Advances in Physical Education
2013. Vol.3, No.3, 116-124
Published Online August 2013 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s .
Facilitators and Barriers of External Coaches’ Involvement
into School-Based Extracurricular Sports
Activities: A Qualitative Study
Kenryu Aoyagi1, Kaori Ishii2, Ai Shibata2, Hirokazu Arai3, Chisato Hibi1, Koichir o Oka2
1Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda Universi ty, Saitama, Japan
2Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, Japan
3Faculty of Letter s , H os e i U n iv e rsity, Tokyo, J a pa n
Received May 2nd, 2013; revised June 2nd, 2013; accepted June 9th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Kenryu Aoyagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited.
School-based extracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) provides one of the main opportunities for ado-
lescents to play sports in Japan. However, maintaining active SBECSA is difficult because of the large
burden on teachers to manage SBECSA and a lack of SBECSA teachers who can coach expertly. To re-
solve these issues, the recruitment of external coaches has been promoted. However, the number of
coaches and frequency of coaching are not sufficient for the current demand. Additionally, it is not clear
how to promote the engagement of external coaches. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to
explore a variety of facilitators and barriers associated with the involvement of external coaches into
SBECSA. Twenty-five external coaches were recruited from junior high and high schools across Japan.
Data obtained through personal semi-structured interviews were analyzed using the KJ method (a qualita-
tive type of analyses). As a result, seven facilitators (positive feelings, adequate system, positive social
support, comfortable climate of SBECSA, environment, growth of external coach, network building), and
six barriers (negative feelings, inadequate system, lack of support, uncomfortable climate of SBECSA,
poor environment, burdens) were identified. In conclusion, SBECSA would become more attractive for
external coaches by enhancing facilitators and reducing barriers.
Keywords: Adolescent; After School; Coach; KJ Method; Volunteer
Engagement in exercise and sports has been recommended
for adolescents to prevent decreased physical fitness and to
enhance healthy development (Ministry of Education, Culture,
Sports, Science and Technology in Japan: MEXT, 2011). Simi-
lar to foreign countries such as Australia, Canada, and the UK
(Sport Council Wales, 2009; Edwards, Kanters, & Bocarro,
2011; Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012), school-based ex-
tracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) provides one of the
main opportunities to play sports for Japanese adolescents.
Junior high and high school students play SBECSA under the
supervision of teachers after school and on weekends. SBECSA
includes sports such as baseball, soccer, basketball, track and
field, swimming, and judo. According to the Course of Study
(curriculum guide for defining basic standards for education)
published by MEXT, schools should implement SBECSA to
complement the educational curriculum as part of the school
education. Therefore, SBECSA is strongly interconnected with
school education and recognized as an extremely valuable op-
portunity (MEXT, 2008; MEXT, 2009a). In 2009, 64.9% of
junior high school students (75.5% males and 53.8% females)
and 40.7% of high school students (54.5% males and 26.6%
females) in Japan participated in SBECSA (MEXT, 2009b).
SBECSA offers a number of positive benefits such as en-
joyment or a purpose in life, building a solid foundation to en-
joy sports throughout life, improving physical fitness and health,
cultivating a rich humanity, and contributing to a bright and
fulfilling school life (MEXT, 1997). A Japanese nation-wide
survey for physical fitness revealed a positive relationship be-
tween participation in SBECSA and high physical fitness in
adulthood (MEXT, 2012). Additionally, participation in
SBECSA was positively correlated with academic performance
(e.g. grade point average, math and science test scores) (Fre-
dricks & Eccles, 2006; Lipscomb, 2007), school bonding (Bar-
nett, 2007; Dotterer, McHale, & Crouter, 2007), psychological
adjustment (e.g. depression, self-esteem, and conc entration) (Fre-
dricks & Eccles, 2006; Shernoff & Vandell, 2007), and friend-
ship (Schaefer, Simpkins, Vest, & Price, 2011). These findings
from previous research studies suggest that SBECSA plays an
important role in the healthy development of young people both
short- and long-term.
