Vol.3, No.3, 254-264 (2013) Open Journal of Ecology
Anthropozoic impact on the floristic biodiversity in
the area of Beni Saf (Algeria)
Sidi Mohammed Merioua1*, Abdelhakim Seladji2, Noury Benabadji3
1University Center of Tissemsilt, Tissemsilt, Algeria; *Corresponding Author: sm.merioua@gmail.com
2National Institute of Forestry Research Station of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria
3University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria
Received 9 April 2013; revised 22 May 2013; accepted 27 June 2013
Copyright © 2013 Sidi Mohammed Merioua et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The degradation of the natural resources in Al-
geria nowadays remains a major constraint for
the agrosilvopastoral development. Indeed, the
area of Beni Saf is confronted with many prob-
lems such as the anthropozoic pressure which
does not make it possible to keep balance be-
tween the exploitation of the natural resources
and their regenerations in time and space. Fol-
lowing the example results obtained through a
floristic study by the factorial analysis of corre-
spondences (F A C), concerning the identifica-
tion of anthropozoogenes species suc h a s: Cha-
maerops humilis, Asphodelus microcarpus, With-
ania frutescens, Calycotome spinosa, Asparagus
albus; furthermore, the calculation of the dis-
turbance index which marks the rate of thero-
phytisation which is about 68%, that one finds it
very high. These indices show a disturbance and
an imbalance of the plant formation of the zone
of study, caused by the high anthropozoogene
pressure. Vis-a-vis this threat, it is essential to
propose a possibility of intervention for a dura-
ble management of these spaces.
Keywords: Biodiversity; Geographical Information
System; Factorial Analysis of Correspondences;
Anthropozoïc Impact; Beni Saf (Algeria)
In the Mediterranean region, the multiple paleogeo-
graphic events and the contrasted climatic cycles also
allowed the emergence of this unusually high biodiver-
sity [1]. In the South and the East of the Mediterranean,
the ecosystems are always intensively used by the man.
Because of the considerable population growth, there has
been acceleration during the three last decades of the use
of the natural resources which often exceeds their ca-
pacities of renewal [2].
The north of Algeria is subject to strong pressures of
men and cattle that generated a severe impoverishment
of the soil and vegetable cover [3]. The anthropozoïc fac-
tors play a major role in the organization of the vegeta-
tion structures. Indeed, the population growth rate, espe-
cially rural, determined a radical transformation of the
use of the environment. Deforestation, dematorralisation,
anarchic cuts, uncontrolled cultures’ settings and exces-
sive overgrazing, deeply disturbed ecological balances
which existed twenty years ago [4].
In Algeria, especially in Beni Saf, the anthropisation is
remarkable. We notice several causes of deforestation
which come into play: the conversion of forest surfaces
to the profit of other destinations in particular, of the pas-
ture and the field crops. In addition to the demographic
pressure which is increasingly important, this is primar-
ily related to the migrations, leading to the reduction of
forest spaces, and disturbing the ecosystems.
The objective of this work is to determine the impact of
the anthropozoic actions on the floristic biodiversity in
order to highlight the possibilities of intervention for a
better management of this weakened ecosystem.
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. State of the Vegetable Formations
The zone of study covers an area of 6 162 Ha. It is lo-
cated at the level of the commune of BeniSaf on the
North-western littoral of Algeria (Figure 1). The com-
mune’s population is estimated at approximately 43 802
inhabitants and an average density of 715 per/km2. Most
of it, approximately 80%, concentrates in the town of
Beni Saf. The active population (between 20 and 64
years old) of the commune lives mainly on agriculture.
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S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264 255
Figure 1. Location map of the study area.
This area is characterized by two types of reliefs: the
massif of Beni Saf which culminates in its central part
with 409 m in Skhouna mount and the valley of Tafna,
on its right bank with a relatively flat topography. It ex-
tends on the Western end of the zone of study.
The forest capital of the region of Beni Saf extends on
a surface of 2 843.8 Ha, that is to say 46.15% of the total
surface area of the commune (Figure 2). The majority
ofthe vegetable settlement, are generally artificial forest
formations resulting from afforestation carried out in
1945, 1960, 1970 and 1980, to fight against the floods
and the subsidence. The most used species in these affo-
restation’s are Pinus halepensis and the Eucalyptus came-
ldulensis, which often replaced the degraded vegetation,
made up of matorrals (pine plantations) more or less dense
and based on thermophilous species, under a pluviometer
which varies between 350 and 400 mm, these taxa toler-
ate the soils rich in limestone. The floris tic composition
is very known by the following species: Pinus halepensis,
Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europea ssp oléastre, Pistacia
lentiscus, Asparagus acutifolius, Calycotome spinosa,
Phillyrea angustifolia, Ampelodesma mauritanicum, Cha-
maerops humilis, etc. The herbaceous layer is dominated
by, Cistus albidus, Cistus monspeliensis, Rosmarinus offi-
cinalis, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoechas, Medica-
go arborea, Withania frutescens, Helianthemum helian-
themoides, Lonicera implexa, etc. [5].
