Chinese Studies
2013. Vol.2, No.3, 134-138
Published Online August 2013 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s .
Empirical Research on Professional Moral Cultivation of P.E.
Teachers in Universities
Jiang Bo1, Chang Jindong1, Sun Yiwen2
1College of Physical Education, Southwest University, Chongqing, China
2Faculty of Educati on, Southwest University, Chongqing, China
Received April 16th, 2013; revised June 26th, 2013; accepted July 16th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Jiang Bo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attri-
bution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited.
Universities/college P.E. teachers play an important part in universities/colleges’ development. Profes-
sional moral cultivation which acts as the professional attitude and professional standard is the basic eth-
ics standard for college P.E. teachers. Through the investigation about eight universities P.E. teachers’
current professional moral cultivation in Chongqing, this paper finds the de-criterion phenomenon in
teachers’ professional moral cultivation, then analyzes the influence factors, and puts forward some im-
proving methods finally to provide theory basis for strengthening teacher’s professional moral cultivation
construction and enhance P.E. teacher’s scientific research level in Chongqing.
Keywords: Universities/Colleges in Chongqing; P.E. Teacher; Professional Moral Cultivation; Current
“Moral cultivation” is a broad meaning concept; it means a
person through long-term consciously learning, exercising and
cultivating in ideological political, moral character and knowl-
edge skill, and through efforts achieving some levels. Teacher’s
professional moral cultivation refers to when teachers engaged
in education work, forming a stable career idea, behavior crite-
rion and moral quality. It’s the behavior standards to adjust
teachers with others, group and social relationship. In the era
with rapid high-tech development, university teachers carry the
important task of educating and training the modern talents with
high quality, strong ability and overall development. Universi-
ties PE teachers are not only the education workers, but also the
sports workers, and they have deep influence on cultivating the
successors with overall development (Pan Yongzhi, Zhang Chao-
jun, & Zhang Kai, 2006). In order to find out the existing prob-
lems and deficiencies, this study investigates the PE Teachers’
professional moral cultivation of 8 universities in Chongqing.
Through discussing the structures and contents, taking the re-
search experience from domestic and overseas, this study for-
mulates feasible and operable suggestions for Chongqing col-
lege PE teacher’s professional moral cultivation to enhance
teachers’ comprehensive quality and professional level.
Research Objects and Methods
Research Objects
This study selected Chongqing University, Chongqing Nor-
mal University, Chongqing There Gorges University, Chongqing
Technology and Business University, Chongqing Education
College, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunica-
tions, Yangtze Normal University and Chongqing University of
Arts and Science as the research objects, including 228 college
PE teachers (Table 1) and 316 college students.
Research Methods
Consulting our country’s related data about universities PE
teachers’ professional moral cultivation, meanwhile, studying
some experts and scholars’ research achievements about pro-
fessional standards and professional cultivation.
Table 1.
Table of universities PE teachers’ situation in Chongqing.
Professional title
Sex Associate professor and above Instructor Teaching a ss istant N
n % N % n %
male 40 17.6 68 29.8 54 23.7
female 23 10.1 28 12.2 15 6.6
Note: Teachers’ object mainly refers to preparing teachers, except administrative personnel and logistics person.
In March 2012, we interviewed eight universities’ main
leadership, administrative and management department’s lead-
ership and some of universities/college’s PE teacher s coming t o
southwest university for 2012 annual examination of profes-
sional sports of Chongqing.
This study divided teacher’s professional moral cultivation
into six dimensions: loving job, caring for students, proficiency
in business, exemplary virtue, obeying discipline and law, soli-
darity and cooperation. With the six dimensions, we formulate
the questionnaires and send 245 questionnaires to 8 universi-
ties/colleges PE teachers, of which we recycle valid question-
naires 228 copies with effective recovery up to 93.1%. At the
same time, we also send 245 questionnaires to 8 universities/
colleges undergraduates (including professional sports, mainly
aimed at loving students, proficient in business, exemplary
virtue) and recycle valid questionnaires 316 poise with effective
recovery up to 92.2%.
Research Results and Analysis
Analysis on the Dimension of Loving Job
Loving job is the foundation of universities/college’s PE
teacher’s professional moral cultivation, and it is also the basic
morality of universities/college’s PE teachers which plays a
decisive role in the development of college P.E. teacher’s pro-
fessional moral cultivation. From Table 2, we can see universi-
ties/college’s P.E. teachers are doing quite well in this respect.
