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Optics and Photonics Journal, 2013, 3, 73-75
doi:10.4236/opj.2013.32B018 Published Online June 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/opj)
Design of High-speed Sampling System in Pulse Laser
Jian Liu1, Ming-ai Lv2, Jiang Wang2
1The Engineering & Technical College, Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan, China
2Southwest Institute of Technical Physics, Chengdu, China
In measurement system by means of pulse laser, such as plasma measuring, laser ranging, the amplitude of echoed laser
wave is very weak and difficult to detect by traditional analog electronic technology. A digital high speed data acquisi-
tion and processing system was designed to meet the accuracy requirement. It adopted high speed AD chip and advan-
tage FPGA chip as core unit. Experiment results have verified this system can reach to 1GHz sample rate and can catch
weak echo wave effectively and the measuring accuracy is improved markedly.
Keywords: Pulse Laser; Echo Wave Detecting; High Speed AD; FPGA
In many engineering application, such as plasma charac-
teristics measuring, laser ranging, remote dust concentra-
tion measuring, and so on, the pulse laser technology
were adopted widely[1-4]. As the precision requirement
is higher, the pulse width is narrower, and the echo wave
energy received by the detector is lower. Under this cir-
cumstance, even the received signal has been amplified
highly, it is very weakly still.
In recently application system of pulse laser, the pulse
could be compressed to narrower than 5 ns. But because
of the spread effect of plasma or atmosphere, the pulse
would be broadened about to 5 - 15 ns. When the breadth
became narrower and plasma density became higher, the
amplitude of the echo pulse signal received by measuring
system became weaker rapidly, and traditional analog
electronic system couldn't catch it. Figure 1 shows a
common receiving wave picture on oscilloscope of these
Figure 1. Typical received echo wave pulse.
To deal with such cases, a pulse signal detecting and
processing system was designed. It adopted high speed
AD device and the fast data processing ability of FPGA.
This system can well work under condition of low signal
to noise ratio (SNR), narrow pulse width, little echo wave
amplitude. In the system, the AD chip ADC08D1000
which work in 1 GHz sampling rate, and the EP2S60
FPGA chip, are applied as core components.
2. System Design
2.1. High Speed Sampling Sub-system
To realize digital sampling of pulse signal, a AD subsys-
tem was designed firstly, and the sketch of its structure is
shown in Figure 2. Sampling rate of the AD chip was
controlled by external clock, and the output of sample
data was in differential format to enhance capacity of
resistant disturbance. In the same time, an accompany
clock was outputted to lock the phase of the multiplexed
output of sample data.
In order to improve the measuring accuracy, the width
of pulse laser would be narrow as possible. In this system,
the pulse is 5 ns width. It required the AD device was in
very high sampling rate, and then ADC08D1000 was
selected because it had two-channel sample function and
Diff data output
Diff clk output
Diff clk input
Laser pulse input
Figure 2. Sketch of high speed sampling subsystem.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
J. LIU ET AL.
could work at 1 GHz sampling rate. The IO list of
ADC08D1000 was shown in Figure 3.
After AD chip was determined, the clock circuit which
provided a stable 1GHz clock to the AD chip must be
considered. In the system, it was separated and consisted
of outer crystal oscillator, phase lock loop, voltage con-
trolled oscillator, etc. Its schematic is shown in Figure 4,
and signals PLL_SCLK, PLL_SDATA, PLL_LE were
produced by FPGA, and signal OSCin was produced by
outer low-frequency oscillator.
By accepting the clock produced by the clock circuit
and the sampling sequence controlling signal produced
by a processor, the sample subsystem then work.
2.2. High Speed Data Sink and Process
In order to cooperate with the speed of the sampling
sub-system, data sink and process speed of the processor
must match to the sample rate. Finally the Stratix II se-
ries FPGA chip EP2S60 was used in advantage of its
large inner resource, high data handle speed. This proc-
essor can work at 550 MHz clock frequency and has 12
PLLs unit, a huge amount memory larger than 9 M bits,
and high speed differential IO ports with dynamic phase
aligner (DPA) function and can support 1040 MHz data
sink. These capabilities can satisfy the resource require-
ment of the system.
The FPGA chip would produce controlling signals in-
cluding PLL_clk, PLL_data, PLL_le, to control the outer
clock circuit, and made it output a 1GHz clock signal to
AD chip. The logical module in FPGA was illuminated
by Figure 5.
CLK_n DC LK_n
CLK_n DC LK_n
Figure 3. High speed AD's structure.
Figure 4. Sketch of circuit controlling AD's clock.
2.3. Integration of the Completed System
By integrated the two subsystem, the completed system
was gotten. Sketch of the whole system was shown in
From Figure 6, we can see that the most important
part of the system is the logical unit in FPGA, which
control the outer clock circuit, AD component and data
sink. This logical unit was designed as the functional
flow diagram as showed in Figure 7.
As described in Figure 7, the system is firstly to con-
figure the clock controlling signal and reset the dpa sig-
nal of LVDS port, and then wait for data sink writing
signal (DSWS). After received DSWS, it begins to ac-
cept and store data, and then prepare these data to user.
pll_conf _startpll_conf _start
pll_c onf_donepll_c onf_done
Figure 5. Logical controlling module in FPGA.
Circuit of genera-
ting external clock
1G clock signal
Figure 6. Sketch of integrated system.
ure AD and external clock
LVDS port’s dpa restoration
Generate WR address
Receive WR control si
Data processing and compute
Figure 7. Functional flow of the program in FPGA.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
J. LIU ET AL.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
perimental data in Figure 8, and
n that the
Table 1. Experimental results and error analysis.
Case 1 2 3 4
fter the data was completely received, they w
020406080 100 120 140160
ored into double ports RAM firstly, and then read out
by a lower lock frequency. Analyzing these data, com-
bining the automatic threshold judgment, the echo wave
signal of pulse laser could be find out accurately.
3. Experimental Results and Analysis
To testing the feasibility of this design, an inFigure 8. The plotting of experimental ranging data.
hardware system was made, and many experiments were
done. Applied the system in distance ranging equipment,
experimental results of four distance cases were obtained
and listed in Ta b le 1 . In the table, Std means the standard
distance number, Max and Min means the maximum and
minimum number of ranging results, Aver means the
average value, δ means the standard variance, and they
are all in unit of meter.
Plotting one group ex
To solving the low SNR and narrow echo wave detcting
problem in pulse laser measuring, adopted high speed
AD chip and Stratix II series FPGA as the core units, a
high speed digital sampling system was designed. The
experimental results verified the design could improve
the acquisition accuracy of the echo wave signal mark-
e ordinate is the distance obtained by ranging, and the
abscissa is the repeated times of ranging.
From Table 1 and Figure 8, it could be seeREFERENCES
mpling system was well work. Because of its 1 GHz
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achieved to ± 20 mm precision whether in short or in
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