2.1.2. Anthro pozoic Actio n
The pasture in Algerian forests is old; it eliminates by
chattering the herbaceous layer and young regenerations,
and reduces the floristic diversity. The human activity in
the area of Beni Saf, is generally related to the extension
of the agglomerations and agricultural spaces the detri-
ment of forest spaces. Thus, the overgrazing and the
clearing, lead to the degradation of vegetable cover and
accentuate the phenomenon of erosion.
Bouazza and Benabadji [6], specify that overgrazing
modifies the floristic composition considerably. Animals
choose the species and consequently they impose on the
consumable biomass offered an important selective ac-
tion. During this last decade, the area of Beni Saf knew
the settlement of several families of semi nomads with
their herds of sheep and bovines, having occupied the
majority of farming lands, and practicingan extensive
breeding. The overgrazing involves the reduction of the
vegetable cover of the long-lived species and of their
phytomass which thus opens the door with the processes
of degradation [7].
Indeed, the pasture in this area is carried out during all
the year. In summer, the herds occupy the agricultural
lands after the harvest, and during the rest of the year,
they graze in the forests. In front of this situation, over-
grazing became increasingly dramatic, simultaneously with
the results which were collected lately in particular: an
imbalance in the floristic composition, a regression of the
vegetable carpet, a destruction of the surface horizons, an
erosion of the ground, an absence of the natural regen-
eration of the woody vegetation, and an occupation of
the natural environments by the thérophytes (40%) [5].
In the zone of study, there is an exponential increase in
the heads of cattle (Total sheep is 15 890 and total bo-
vines is 1030), which led in a few decades to a dramatic
and often irreversible regression of the vegetable cover.
This quasi permanent overgrazing has led to the invasion
of forests by the thérophytes species.
2.1.3. Fires
The plant population of the area of Beni Saf, are very
susceptible to fire. This is directly related to various fac-
tors which influence their vulnerabilities (Geography,
climate, the floristic composition and the anthropic ac-
tion). According to Delabraze and Valette [8], Houerou
[9], Tatoni and Barbero [10], the fires constitute a major
disturbance of the Mediterranean landscapes. They are
related to the intense anthropic pressures, to the character
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S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264
Figure 2. Map of land use in the area of Beni Saf (year 2004) source: Merioua, (2007).
xerophytic, and pyrophytic of the vegetation. Thus, the
dominance of the thérophytes in the natural environments
constitutes an important combustible mass in summer
and facilitates the spread of fires [5].
Fires and the clearings left a strong imprint on the as-
pect of the natural environment of the area of Beni Saf,
especially in the South and the East of the area. A large
surface of forests and undergrowth were transformed into
pastures and fields of cereals.
2.2. Methodology
The great heterogeneity of vegetable cover in the area
of Beni Saf, made us reject the systematic inventory, in
spite of its effectiveness, to be replaced by the stratified
random inventory. This consists in sitting stations of flo-
ristic statements, where the plant population is homoge-
neous according to phytoecological transects.
According to Pardé and Bouchon [11], the advantage
of stratified sampling takes account of the variability of
the vegetation. The same sampling was used by Frontier
[12] in the inventory of the vegetation, carried out by the
method of Braun Blanquet [13]. Several investigations
were programmed on the ground, with an aim of better
knowing the existing vegetable formations and to iden-
tify the principal homogeneous zones in the area. Inside
each zone, we chose a station which represents average
ecological conditions, in which we can carry out floristic
surveys, according to the method of the coefficients of
abundance-dominance of Braun-Blanquet and to acquire
various information on the characteristics of the natural
environment in particular the localization of the site, the
exposure, the slope, the presence of the effects of erosion,
and the rate of covering… etc. These data enabled us to
characterize five stations in the area.
Gehu [14] and Gounot [15] described the size and the
shape of the statement. They derive from these require-
ments of homogeneity; we can say that in the Mediterra-
nean region, the surface of the statement varies from 100
to 300 m2 in forest, and 50 with 100 m2 in the matorrals
and a few square meters in the lawns. In the area of Beni
Saf, the surface of 100 m2 appears sufficiently repre-
sentative of the minimal surface of the vegetable forma-
tions. Regular visits during the season of vegetation
(from February to October, in order to count the species
of post-winter with autumnal), during which the whole of
the site was prospected several times in order to establish
a complete list of species and to identify anthropozoo-
genes species.