However, there are issues that can negatively affect student
participation in SBECSA and thus limit the acquisition of
sports skills. Generally, full-time teachers coach SBECSA (To-
kyo Metropolitan Board of Education, 2008), but sometimes
they are assigned to coach sports activities that they cannot
coach expertly (MEXT, 1997; MEXT, 2010). Previous studies
demonstrated the importance of expert coaching for positive
youth development (e.g. performance skill, confidence, positive
social relationship, and morality) (Cote & Gilbert, 2009; Stew-
art, Lindsay, & Trevor, 2011). Considering these findings, some
teachers cannot contribute to the improvement of performance
skills or confidence of team members. Therefore, recruitment of
an external coach who can coach expertly is valuable for team
members’ development. Moreover, there are physical, mone-
tary, and mental challenges related to managing SBECSA
(MEXT, 1997; Japan Senior High School Teachers and Staff
Union, 2008; Whiteley & Richard, 2012). In addition, inactivity
or discontinuation of SBECSA sometimes occurs because a
teacher is transferred to another school (School-based Extracur-
ricular Sports Activity in Junior High School “Nagano Model”
Exploratory Committee, 2004; Nakazawa, 2011). Public school
teachers are generally required to transfer to another school
once every several years in Japan. At that time, if there is no
substitute teacher who can coach SBECSA, these activities are
sometimes eliminated.
To resolve these issues, there has been a growing interest in
promoting the involvement of external coaches. An external
coach is defined as a person who coaches school-based extra-
curricular activity instead of, or as support for, the teacher (Sa-
sakawa Sports Foundation: SSF, 2011). An external coach may
be a part-time teacher, a sports club coach, leader of a social
physical education program, graduate of the school in question,
or a student’s parent (All Japan High School Athletic Federa-
tion, 2012). There is no common rule on how to manage exter-
nal coaches, and they are engaged in SBECSA with a wide
range of compensation (from no compensation to compensation
as a full-time job) (SSF, 2011). In Australia and the UK, extra-
curricular sports activities have been outsourced similar to that
in Japan (Flintoff, 2008; Griggs, 2010; Williams, Hay, & Mac-
donald, 2011).
However, some issues underlie the involvement of external
coaches in SBECSA. A previous survey indicated that external
coaches do not coach frequently enough (Miyagi Prefecture
Board of Education, 2008; Yamagata Prefecture Board of Edu-
cation, 2010). Additionally, other issues such as difficulty in
securing human resources (Miyagi Prefecture Board of Educa-
tion, 2008; Yamagata Prefecture Board of Education, 2010;
Williams, Hay, & Macdonald, 2011) and the small number of
external coaches available by region and type of sport have
been reported (Nishijima, Yano, & Nakazawa, 2007; Nippon
Junior High School Physical Culture Association, 2012). Thus,
the lack of external coaches for SBECSA is problematic.
To promote the involvement of external coaches, it is impor-
tant to enhance facilitators and reduce barriers that encourage
or discourage external coaches’ participation in SBECSA. Pre-
vious studies have attempted to clarify the benefits and burdens
for external coaches in Japan (Shioya, 2002; Kanagawa Prefec-
ture Board of Education, 2008; Miyagi Prefecture Board of
Education, 2008). However, most studies were conducted using
questionnaires with few question items and a focus on only one
prefectural area. Although LaVoi and Dutove (2012) revealed
barriers and supported for female coaches, most participating
coaches were male and worked in universities as professional
coaches. Thus, previous studies may only partially explain fa-
cilitators and barriers, and how to promote the engagement of
external coaches into SBECSA is less clear. To explore factors
that could comprehensively contribute to increased numbers
and coaching frequency of external coaches, the use of a quail-
tative method (i.e. interview) and collection of opinions of ex-
ternal coaches are necessary. Therefore, the purpose of the pre-
sent study was to explore the facilitators and barriers associ-
ated with external coaches’ involvement in SBECSA.