The lowest is over 80%, especially the percentage of associate
professors and above is over 85%. Only a few instructors and
teaching assistants can’t do this very good.
Analysis on the Dimension of Caring for Students
Caring for students refers to the student-centered classroom,
in which teachers respect each student, give judicious guidance
according to the circumstance, teach students according to their
aptitude, and mobilize students’ enthusiasm and initiative fully.
From Table 3 (for students’ survey), we could know teachers
do very well in the first four aspects with the lowest percentage
is 81.3%, however, for the last one, only associate professors
and above can do this well with the percentage up to 84.3% and
instructors and teaching assistants are only about 70%. This
shows that some young teachers do not emphasize students’
growth enough, focusing on teach students knowledge but not
educating their thoughts.
Analysis on the Dimension of Proficiency in Business
Teachers’ professional quality mainly displays in three as-
pects with teaching, research and training, its height plays a
direct impact on universities/college sport s teaching. From Table
4, we can see teachers have done well in the first three aspects,
but not very good in the last two. As a universities/college P.E.
Table 2.
The situation about teachers’ loving their jobs.
Teachers’ completion situation (percentage: %)
Order The content of teachers’ loving their jobs Associate professors and above InstructorsTeaching assi stantsAverage
1 Loya lty to education career and dedication 93 88.5 83 88.2
2 Loving school and maintaining school’s honor 89 82 81 84
3 Doing academic rigorously, with stable entrepreneur spirit,
handling the part-tim e job and the regular job correctly. 85.3 76 79.4 80.2
Table 3.
The situation about teachers caring for students.
Teachers’ completion situation/%
Order The content about caring for stu dents Associate pr ofessors a n d above Instructors Teaching a ss istantsAve r age
1 Treating stu dents kindly and no punishment to students 90.8 87.6 86 88.1
2 Respecti ng s tudents on words and deeds 87 85 85 85.7
3 Evaluating students’ grades objec t ively 85.5 81 80 82.2
4 Not damaging student’s reputation in public or in private 85 80.5 78.5 81.3
5 Treating each student equally, both teaching
“three basic level” and cultivating perfect personality 84.3 71.4 70.7 75.5
Table 4.
The situation about proficiency in business.
Teachers’ completion situation/%
Order The content about proficiency in business Associate professors and a boveInstructors Teaching assistantsAverage
1 Preparation lesson s carefully and finishing
the teaching task effectively 91.3 85.3 82.3 86.3
2 Choosing advanced teaching methods and means,
fully mobilizing students’ enthusiasm 87.5 82.3 78 82.6
3 Training conscientio us, gaining excellent position
through hard work in competition 85 81 / 83
4 Doing correct movement and te c hn ic al movement in teaching 70 73.6 76 73.2
5 Doing scientific research consciously,
and publishing articles in major publications regularly 43.1 31.7 15.7 30.2
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s . 135
teacher, it’s very important for teachers to let students accept
teaching information vividly. But 26.8% teachers (average) don’t
finish the task very well on the whole. It is understandable that
some associate professors have certain pressure when they did
the difficult movement (because of old age); but the young
teachers don’t exist age problem, they should consult to ex-
perienced teachers, strengthen practice skill, and try to do the
correct demonstrations and norms movement.
Research is the universities’ core competitiveness, but scien-
tific research is the worst among the five aspects. Only 30.2%
can do scientific research consciously and obtain some achieve-
ments. From teacher structure, we can see that associate pro-
fessors and above have the highest percentage, second comes
the instructors, and the last is the teaching assistants. This pro-
portion forms a “pour pyramid” type and inevitably has ex-
treme disadvantage to young teachers’ growth and development.
For teachers individually, scientific research is an important
standard to promote, so young teachers should read more books,
learn more knowledge, strengthen the theory knowledge, and
improve the academic accomplishment.
Analysis on the Dimension of Exemplary Virtue
Exemplary virtue means that teachers must set a good exam-
ple through their own behavior for students, and this is also the
remarkable characteristic of teachers’ career system. From Ta-
ble 5, we can see teachers did very well in words and deeds.
