International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy, 2013, 2, 13-15
doi:10.4236/ijcce.2013.22B003 Published Online May 2013 (
Solar Hot System and Design of Buildings
Yibing Xue, Jie Zhang
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shandong Jianzhu University,Jinnan,China
Received 2013
Domestic solar hot water system, the use of the status quo and existing pro blems, by analyzing the solar water heating
equipment and building integrated and building integrated design.
Keywords: Solar Hot Water System; Benefit; Style; Solar Catch Heat Apparatus; Design of Buildings
1. Current Situation and Problems
China has abundant solar energy resources, and about two-
thirds of the country total solar irradiance approaching or
exceeding 600 especially in the north, the vast areas of
the Northwest, abundant sunshine, and laid a good condi-
tion in China’s use of solar energy(Table 1).
With the constant attention of the national energy-
saving and environmental protection, the use of solar
energy technology in the country to be developed by
leaps and bounds. One of the majo r for ms of solar en ergy
as the use of solar hot water systems, by virtue of the
many advantages of environmental, ecological, energy-
saving, economic rapid promotion, began to millions of
Solar hot water equipment is not a long time in domes-
tic applications, the combination of solar equipment and
residential is still at primary stage[1]. Currently, people
tend to value only the fun ctionality of the solar hot water
equipment, to the neglect of other aspects of the problem.
As messy mercy on the roof, different size specifications,
the disorder of the pipeline, the metal component caused
by light reflection, resulting in a strong visual pollution,
affecting the building aesthetics and building facades
effect, sometimes improperly installed and may even
cause potential safety problems such as water heaters fall
wounding roof broken, housing leaking.
2. Building Integrated Solar Energy
In order to solve the above problem, minimizing its
negative effects on the building while making use of so-
lar energy, and making it become an organic whole with
the buildings, thus, we put forward the concept of “ Solar
energy and Building integrated”, that is, from two as-
pects of solar energy application technology and beauti-
ful architectural environment, considering the use of so-
lar energy in the construction planning and design, and
making it become an organic component of the whole
building through reasonable design. In summary, it is to
make full use of external parts of the solar energy that
building can use, and to realize external harmony of in
order to solve the above problem, minimizing its nega-
tive effects on the building while making use of solar
energy, and making it become an organic whole with the
buildings, thus, we put forward the concept of “Solar
energy and Building integrated”, that is, from two as-
pects of solar energy application technology and beauti-
ful architectural environment, considering the use of so-
lar energy in the construction planning and design, and
making it become an organic component of the whole
building through reasonable design. In summary, it is to
make full use of external parts of the solar energy that
building can use, and to realize external harmony of
landscape building. Specifically speaking there are four
1) Making full use of the sunny part of the building
(such as the sunny slope, roof and so on) to install solar
2) Joining with community planning, architectural de-
sign, equipment installation and acceptance, and saving
the cost of solar equipment;
3) Combining solar energy systems and building or-
ganically, to make them harmony in appearance;
4) When design, solar component can be used as ar-
chitectural component and bear some building functions.
At present, the state introduced technical regulations
of using solar energy equipment in the construction pro-
ject, the purpose of it is through the standardization of
solar products to realize the standardization of the its
installation and use, making the use function of solar
equipment with building a good combination, thus form-
ing a organic whole.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJCCE
Table 1. Solar thermal energy classification.
solar thermal energy classification
rank one two three four five
Annual sunshine hours(h/a) 3200 - 33003000 - 32002200 - 30001400 - 2200 1000 - 1400
Total annual solar radiation(MJ/a) 6680 - 84005852 - 66805016 - 58524818 - 5016 3344 - 4818
remark most more medium poor worst
3. Implementation of Solar Energy and
Building Integrated Design
3.1. Combined with the Wall
The buildings south facade good illumination condition,
can take advantage of the window sill wall design of the
solar collector and the wall of the south facade combina-
tion. The essence of the flat-plate collector as part of the
facade wall, solar equipment at the same time meet their
also meet certain structural and architectural features.
The solar collector wall from outside to inside by trans-
lucent insulation coating, photothermal conversion layer ,
wall support and thermal conductivity layer, collector
tube, foam insulation layer, interior wall supporting layer,
interior wall smear layer section composition. When the
sun along an angle of incident to the wall, the press ef-
fective projected cross-section to obtain the effective
light energy through the transparent insulation coating,
incident to the light-heat conversion layer, the photo-
thermal conversion layer is completely or selectively
converted into heat . In this design, the solar collector to
become a part of the wall, it should be so that the solar
collector device has a certain strength, and to satisfy the
wall insulation and aesthetics[2].
3.2. Combined with the Roof
Building roof without cover and a wide range of contact
with the sun, so it easy to the lighting and solar collecto r
of solar hot water equipment. Solar collector roof close
of flat roofs typically use overlay, with sloping roofs
mosaic; same time to reduce the roof weight, solar col-
lector alternative building insulation and insulation and
can completely replace or partially replace the roof
overburden, doing so can reduce costs and improve effi-
ciency. In Kunming, Yunnan has built a flat roof struc-
ture of the solar building integrated heated swimming
pool, the swimming pool roof area of about 700 square
meters, the roof structure of light steel grid structure, roof
covering completely special solar flat plate collector re-
place[3]. This experimental project is China’s first on the
flat roof building integrated solar energy.