Participants comprised 25 external coaches who had coached
at a public junior high school or a public high school in October
2010. They were introduced by connected teachers and had
varying sociodemographics and characteristics of SBECSA in-
cluding age, gender, occupation, type of sc hool, pre fectur e, and
type of sport coached. Participants were recruited from 13 pre-
fectural areas and 15 different sports (archery, badminton, base-
ball, basketball, dance, handball, kendo, rubber-ball baseball,
rugby, soccer, softball, soft tennis, table tennis, track and field,
and volleyball). They were offered a gift card worth 1000 yen
(8 US dollars, 7 pounds sterling or 8 Euros in October 2010) for
participating in the interview. The research proposal was ap-
proved by the ethics board at Waseda University. All partici-
pants were informed of the purpose and design of the study, and
written informed consent was obtained from each before enroll-
Interview Procedure
First, sociodemographics and characteristics of SBECSA (e.g.
type of school, prefecture, sport, coaching experience, and com-
pensation) were obtained in writing from each participant. Se-
cond, a personal semi-structured interview was conducted fol-
lowing a pre-determined interview guide. The interview guide
was developed through pilot interviews using five external co-
aches. According to feedback from the coaches, confusing que-
stions were modified and the interview skills of the interviewer
were developed. The question items included two open-ended
questions as follows: 1) What are facilitators of involvement in
SBECSA? 2) What are barriers to involvement in SBECSA?
Participants were asked to respond freely to the questions, and
all topics were explored until exhausted. Each interview took
between 20 - 60 minutes (mean = 33.8 minutes). Interviews
were performed from December 2010-March 2011 at a place
convenient for each participant such as university, community
center, or school where the external coach was involved. All in-
terviews were conducted by a single researcher and audio re-
corded with each participant’s agreement.
Each recorded interview was transcribed verbatim. The KJ
method (Kawakita, 2004) was used to analyze the transcribed
data. The KJ method is a qualitative analysis that contains ab-
ductive procedures such as label making and label grouping.
Therefore, the KJ method is preferable for conducting explora-
tory research such as the present study. Additionally, this me-
thod can be adapted for use in outside Japan (Scupin, 1997).
Following the KJ method, all transcribed data were divided into
individual content with a single meaning by three researchers
with expertise in sports education or psychology. Next, nearly
identical contents were grouped together and labeled as “small
categories” for each area (i.e. facilitator and barrier). Three
researchers discussed and defined the title of each small cate-
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s . 117
gory. Then, similar small categories were further grouped into
“middle categories”. Last, the similarities and differences
among the middle categories produced “large categories”. Each
middle and large category was titled in a way similar to the
small category. Initials of facilitators and barriers with identical
numbers were added to make discussion easier.
Characteristics of Participants
Twenty-five external coaches participated in the interview
(Table 1) of which twenty-one were men and four were women.
Ages ranged from 22 - 74 years with a mean age of 35.7 years
(standard deviation: SD = 17.1). Eleven participants were
coaching in junior high school and 14 were coaching in high
school. Years of coaching experience ranged from. 5 - 30 with
a mean of 6.8 years (SD = 7.9). Fifteen external coaches were
compensated, and 10 were volunteers.
Seven large categories of facilitators (i.e. positive feelings,
adequate system, positive social support, comfortable climate
of SBECSA, environment, growth of external coach, and net-
work building) were grouped (Table 2). Quotes from the study
participants are presented below. “Positive feelings” was used
to describe enjoyment, parental-like warmth toward team mem-
bers (“Children are lovely”), the desire to coach, love for the
sport, commitment or responsibility (“The relationships with
students and their parents have been built. So, I can’t break up
these relationships”), and a desire to win. “Adequate system”
was used to describe little responsibility (“Having no compen-
sation makes me feel better about joining the SBECSA”), com-
pensation, a strong request from an organization (“All graduate
students in my laboratory appear to be ordered to coach
SBECSA”), and the rights of the external coach (“External co-
aches can get an ID card, that allows me to watch games near
place”). “Positive social support” included a c ooperative SBECSA
teacher, understanding from the school (“When I go to the
SBECSA, teachers seem to be glad. The school principal is also
friendly”), understanding from parents, and a cooperative fam-
ily. “Comfortable climate of SBECSA” involved acceptance of
SBECSA (“I want to coach because students want me to join
the SBECSA”), growth of team members, and high motivation
of team members. “Environment” was used to describe easy
access (“Being involved in the SBECSA is easy, because the
school is my alma mater”, and “The school is near my home”),
environment where an external coach can grow (“Working with
SBECSA teacher advances my own growth”), and inadequate
environment. “Growth of external coach” was composed of
growth of external coach, and coaching experience. Finally,
“network building” described networking (“I can make a con-
nection with junior high school teachers”), and a positive in-
fluence on future career. There were 24 middle categories and
53 small categories with greater detail, as shown in Table 2.
