Y.-F. GE ET AL.

Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ

264

4. Conclusions [9] L. M. Si and X. Lv, “CPW-Fed Multi-Band

Omni-Directional Planar Microstrip Antenna Using Com-

posite Metamaterial Resonators for Wireless Communi-

cations,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83,

2008, pp. 133-146. doi:10.2528/PI ER08050404

The EM material parameters equations for general active

and passive metamaterial are calculated and compared

from equivalent lumped elements modes. In the com-

parison analysis of balanced and unbalanced lossless (R

= G = 0), passive lossy (R > 0, ) and active lossy

(R < 0, ) cases, different losses effects (from the

changes of resistance in this paper) have some effects on

phase constant and the real part of characteristic imped-

ance, as well as a big influence on attenuation constant

and the imaginary part of characteristic impedance. One

can use included active element to metamaterial to im-

prove the attenuation characteristics and then to over-

come the major drawback of losses effects in metamate-

rials.

0G

0G

[10] L. M. Si, W. Zhu and X. Lv, “Determination of the Ef-

fective Constitutive Parameters of Active Transmission

Line Metamaterials,” 2012 International Workshop on

Metamaterials, Nanjing, pp. 1-4, 2012.

doi:10.1109/META.20 12.6464919

[11] L. M. Si, H. J. Sun, Y. Yuan, and X. Lv, “CPW-fed

Compact Planar UWB Antenna with Circular Disc and

Spiral Split Ring Resonators,” Progess in Electromag-

netics Research Symposium, 2009, pp. 502-505.

[12] L. M. Si, H. J. Sun and X. Lv, “Numerical Simulations of

Backward-to-Forward Leaky-Wave Antenna with Com-

posite Right/Left-Handed Coplanar Waveguide,” Chinese

Physics Letters, Vol. 27, 2010.

doi:10.1088 /0256-307X /27/3/034106

5. Acknowledgements [13] L. M. Si and X. Lv, “Terahertz Waves Hairpin Microstrip

Band-Pass Filter and Its Application to Overlaid Dielec-

tric Material Detection,” Modern Physics Letters B, Vol.

22, pp. 2843-2848, 2008.

doi:10.1142 /S02179849080 17412

This work has been supported by the National High

Technology Research and Development Program of

China (Grant No. 2012AA8123012), the Basic Research

Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology (Grant No.

20120542015), and the National Natural Science Foun-

dation of China (Grant No. 61275107).

[14] Y

. Liu, L. M. Si, M. Wei, P. Yan, P. Yang, H. Lu, C.

Zheng, Y. Yuan, J. Mou, X. Lv and H. Sun, “Some Re-

cent Developments of Microstrip Antenna,” International

Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 2012.

doi:10.1155 /2012/428284

[15] A. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Negative Refractive

Index Metamaterials Supporting 2-D Waves,” 2002 IEEE

MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol.

2, 2002, pp. 1067-1070.

doi:10.1109/MWSYM.200 2.1011823

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