3.3. Combined with Balcony
For high-rise building, the floor area can’t meet the
building all the installatio n of solar equipment, so people
began to consider the use of the balcony, as well as the
sunny side of the wall and other parts. But to do so would
affect the aesthetics of the building facade and artistic
effect. For this case, we can take household-type system,
each household can solar collector device installed on the
balcony the outer wall, the tube can be horizontally ar-
ranged in ord er to add the horizontal lines of the building,
rich facade effect. Also in the south instead of railing use
layout contiguous solar collector from bottom to top, as
in the south facade, to provide centralized hot water sup-
ply in the whole building.
3.4. Integration of Design Engineering Practice
“Quanjing Tian Yuan” district is located in Jinan
City, local solar conditions quite three, annual sunshine
hours between 2491-2737 hours (2007 data); annual av-
erage total solar radiation 5900-6200MJ/M2•a, belong to
more resource-rich region. The project covers an area of
approximately 30 hm2, total construction area of 600,000
m2, consisting of multi-storey residential, high-rise resi-
dential and public bu ildings. Residential district has been
sold out a development of 160,000 m2 residential district
two main types of building multi-story building, a plate
of small high-rise buildings, point tower. Residential
district developed a residential building have all been
installed to force on Norit household wall- mounted solar
hot water system and put into use, the residential build-
ings of the district two vacuum tube split solar installa-
tion force Norit’s U-tube (in the same period) and hot
water system is completed.
Ecological planning and design of the new concept
of high-grade energy-saving residential area, solar hot
water system is an important part. Solar hot water sys-
tems of the program explicitly the balcony bar plate sys-
tem (per set), the system of solar collectors using the
U-pipe vacuum tube solar collector is used through walls
fixed, combined with construction set15-year design life
of the heater should meet (domestic like product are able
to meet the times conditions), with of pipeline emptying
and electric auxiliary heating system.
3.5. Project Evaluation
1) Analysis of the estimates, the solar hot water s ystem,
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJCCE
Y. B. XUE, J. ZHANG 15
Table 2. Taking water heating systems using fuel economic c omparison.
sort Natural gas electricity Solar energy + electricity
Heat value 8470 Kcal/m2 860 Kcal/KWh 4.5 KWh/d
Efficiency 88% 100% 100%
Fuel expense 1.04 2.15 0.43
The percentage of running expense 242% 500% 100%
Initial investment 1000 2000 4000
Service life 5 a 15 a 15 a
Equipment cost 0.55 0.37 0.73
Day running expense 1.43 2.52 1.16
Year expense 522 920 423
Total cost contrast 123% 217% 100%
compared to other conventional energy systems, energy
consumption and running costs of about 2/5 of the gas
water heater, electric water heater, 1/5. Comparison of
the total cost of the solar hot water system program is
also lower than gas hot water system or electric water
heaters. The Jinan City local sunshine data analysis, an-
nual sunshine hour s of about 2491-2737 h, sunshine per-
centage in more than 60% of the hot water system can
reduce the daily routine of life, energy consumption,
more than 60% of the solar energy saving, we can see the
economic benefits and energy-saving effect is very ob-
vious(Table 2).
2) Per 100 m2 per year using sol a r hot water syst ems to
reduce dust emissions 2.5 t sulfur dioxide 0.25 t, carbon
dioxide 0.9 t, good ecological benefits.
3) Install the collector to the balcony in the building
south avoid rooftop checks, maintenance difficulties, the
structural arrangement confusion and undermine the
overall image of the building wall solar hot water system
for the project selection; contrary to some extent on the
building façade effect certain improvements, cash conno-
tation of eco-built group to help improve people’s qual-
ity of life, enhancing people’s awareness of environ-
mental protection and energy saving, and guide people in
building a new type of savings and ecological communi-
4. Concluding Remarks
With the construction of ecological conservation and
sustainable development of social thought deep human
heart, solar hot water equipment in residential use and
more widely, solar integrated design for the rational use
of solar energy, solar energy utilization efficiency and
improve the surrounding environment significance[4].
Al- though China has made some achievements in terms
of solar hot water systems and building integrated re-
search, but there are still many shortcomings, such as th e
best angle of sun and time by some of the hot water sys-
tem collector, hot water inadequate security conditions
senior collector tube drop. I believe in the government,
society, and the majority of researchers in the continuous
efforts of the solar and building integrated design will
gradually improve, achieve energy saving and Eco win.
[1] The Office of Standards for Engineering Design and
Construction of Anhui Province, “Technical Standards for
the Integration of the Use of Solar Energy and Architec-
ture,” DB34854-2008.
[2] Y. H. Wang, “Design of Solar Residential Building Inte-
gration,” Construction Conserves Energy, Vol. 38, No. 1,
2010, pp. 55-56.
[3] M. M. Liu and X. D. Jin, “Integrated Design of Building
and Solar Energy Technology,” Shanxi Architecture,Vol.
13, 2010, pp. 231-232.
[4] J. Tang, “On the Application Research on the Integral
Solar-Energy System Based on the Architectural Integra-
tion,” Shanxi Architecture, 2008, Vol. 34, No. 35, pp.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. IJCCE