Six large categories of barriers (i.e. negative feelings, inade-
quate system, lack of support, uncomfortable climate of
SBECSA, poor environment, burdens) emerged from the inter-
Table 1.
Demographics of participants and characteristics of SBECSA.
No.GenderAgeSchool Extracurricular
activity type Compensation
1 M 22 Junior high Track and fie l d Yes
2 M 23 Junior hi gh Rubber-ball baseball -
3 M 23 Junior hi gh Rubber-ball baseball -
4 M 23 Junior high Track and fie l d Yes
5 M 23 Junior high Basketball -
6 M 23 High Rugby Yes
7 M 23 High Baseball -
8 M 23 High Handball Yes
9 M 24 High Soccer -
10 M 27 High Soccer -
11 M 27 High Archery Yes
12 M 28 Junior high Volleyball Yes
13 M 33 Junior high Basketball -
14 M 35 High Soccer Yes
15 M 36 Junior high Badminton Yes
16 M 38 High Badminton -
17 M 47 High Basketball Yes
18 M 62 High Baseball -
19 M 66 Junior high Table tennis Yes
20 M 72 Junior high Soft tennis Yes
21 M 74 High Kendo Yes
22 F 22 High Dance Yes
23 F 23 High Softball -
24 F 40 High Dance Yes
25 F 56 Junior high Volleyball Yes
views (Table 3). “Negative feelings” included worries about
coaching (“I’m bothering with my coaching method”), physical
and mental fatigue, concerns about team members becoming
injured, and lack of enjoyment. “Inadequate system” described
a primitive system (“Mediation system should be more visible”,
and “Is it difficult to create environment where coaches can
learn?”), limitations of the system (“I am sometimes told please
don’t come to the SBECSA more than twice a week because of
a lack of budget”), lack of compensation, and unclear status or
role (“I wonder how much should I intervene in SBECSA”).
“Lack of support” contained a lack of understanding from the
school, uncooperative SBECSA teacher, poor relationships
with parents, lack of communication (“It is better to share in-
formation about the school with teachers”), opposition from
external coaches family, and uncooperative athletic association
(“I have many requests for athletic association that I belong to,
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Table 2.
Facilitators of involvement of external coaches.
Large category (7) Middle cat egory (24) Small category (53)
f1. sharing a dream with team members
f2. feeling enjoyment
f3. having a r efreshing change
f4. achieving a sense of fulfillment
f5. feeling enjoyment to consider team members
f6. having f un as a coac h
f7. feeling parental-like warmth toward team members
f8. desire to continue to involve team members
Parental-like warmth toward
team members
f9. desire to help team members continue to e ngage in SBECSA
f10. desire to coach
Desire to coach f11. desire to have a positive influence as a coach
f12. love of the sport that external coach plays
Love for the s port f13. vitalizing the local sport the external coach plays
f14. having a commitment o r r esponsibility
Commitment or responsibility f15. desire to repay an obligation
Positive feelings
Desire to wi n f16. desire fo r t eam mem bers to win
f17. affable status of external coach for team members or their parents
Little responsibility f18. having little sense of responsibili ty by getting no compensation
Compensation f19. getting compensation
Strong request from an organization f20. being requested by the organization to which external coach belongs
Adequate system
Rights of the external coach f21. having the right t o enter the competition site
f22. havin g a cooperative SBECSA teacher
Cooperative SBECSA teacher f23. adjusting pra ctice tim e around external coach’s schedule
Understanding from t he school f24. under s tanding f ro m teachers other tha n th e SBECSA te acher
Understanding from p arents f25. understanding from parents
Positive social support
Cooperative family f26. support f rom own family members
f27. acceptance of team members
f28. respec t f r om team members Acceptance of SBECSA
f29. team members who take external coach’s advice
f30. seein g technical i mprovement in team members
Growth of team members f31. seeing personal progress in tea m members
Comfortable climate
High motivation of team members f32. high motivation of team members
f33. alma mater of external coach
f34. close proximity of school
f35. being able to go to practice facility using only a commuter pass
Easy access
f36. having a coaching environment available
f37. having a SBECSA teacher to learn from
Environment where an external
coach can grow f38. being on a powerful team
Inadequate environ ment f39. being motivate d by a poor SBE CSA environment
f40. learning of external coach
f41. growth of external coach
f42. enhancement of communication s kills
f43. learning ways to communicate with team members
f44. enhancing competi t ive ability of external coach
Growth of external coach
f45. enhancing physical fitness of external coach
f46. having an educational experience
f47. accumulating coaching experience
Growth of external
Coaching e xperience
f48. talking with other coaches or SBECSA teacher
f49. being able to network
f50. increasing acquaintances Networking
f51. increasing customers for self-employed external coaches
f52. perceiving that external coaching is helpful in passing the teacher adaptation examination
Network build ing
Positive influence on future career f53. getting a position as a part- ti me teacher
Note: “f” placed in front of small category means “fac i l i t ator”. Additionally, each small category was given identica l n umber for discussion.