The floristic study by the correspondence analysis,
also relates to the analysis of the vegetable communities
in the zone of study. However, the statistical processing
is a tool which can help us to determine some ecological
and anthropic factors which govern the floristic compo-
sition of these vegetable populations, characterized by a
high floristic diversity. This type of analysis (statistical),
which showed its relevance in phytosociology and vege-
table ecology, makes it possible to study the possible re-
lations which are established between discontinuous and
no quantitative variables [16].
For data processing of the floristic data, a code with
four letters and a number is assigned to each one of taxa
which were recorded in the area of Beni Saf. The first
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S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264 257
letter indicates the kind, the three other letters which fol-
low, indicate the first letters of the species. The number
presents the order of taxa in Table 1. Example: Acacia
cyanophilla, is coded as follows: A-cya 1. Indeed, we us-
ed the method of the applied technique, the factorial ana-
lysis of correspondences, assisted by the software “Mini-
tab 12”. This type of treatment, whose mathematical bases
are exposed in the thesis of Cordier [17] and the works
like those of Benzekri [18], Fenelon [19], etc. has been clas-
sically used, since many years [20,21].
The treatment was carried out at the Laboratory of
ecology of Tlemcen University (Algeria). We carried out
the analysis of 50 statements from the totality of species
(111). In these treatments, only the character “presence-
absence” of the species was considered, since the aim
was the discrimination and the characterization of the
species inventoried in the zone of study.
For the whole of these treatments, the symbols of the
coefficient of abundance-dominance cannot be directly
exploited. “+” not being a value, it was replaced by the
number “0.5” (Table 1).
The cloud “points lines” or of “points columns” is
stretched along a privileged direction which corresponds
to the factorial axis of the analysis. Each factorial axis is
characterized by an eigenvalue which reflects the inertia
of the cloud point along the axis. The rate of inertia
represents the percentage of the axis in the total inertia of
the cloud. This eigenvalue and the rate of inertia are all
higher than the cloud point. It is well structured along a
factorial axis [22].
Benzecri [18] states that there is no doubt that the va-
lidity of a first axis have more than 50% of rate of inertia.
The coordinates of the points (species) are given for each
factorial axis, after projection of the cloud points ob-
tained. In practice, the graphical representation occurs
only on the first factorial axes, the most explanatory of
the structure of the cloud points. We limited to the clouds
of the points lines, corresponding to the plant species.
3. Results and Interpretations
The zone of Beni Saf, as the entire Mediterranean re-
gion is characterized by a very important biodiversity in
terms of flora. We identified 111 species, which largely
consists of the thérophytes, which represent 41% of all
the existing vegetation (Table 2). Stebbins [23], Stebbins
and Major [24], these authors announced the therophytes
richness of the Mediterranean region and in particular the
Maghreb, short-cycle species, which are adapted to the
aridity of the climate and in particular to the summer hy-
Table 1. Coding of the coefficient of abundance-dominance.
Coefficients of abudance-dominanceAbsence + 1 2345
Coefficients used 0 0.5 1 2345
Table 2. Biological type.
Biological type Number of species Rate
Thérophytes 46 41%
Chaméphytes 29 26%
Phanérophytes 16 14%
Hémicryptophytes 11 10%
Géophytes 9 8%
drous stress.
Also, Sauvage [25], Gaussen [26], Negro [27], Daget
[28], Barbero et al. [4], Quézel [29], found that this the-
rophytisation is an ultimate stage of the degradation of
the vegetation. Loisel et al. [30] established a formula
called index of disturbance, which quantifies the thero-
phytisation of the natural environments.
umber of Chamaephytenumber of Throphyte
full number of the spicies
The disturbance index (IP) of the zone of study Beni-
Saf is around 68%, we find it important. This shows a
disturbance and an imbalance of the vegetable population
caused by the high anthropozoogene pressure. Further-
more, El Hamrouni [31], after a study of vegetation “fo-
rest and meadow forest” in Tunisia, found a rate of 70%
of therophytisation. The same author concluded that this
index is high.
