M. A. TAHER ET AL.

98

4. Conclusions

The Thermal Lattice-Boltzmann Method (TLBM) is suc-

cessfully applied in this work to simulate buoyancy-

driven heat transfer characteristics and flow performance

of Cu-H2O nanoflui

calculation, it is ass

d in a square cavity. Throughout our

umed that constant Rayleigh number,

ith increasing the particle volume fractions

ansfer and thermal con-

d (decreased) with internal heat generation

r, the nanofluid behaves

nal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 121, No. 2,

1999, pp. 280-289.

[2] Y. Xuan and Qhancement of Nan-

Ra = 105. So the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis are

depending on particle size and volume fractions. More-

over, it is considered that the internal heat generation

effect of nanoparticles to the base fluid, and then finally,

we have shown our result of the resultant fluid called

nanofluid. The present results indicate that the following

statements:

Both of the thermal boundary layer and velocity

boundary layer thickness increased with increasing

the particle diameter. However, the change of thick-

ness of thermal and velocity boundary layers are neg-

ligible w

within the range up to 10%.

The heat transfer features, the heat transfer rate and

the thermal conductivity ratio, of a nanofluid are in-

creased with increase of the nanoparticle volume frac-

tions.

However, the rate of heat tr

ductivity ratio are significantly decreased with in-

crease of particle diameter.

In addition, all of the above features are very slightly

change ef-

fect of nanoparticle due to the constant Rayleigh

number and Prandtl number at the present study.

For small particle diamete

more like a fluid than the conventional solid-fluid

mixer. The results from our analysis have shown

quite good and this temperature characteristic en-

hancement plays a significant role in engineering ap-

plications such as in the electronic cooling industries

or MEMS devices.

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