Associate professors and above, instructors and teaching assis-
tant’s average of the four major aspects are 90%, 83% and
81.2% espectively. But each single indicator is not very ideal,
only associate professors and above have high percentage and
do well. In the last aspect, 28% instructor and assistant have
sold textbooks and sporting goods to students for benefit, stu-
dents didn’t satisfy with instructor and assistant’s actions. In
addition, for the third aspect, 22% assistants also haven’t done
well. They need further strengthen and improve their accom-
Analysis on the Dimension of Observing Discipline and Law
As the saying goes: “Nothing can be accomplished without
norms or standards”, human beings have established correspond-
ing “regulations” in various fields to safeguard the social life,
which need people consciously to obey in daily life in turn.
Unive rsi ties/colleges teach ers should a lso do like t his . T hey should
become the exemplar of observing social ethics. From Table 6,
we can see that teachers can set a strict demand on themselves
to observe social ethics, administer education according to laws,
comply with universities/colleges career system, and not vio-
lating the laws and competition rules. Compared with the above
aspects, teachers do the best in the professional compliance.
Analysis on the Dimension of Solidarity and Cooperation
Solidarity and cooperation refer to teachers unite together for
concentrating strength on achieving common ideal or task, they
support mutually and cooperate closely. It’s the behavior stan-
dard of teacher’s interpersonal relationship. From Table 7’s
data, we can see teachers’ team consciousness and cooperative
Table 5.
The situation about exemplary virtue.
Teachers’ completion situation/%
Order The conte nt about observing discipline a n d law Associate professors and aboveInstructors Teaching a ss istantsAverage
1 Not violating laws 100 100 100 100
2 Abiding social public morals consciously and le ading example 97 93 94 94.7
3 Abiding the professional system and no late,
leaving ea r ly, truancy phenomenon 94 90 92 92
4 Not violating the competi ti o ns rules
(Including leading and personal game) 93 87 85 88.3
Table 6.
The situation about observing discipline and law.
Teachers’ completion situation/%
Order The content a bout observing discipline and law Associate pro fessors and aboveInstructors Teaching a ss istantsAverage
1 Not violating laws 100 100 1 00 100
2 Abiding social public morals consciously and leading example 97 93 94 94.7
3 Abiding the professional system and no late,
leaving ea r ly, truancy phenomenon 94 90 92 92
4 Not violating the competitions rules
(Including leading and personal game) 93 87 85 88.3
Table 7.
The situation about solidarity and cooperatio n.
Teachers’ completion situation/%
Order The content ab out solidarity and cooperation Associate professor a n d above Instructor AssistantAverage
1 Attending college, teaching-research section and party organization’s affair actively 88.5 90.2 92.3 90.3
2 Not bringing personal emotions into teachers group 88 89 89.5 88.8
3 Respecting colleagues’ work achievement,
not envying oth ers’ ability, and not attacking others 86.5 88.6 87 87.4
4 Assisting c olleagues, developing team spirit to
complete research projects and other tasks 83 78 84 81.7
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s .
spirit is very well, the four contents’ averages is 87.05%; assis-
tants behave more active in this aspect, the four contents’ aver-
ages is 88.2%. High degree of cooperation could help give full
play to the advantage of every PE teacher, promote college PE
teachers’ teaching, training and academic research in Chong
Conclusion and Analysis the Reasons
The Phenomenon Out-of-Standard of College P.E.
Teachers’ Professional Moral Cultivation
1) There are some teachers existing the idea that only teach
but not educate, the consciousness of education is desalt, and
they neglect students’ moral education. At the same time, some
students think they are lack of communicating with teachers;
teachers are only teach, but they cannot understand what’s stu-
dents thinking, so they can’t targeted educate students.
2) Teachers’ professional skill is not solid, classroom teach-
ing demonstration is not accurate enough, and action is not
standard. Meanwhile, there are some teachers’ initiation insuf-
ficient when they learn new knowledge, they can’t choose ad-
vanced teaching methods and means, and can’t mobilize stu-
dents’ enthusiasm fully. In addition, teachers’ scientific research
consciousness and ability should be enhanced urgently, some
teachers are lack of the scientific attitude that steadfast-rigorous
and striving for perfection, they are not like scientific research,
exist the phenomenon of unsuspecting target and forgery.
