellular immunity and humoral immunity.
Guo Yanhua [5] et al used mouse lung virus with in-
fluenza virus infection in mice adapted strain A/FM/1/47
pneumonia model to research Notopterygium influence
on influenza virus pneumonia in mice and protective
effect of the death of mice preventive effect of influenza
virus. The research found Notopterygium extract high,
medium dose group can effectively reduce the mortality
rate of mice infected with the virus, the high dose can
directly kill influenza virus in mice lungs and lower he-
magglutination titer, and the protective effect to death of
mice infected with the virus is better than ribavirin,
role in the control group with the same effect of Shuang-
Z. Q. Wang et al. / Health 1 (2010) 1397-1400
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
huanglian (P > 0.05).
Chen Zhiwei [6] used microscopic to determine the
differences in Morphology of different treatment Radix
to red blood cell infection of influenza virus. Discussing
the mechanism of aqueous extract of Radix inhibition
Cell binding activity of influenza A virus by capillary
electrophoresis combined with microscopic examination
and hemagglutination titer index. Experiments show that
water extract of Radix inhibited virus binding to red
blood cells in solution, is a board dominated by blue fine
roots of red cell’s own protective effect, which effec-
tively inhibit the influenza virus binding to cells to
achieve the anti-virus purposes.
The cell culture technique to ribavirin as a positive
control to observe the anthraquinone compounds on in-
fluenza virus cytopathic (CPE) in vitro. Found that half
of its anti-influenza virus inhibitory concentration (IC50)
was 122.4 μg/ml, half of the toxic concentration (TC50)
to 226.1 μg/ml, therapeutic index (TI) was 1.9, and the
inhibition of influenza virus, the amount of obvious ef-
fective response relationship, and the large amount of
inhibition of the virus on a large [7].
Litchi flavonoids have a good appreciation of the in-
fluenza virus inhibited the toxicity of Litchi flavonoids
lower than ribavirin, and in 160 μg/ml or more, to the
extent of influenza virus cytopathic effect inhibition up
to 50% or more, that is, at a certain concentration is Lit-
chi flavonoids relatively safe and effective antiviral
drugs [8].
2.2 Compound Medicine Research
Wang Baohua [9] et al infected mice in each group by
the dilution of influenza virus FM1 intranasally, and
establish infection model of influenza virus to do re-
search on Ag Alice Cai Gui Decoction on the role of
influenza virus replication with real-time and accuracy
of real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain
reaction (PCR). They establish a normal control group, a
virus model group, a ribavirin group and a Tang Yin
Qiao Cai Gui group. It was found that the virus model
was amplified with the curve of Ct model group were
(19.49 ± 1.40), (21.02 ± 4.25), (15.80 ± 4.18) respec-
tively, and the test proves positive for influenza virus
pathogens. Compared with the model group with the
virus replication capacity (128973.40 ± 18.14), the
amount of viral replication of ribavirin group (33327.29
± 19.56) decreased with significantly difference (P < 0.
05), and the Tang Yin Qiao Cai Gui-group virus replica-
tion volume (79104.28 ± 2.52) decreased also with sig-
nificant difference (P < 0. 05). The above data shows
that Yinqiao Cai Gui Decoction has obvious inhibition
on pulmonary influenza virus of mice infected by proli-
feration of influenza virus.
Mei-Juan Chen [10] et al mice with lung adapted
strain of influenza virus (FM1) nasal instillation of in-
fected BALB/C mice replication animal model to record
the survival time of mice in order to measure the lung
index. They also use FM1 infected MDCK cell lines
(MDCK) as the experimental system to observe the de-
gree of cytopathic effect, and thus to understand the ef-
fect of Yin huang Injection against FM1. The vitro expe-
riments showed that after treatment before the virus in-
fected, the amount of Yin huang Injection about 0.11
mg/ml can inhibit FM1 MDCK cells on pathological
damage, while before the treatment but after the virus
infected, the amount of about 0.22 mg/ml can inhibit
FM1 more on MDCK cells injury. The animal experi-
ments showed that only a small doses of intramuscular
injection of Yin huang , can only decrease the pulmonary
index values (P < 0.05), but can significantly reduced
lung index (P < 0. 01) with medium and large doses and
extend the survival time (P < 0.05). At the same time, the
intravenous infusion of small doses will only reduce
pulmonary index values (P < 0.05), while the medium
and large doses can significantly reduce lung index and
prolong survival time (P < 0.01).