The area of Beni Saf, is populated by 42 families (Fig-
ure 3). The compositae and the poaceae dominate the
flora, with a rate of 14% for the first family, and 12% for
the second. Lamiaceae, Papilionaceae, each one repre-
sents 7%, Liliaceae 6%, Apiaceae 5%. The rest of the fa-
milies, is composed of Cistaceae, Cruciferae, Euphorbia-
ceae, Plantaginaceae, Renonculaceae, represents a rate of
3% for each one. Chénopodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyna-
reae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Oxalidaceae, Ré-
sédaceae, Rosaceae, account for approximately 2% each
one. The following families represent a low rate approxi-
mately 1%, including: Borraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Alsi-
noideae, Araliaceae, Astéraceae, Mimoseae, Oléaceae,
Palmaceae, etc.
The correspondence analysis (Table 3) makes it possi-
ble to highlight the relations between the inventoried spe-
cies and their environment that they occupy it (Figures
3.1. Eigenvalues and Rate of Inertia
It is noticed that the eigenvalues and the rates of iner-
tia are important (Table 4). Thus, we can explain the re-
lations between the environment and the vegetation from
the processed variables.
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S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Figure 3. Composition floristique par famille.
Figure 4. Factorial plan of the species (axis 1 - axis 2).
S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264 259
Figure 5. Factorial plan of the species (axis 1 - axis 3).
Figure 6. Factorial plan of the species (axis 2 - axis 3).
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Table 3. Contributions of the species for the three axes of FAC.
Genera/Specie Code AXE1 AXE2 AXE3
Acacia cyanophilla A-cya 1 0.45382 0.46455 0.39117
Aegilops truncialis A-tru 2 0.02382 0.26934 0.23519
Aegilops ventricosa A-ven 3 0.10788 0.62239 0.06489
Agropyron repens A-rep 4 0.00886 0.10994 0.04547
Ampelodesma mauritanica A-mau 5 0.39072 1.32393 2.48101
Anagallis arvensis A-arv 6 0.31103 0.0861 0.35785
Anthmis maritima A-mar 7 0.4374 0.232 0.22925
Arenaria emarginata A-ema 8 0.36874 0.29701 0.15162
Artemesia herba-alba A-her 9 0.12547 1.14564 0.37507
Asparagus acutifolius A-acu 10 0.28727 0.38956 0.04663
Asparagus albus A-alb 11 0.56726 1.36737 0.94943
Asparagus stipularis A-sti 12 0.18636 0.20433 0.38176
Asphodelus microcarpus A-mic 13 2.89788 2.31542 2.16988
Asteriscus maritimus A-mar 14 0.21845 0.28475 0.21197
Atractylis cancellata A-can 15 0.09372 0.15887 0.33819
Atriplex halimus A -hal 16 0.47117 0.1984 0.25443
Avena alba A-alb 17 0.44713 0.07903 0.17135
Avena sterilis A-ste 18 0.40039 0.07756 0.05919
Bellis annua B-ann 19 0.20229 0.31564 0.09384
Bellis sylvestris B-syl 20 0.41538 0.13842 0.35735
Brachypodium distachyum B-dis 21 0.43585 0.07193 0.11873
Bromus rubens B-rub 22 0.15828 0.02407 0.48656
Bupleurum lancifolium B-lan 23 0.38244 0.40023 0.07680
Calendula arvensis c-arv 24 0.22399 0.00777 0.20059
Calycotum spinosa C-spi 25 2.05936 1.8951 1.14407
Calycotum vilosa C-vil 26 0.40396 0.19332 0.21799
Carthamus caeruleus C-cae 27 0.35318 2.61485 2.42160
Centaurea pullata C-pul 28 0.42311 1.11134 1.00090
Ceratonia siliqua C-sil 29 0.25623 0.69129 0.16528
Chamaerops humilis C-hum 30 3.73776 3.95036 4.60317
Chenopodium album C-alb 31 0.39942 0.23747 0.30316
Chrysanthemum coronarium C-cor 32 0.04278 0.59187 0.83827
Chrysanthemum grandiflorum C-gra 33 0.25032 0.27159 0.18232
Cistus albidus C-alb 34 0.24998 1.02746 2.30305
Cistus monspeliensis C-mon 35 0.06158 0.57878 1.51773