rather than school”). “Uncomfortable climate of SBECSA”
consisted of poor relationships with team members, low moti-
vation of team members, and despair or distress of team mem-
bers. “Poor environment” involved inconvenient practice time,
inconvenient location, inadequate facilities or equipment, and
bad weather. Lastly, “burdens” comprised time burdens, pres-
sure or expectations (“Others expect that the SBECSA will be-
come stronger by my coaching, but sometimes it is a burden for
me”), and negative effect on primary job. There were 24 middle
categories and 54 more detailed small categories, as shown in
Table 3.
In the present study, interviews were conducted with 25 ex-
ternal coaches to explore facilitators and barriers associated
with their involvement in SBECSA. Numerous facilitators and
barriers were identified. The middle category level of barriers
included concerns about team members becoming injured, un-
cooperative SBECSA teacher (“b24. SBECSA teachers who
rarely come to the field”), poor relationships with parents, low
motivation of team members, inadequate facilities or equipment,
time burdens, pressure or expectations (“b52. Unrealistic ex-
pectations from teachers or parents”), and a negative effect on
primary job. These barriers are consistent with the results of
previous quantitative researches that were conducted with ex-
ternal coaches in two prefectural areas (Shioya, 2002; Kana-
gawa Prefecture Board of Education, 2008; Miyagi Prefecture
Board of Education, 2008). The results of the present study
suggested the existence of concurrent barriers in other areas of
Issues and barriers to the recruitment of external coaches
found in previous studies conducted with teachers revealed low
coaching frequency, lack of compensation, role or responsibil-
ity of SBECSA teacher toward external coaches, differences in
coaching policies compared with that of external coaches, com-
plicated procedures to involve external coaches, poor relation-
ships with students or parents, and geographical isolation (Iba-
raki Prefecture Sports Promotion Council, 2007; Yamagata Pre-
fecture Board of Education, 2010; Williams, Hay, & Macdo-
nald, 2011). External coaches who participated in the present
study also indicated barriers in the middle category level such
as limitations of the system (“b13. Institutional limitation on
coaching frequency”), lack of compensation, unclear status or
role, lack of understanding from the school (“b22. Cumbersome
approval procedure to enter the school”), uncooperative
SBECSA teacher (“b26. Conflicting opinions with SBECSA
teacher”), poor relationships with parents, poor relationships
with team members, and inconvenient location. Interestingly,
these barriers were reported by both external coaches and tea-
chers. The concurrent perception of these issues indicates that
reducing these barriers would affect not only external coaches
but also teachers (acceptance side) and would therefore become
an effective promoter for the involvement of external coaches.
To reduce these barriers, several kinds of support would be va-
luable. For example, the policy maker could try to increase
compensation for external coaches or make procedures easier
for entering the school. Furthermore, SBECSA teachers should
have increased meetings with external coaches to help build
better relationships among students, parents, and external co-
aches. To address the unclear status or role of external coaches
and teachers, some sports associations have defined rules and
the rights of external coaches (e.g. do not change practice times
without the consent of SBECSA teachers and do not have con-
tact with parents) (Hokkaido Junior High School Physical Cul-
ture Association, 2006; Nagano Prefecture Board of Education,
2010). Using these guidelines, it is possible to define clearer
roles for external coaches and teachers.