3) Some teachers exist low moral cultivation, they can not
lead by example and exemplary virtue, only rely on individual
rights selling materials and sporting goods to students for bene-
Analysis t he Reason of Coll e g e P.E. Teachers’
Professional Moral Cultivation Ou t- of -S tandard
The Tide of Market Economic Influence College P.E.
Teachers’ Professional Quality
Along with our country’s socialist market economy system
gradually establishment, there are also more and more corre-
sponding conditions which beneficial for the development of
education and sports; however, there are also some certain ne ga-
tive effects on some fields development with the emergence of
these conditions. College PE teachers can’t separate themselves
from the tide of market economic; some teachers are influence
on the negative effects, having the thoughts that fraud and
chase individual fame, and appeared the distortion of the per-
sonality (Chen Linong, 2003). Eventually teachers’ enthusi-
asms are impaired, and professional quality is weakened.
The Influence of University Teachers’ Professional Ethics
Education Restriction System Deficiency
The deficiency of university teachers’ professional ethics ed u-
cation restriction system means that universities take teaching
management and scientific research improvement seriously, and
neglect teachers’ virtue and image shaping, don’t have an im-
portant agenda about teachers’ professional ethics education
(Huang Rongsheng, 2000). The representations specific display
in those aspects: no single teachers’ professional ethics educa-
tion plan; teachers’ professional ethics education contents per-
tinence are not very well, lacking originality; monotonous form,
lacking interest in learning. Now, education management de-
partments and university don’t have perfect rules to restrict PE
teachers’ professional ethics, these make teachers’ professional
ethics education obviously deficiencies.
The Influence of Teachers’ Themselves in the Professional
Teachers ideological quality and professional quality de-
creasing because of the above influence, even some teachers
lack professional dedication and rigorous research attitude, they
are satisfied with status quo and don’t want to be better (Xia
Duanyang, 2008). Meanwhile, traditional prejudice and old idea
influence the PE teachers’ enthusiasm; what’s more, PE teacher’s
social position is not high. Although these problems don’t rep-
resent the PE teachers’ mainstream, but these still make teach-
ers social prestige down in a length of period (Xie Xiangyang,
Liu Jiangnan, & Sun Hongtao, 2003).
The Promotion Measures of College Teacher’s
Profession al Moral Cultivation
1) Beginning with the management system reform, establish
that management system which adapt to teacher’s professional
moral cultivation construction, and let the rewards and punish-
ments distinctly, use “ruthless” system implementing “affection-
ate” education; Implement two-way choice gradually, and form
a dynamic management system that “position can promote and
demote, treatment can high and low, staff can be in and out”.
2) Pay attention to the standardization of teacher’s profes-
sional moral cultivation construction, and establish operable sci-
entific evaluation system, in order to ensure teachers have rules
to depend and follow when they form vocational moral habit
and public evaluate their behavior.
3) Perfect the examination and incentive system, establish
teacher’s professional moral cultivation evaluation system that
schools, teachers and students participate together, treat the evalua-
tion results as the important basis of teachers hiring, assessment,
promotion, rewards and punishments. We must commend and
encourage outstanding teachers, and adopt few punishment meas-
ures to protect teachers’ enthusiasm.
4) Strengthen scientific and theoretical study, innovate teach-
ing methods and improve their professional qualities. In the
21st century, college teachers should pay more attention to
professional levels, teacher must study for a real teacher, try to
have solid foundation of basic skills and profound theories,
broad their academic vision, pursue the spirit of excellence.
5) Renew the education idea and cultivate morality by virtue,
create new teacher-student relationship, change the “pass-on
type” education mode which form in the traditional relationship
that “one day for teacher, whole life for father” between teach-
ers and students, and form the science, democracy and equal
“new friendship type” teacher-student relationship which estab-
lish in the process of imparting and inheriting about moral cul-
tivationand knowledge skill.
This research was supported by “the Fundamental Research
Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. SWU1109072)”
and “the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universi-
ties (Grant No. SWU1309232)”, the Humanities and Social
Science Research Youth Foundation of the Ministry of Educa-
tion in China (Grant No. 12YJC880005) and Chongqing Higher
Education Reform Project (No. 120388).
Copyright © 2013 SciRe s . 137
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