Respiratory syncytial virus is one of the important
pathogens that can cause Infant lower respiratory tract
infection. For a long time, there is no effective medicine
against RSV infection, and even if there are formalin
inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine technology
and the development of subunit vaccine, Genetically
engineered vaccine, DNA vaccine, but not safe or inef-
fective [11-12]. But many herbs by acting on different
targets and to achieve better antiviral.
3.1. Single Medicine Research
Patrinia effective part of anti-virus isolated AP3 by
Chinese medicine decoction, ethanol extraction and ma-
croporous resin chromatography. AP3 on the inhibition
of RSV obvious dose-effect relationship in different
concentrations, The longer the role of , the more the in-
hibitory effects. Its effect primarily through inhibition of
RSV respiratory syncytial virus into the cell membrane,
inhibite virus replication in cells [13].
Liu Zhao [14] observe virus induced cytopathic effect
and MTT assay of drug activity against RSV, calculate
the inhibition of drugs on disease rates and half inhibi-
tory concentration, antiviral drugs adsorbed, drugs can
kill the virus directly and inhibition of the virus in cell
biosynthesis, exploration activity in isatis monomer me-
chanism of anti-RSV in three aspects. The results
showed no direct isatidis monomer inactivation of RSV,
Z. Q. Wang et al. / Health 1 (2010) 1397-1400
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
can not prevent the adsorption of RSV, Which can inhi-
bit RSV in Hep-2 cells the biosynthesis. So it shows
isatidis monomer safely and efficiently inhibit RSV in
Hep-2 cell proliferation, inhibition occurred after viruses
invade cells.
Chrysanthemum aqueous extract have good inhibitory
effect of RSV In vitro. It can play a role in many areas, it
not only inactivates viruses directly in incubated with
virus, but also inhibites virus adsorption and penetrate
the cell membrane infected cells, meanwhile it can re-
move the virus which have penetrated cells [15].
3.2. Compound Medicine Research
Xu Xia [16] et al used JinbeiqingfeiKeLi containing
honeysuckle, forsythia, Eustoma, loquat, gypsum and
other 10 Chinese herbs to act on the respiratory syncytial
virus pneumonia in animal models of indirect elections
in the 0.18 - 2.89 g/kg 5 doses of particles observed Jin-
beiqingfei infection in mice, respiratory syncytial virus
pneumonia of indicated doses of the drug began to work
in 0.36 g/kg and was compeletly inhibited up to 1.45
g/kg doses in lung tissue proliferation, which can save
animals from infection with respiratory syncytial virus
pneumonia, the effect was superior than ribavirin dose
from in 0.72 g/kg doese of JinbeiqingfeiKeLi.
Liao Hui [17] et al took the human embryonic lung
fibroblast into groups, then respiratory syncytial virus
attacked those groups, after that the electron microsco-
pies in each group recorded the changes of ultrastructure
of human embryonic lung fibroblasts. The results
showed that the viral infection increases the nucleus,
nuclear cytoplasmic ratio increase, nucleolar condensa-
tion, nuclear membrane sag into the interlayer, the for-
mation of inclusion bodies, mitochondrial condensation,
expansion of rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes
increased, chromatin condensation, cellvirus particles
can be seen outside. After infection with serum treatment
group, the nuclei enlarged, nucleolus condensation, ex-
pansion of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria
condensation, but to a lesser extent. Confirmed that
when human embryonic lung fibroblast cells infected by
RSV, the cell ultrastructural changes may occur, Qingfei
oral liquid contained in serum can reduce those changes
and the effect is move obvious when it is ussed at the
moment of infection than after that.
Sum up all these things above, Chinese herbal medi-
cine have a good inhibition on the respiratory virus. It is
reflected in the inhibition of many aspects such as virus
inhibition value and improve the immune function, and
compared with western medicine it has low toxicity,
those are the advantages of herbal anti-virus. Chinese
herbs can act on different targets, in recent years the
study of Chinese herbal medicine shifted from single
medicine to compound medicine, The introduction of a
large number of high technology to study the antiviral
mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine. But the study
also is not deep enough, the antiviral mechanism of
Chinese herbal medicine is not into the system, and there
are many problems in the study of chinese compound
medicine, such as chinese herbal medicine has many
different components, and it will be interaction between
different components, this brings us to the question that
the research results will be different in a different envi-
ronment, different concentrations or using different ex-
traction techniques. So I think the Chinese herbal medi-
cine research must be combined with the latest technol-
ogy, Learn from the experience of Western anti-virusdo
dore detailed studies of chinese medicine, able to extract
the active ingredients, truly “learn the essence, discard
the dregs”, to make of the new formulation for clinical.
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