Although some categories were similar to those of previous
studies, most facilitators and barriers identified and categorized
in the present study, were novel and expressed in more detail.
Some categories revealed in the present study suggest that there
are many ways to promote the involvement of external coaches
in SBECSA. According to a previous questionnaire study, tea-
chers demanded an increase in compensation for external
oaches to promote their involvement in SBECSA (Miyagi c
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s .
Table 3.
Barriers to involv ement of external coaches.
Large category (6) Middle cat egory (24) Small category (54)
b1. gap between a coaching idea l and actual experience
b2. concer ns about own coaching method Worries about coaching
b3. having to engage in tasks othe r than techni cal coaching
b4. feeling fatigued
Physical and mental fatigue b5. poor competiti on score for external coach
Concerns about team members becoming injuredb6. concerns about team members becoming injured
Negative feelings
Lack of enjoyment b7. not enjoying the coaching experience
b8. no mediation system for external coaches
b9. no credit on teacher adaptation examination
b10. no educational system for external coaches
b11. no environment where coaches can work
Primitive sy s tem
b12. not continuing the involvement of external coaches
b13. institutional limitation on coaching frequency
b14. institutional limitation on working range Limitations of the system
b15. institutional limitation on number of external coaches
b16. little o r no compensation
Lack of compensation b17. not an hourly wage
b18. unsure of status or role
Inadequate system
Unclear status or role b19. no official request from school
b20. school po licy that prohibits involvement of exte rnal coache s
b21. teachers who have negative opinions about involvement of external coaches
b22. cumbersome approval procedure to enter the school
Lack of understanding from the school
b23. being unr ecognized by student s (excludi ng team members)
b24. SBECSA teachers who rarely come to the field
b25. insufficient efforts to accept external coaches
b26. conflict i ng opinions with SBECSA teacher
Uncooperative SBECSA teacher
b27. insufficient contact with SBECSA teacher
b28. lack of understa nd ing from p arents
b29. poor relationships with pa r ents
b30. insuffic i ent parentin g
Poor relationships with p arents
b31. poor re lationsh i p s b etween parents and SBECSA teacher
b32. no cha nce for information e x change
Lack of communication b33. no interaction among coaches
Opposition from external coaches family b34. lack of support from external coaches family members
Lack of supp ort
Uncooperati ve athletic association b35. uncoope rative athletic associa tion
b36. poor relationships with team members
b37. havin g team members who do not accept e xt ernal coach’s instruction Poor relatio n ships with team mem bers
b38. retirement of external coach’s own child from SBECSA
Low motivation of team members b39. low motivation of team members
climate of SBECSA
Despair or distress of team members b40. despair or distress of team members
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Inconvenient practice time b41. inconvenient practice time
Inconvenient location b42. long distance to school
Inadequate facilities o r equipment b43. inadequa t e facilities or equipment
Poor environment
Bad weather b44. bad weather
b45. decrease in private time
b46. requi r es time
b47. no extra time to do part-time job
Time burde ns
b48. havin g t o sacrifice holidays
b49. having the responsibility
b50. not finishing co aching obligations before the ne xt coaching day
b51. pressure from alumni organization
Pressure or expectations
b52. unrea li stic exp ectations from teachers or parents
b53. difficulty balancing primary job and coaching
Negative effect on primary job b54. having t o compete against ot her school te ams
Note: “b” placed in front of small category means “barrier”. Additionally, each small category was given identical number for discussion.
Prefecture Board of Education, 2008). Williams et al. (2011)
also indicated that prohibitive costs were one reason for not
outsourcing coaches. However, some external coaches in the
present study indicated that having little or no compensation
was a facilitator in the adequate system category (“f18. Having
little sense of responsibility by getting no compensation”). Ad-
ditionally, 10 of the participants in the present study were co-
aching in SBECSA, even though they did not receive any
compensation. Furthermore, several categories considered fa-
cilitators that represented non-monetary compensation (“f4.
Achieving a sense of fulfillment” in the positive feelings cate-
gory, “f49. Being able to network”, and “f52. Perceiving that
external coaching is helpful in passing the teacher adaptation
examination” in the network building category). Therefore, mo-
netary compensation might not be the only purpose for en-
gaging as an external coach. Tomioka (1993) suggested that
compensation or reward from working included a sense of ful-
fillment, enjoyment, and having good colleagues. Thus, the
promotion of external coaches in SBECSA may require ex-
panding opportunities for networking and including external
coaching experience in the evaluation criteria of teacher adap-
tation examinations as well as providing compensation. Accor-
dingly, Saitama prefecture in Japan listed volunteer activity as
an evaluation criterion for teacher adaptation examinations
(Saitama Prefecture Board of Education, 2011). External co-
aching in SBECSA with little or no compensation could be
considered a volunteer activity. Thus, it is realistic and easily
achievable to state clearly that external coaching is a volunteer
activity in the teacher adaptation examination guidebook. Mo-
dification of evaluation criteria in the teacher adaptation exa-
mination could be an efficient promotional strategy for at-
tracting external coaches who want to be teachers.
As limitations of the system, “b13. Institutional limitation on
coaching frequency” and “b15. Institutional limitation on num-
ber of external coaches” were revealed as noteworthy barriers.
Similar limitations were interpreted in a project by MEXT,
where the number of external coaches was limited to 50, and
coaching frequency was limited to 25 times a year (i.e. ap-
proximately twice a month) (Kochi Prefecture Board of Educa-
tion, 2011). Therefore, it is critical to reduce or abolish institu-
tional limitations on coaching frequency to promote the in-
volvement of external coaches for SBECSA.
The involvement of external coaches can reduce the burden
of SBECSA teachers in relation to attending SBECSA (Japan
Senior High School Teachers and Staff Union, 2008; Tokyo
Metropolitan Board of Education, 2008). However, “b24.
SBECSA teachers who rarely come to the field” revealed that
uncooperative SBECSA teachers are a barrier. External coaches
requested that SBECSA teachers attend SBECSA more often.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education (2008) suggested
that SBECSA teachers should engage in the SBECSA and share
roles of coaching and management with external coaches. To
address this barrier, cooperation between teachers and external
coaches is essential.
There were two conflicting views regarding compensation
and inadequate facilities in the present study. First, “f18. Hav-
ing little sense of responsibility by getting no compensation”
and “f19. Getting compensation” were considered facilitators
by some external coaches. Second, “f39. Being motivated by a
poor SBECSA environment” was considered a facilitator, and
“b43. Inadequate facilities or equipment” was deemed a barrier.
From these conflicting views, it is unclear whether increasing
compensation and improving the environment would be a fa-
cilitator or barrier to promoting the involvement of external
coaches. The present study only clarified the contents of facili-
tators and barriers, and their classifications. The influence of
each facilitator and barrier on external coaches’ involvement in
SBECSA related to their sociodemographics and characteristics
of SBECSA remain unclear. Thus, it needs to consider different
perceptions of categories by individuals with different socio-
demographics and characteristics of SBECSA in future studies.
Although there were some limitations in the present study,
clarification of various and detailed facilitators and barriers is
of value for future studies and the further promotion of
SBECSA. A wide range of sociodemographic characteristics of
participants helped to collect varied facilitators and barriers.
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s .
The SBECSA environment could be made more efficient by
enhancing facilitators and removing barriers identified by ex-
ternal coaches.
In conclusion, the present study identified multiple facilita-
tors and barriers associated with external coach involvement in
SBECSA. Providing opportunities for external coaches to net-
work, specifying external coaching experience as meeting an
evaluation criterion on the teacher adaptation examination and
increasing the number of meetings between teachers and exter-
nal coaches are important, as well as increasing monetary com-
pensation. Additionally, reducing or removing institutional li-
mitations and increasing cooperation between teachers and ex-
ternal coaches will hopefully promote the involvement of ex-
ternal coaches in SBECSA. These findings may help schools
and policy makers in discussions regarding appropriate SBECSA,
which would further enhance the attraction of SBECSA for stu-
dents, teachers, and extern al c oaches.
The authors would like to thank all participating external
coaches, and the peers and teachers who introduced participants.
The present study was supported by the Sasakawa Sports Re-
search Grant from Sasakawa Sports Foundation, and Global
COE Program “Sport Sciences for the Promotion of Active
Life” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science
and Technology in Japan.
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