Convolvulus altheoÏdes C-alt 36 0.39942 0.23747 0.30316
Crateagus oxyacantha C-oxy 37 0.39942 0.23747 0.30316
Cupressus horizontalis C-hor 38 0.27209 0.4731 0.08064
Cytisus triflorus C-tri 39 0.4048 0.23742 0.23117
Dactylis glomerata D-glo 40 0.44623 0.10199 0.02866
Daphne gnidum D-gni 41 0.39064 0.07743 0.41326
Daucus carota D-car 42 0.35597 2.83057 2.66443
Echinops spinosus E-spi 43 0.23411 0.33892 0.00473
Echium vulgare E-vul 44 0.13903 0.21342 0.42552
Erodium moschatum E-mos 45 0.24088 0.0567 0.30829
Eryngium triscuspidatum E-tri 46 0.25946 0.25672 0.02963
Eucalyptus camaldiensis E-cam 47 0.38269 0.29212 0.39854
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Eucalyptus gomfocefala E-gom 48 0.24259 0.49057 0.05502
Euphorbia biumbelleta E-biu 49 0.30966 0.21913 0.25032
Euphorbia falcata E-fal 50 0.35198 0.15472 0.34025
Euphorbia segetalis E-seg 51 0.24834 0.1357 0.19815
Fedia cornucopiae F-cor 52 0.4039 0.13001 0.16506
Ferula communis F-com 53 0.26736 2.64891 2.53602
Galactites tomentosa G-tem 54 0.39128 0.20528 0.25641
Hedera helix H-hel 55 0.42154 0.21404 0.26713
Helianthemum helianthemoÏdes H-hel 56 0.31814 0.33267 0.13613
Hordeum maritinum H-mar 57 0.18493 0.06561 0.25813
Inula viscosa I-vis 58 0.4374 0.232 0.22925
Lavandula dentata L-den 59 4.0796 1.90376 2.98715
Lavandula multifida L-mul 60 0.02856 0.76887 0.21693
Lavandula stoechas L-sto 61 0.42951 0.12971 0.36223
Lepturus cylindricus L-cyl 62 0.43253 0.19179 0.27471
Lobularia maritima L-mar 63 0.19312 0.20618 0.17883
Lonicera implexa L-imp 64 0.34417 0.14906 0.36737
Malva aegyptiaca M-aeg 65 0.3391 0.21482 0.30730
Malva sylvestris M-syl 66 0.2246 0.30526 0.44663
Marrubium vulgare M-vul 67 0.33567 0.40741 0.17231
Medicago arbicularis M-arb 68 0.42921 0.2745 0.19062
Medicago arborea M-arb 69 0.33095 0.4429 0.07549
Muscari neglectum M-neg 70 0.10312 0.12806 0.19087
Olea europea O-eur 71 0.48355 0.67223 0.58918
Oxalis cernua O-cer 72 0.41325 0.15157 0.18393
Oxalis corniculata O-cor 73 0.41074 0.28117 0.21930
Pallenis spinosa P-spi 74 0.11494 2.87169 2.54170
Papaver rhoeas P-rho 75 0.15818 0.08724 0.26326
Phalaris bulbosa P-bul 76 0.44623 0.10199 0.02866
Pinus halepensis P-hal 77 6.90122 3.04985 1.96102
Pistacia lentiscus P-len 78 0.62697 0.04148 1.20626
Plantago albicans P-alb 79 0.17049 0.09675 0.48540
Plantago lagopus P-lag 80 0.33649 2.81283 2.55966
Plantago ovata P-ova 81 0.21078 0.33528 0.19961
Raphanus raphanis tum R-rap 82 0.33877 0.10743 0.23550
Renonculus arvensis R-arv 83 0.17536 0.05007 0.30958
Renonculus paludocus R-pal 84 0.34327 0.28538 0.11570
Renonculus repens R-rep 85 0.29391 0.08912 0.24234
Reseda alba R-alb 86 0.01224 0.08717 0.47137
Reseda lutea R-lut 87 0.45393 0.06321 0.93147
Rosa sempervirens R-sem 88 0.4115 0.18782 0.31219
Rosmarinus officinali s R-off 89 0.35637 0.2571 0.24194
Ruta chalepensis R-cha 90 0.36188 0.23574 0.24579
Salvia verbenaca S-ver 91 0.44905 0.22183 0.29046
Scolymus hispanicus S-his 92 0.28287 0.27497 0.17507
Selinopsis montana S-mon 93 0.35701 0.28229 0.18092
Silybum marianum S-mar 94 0.22596 2.25076 1.79107
Sinapis arvensis S-arv 95 1.93651 1.53612 0.12741
Smilax aspera S-asp 96 0.36188 0.20346 0.32490
Solenanthus lanatus S-lan 97 0.39807 0.1781 0.37353
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Spartium junceum S-jun 98 0.32713 0.28667 0.12159
Taraxacum microcephalum T-mic 99 0.17455 0.00971 0.53549
Teucrium frutecans T-fru 101 0.01543 0.01932 0.36234
Thapsia garganica T-gar 102 0.45923 0.27738 0.22353
Thymus algeriensis T-alg 103 0.32187 0.14365 0.25785
Trifolium angustifolium T-ang 104 0.35814 2.60473 2.43962
Trifolium nigrescens T-neg 105 0.40362 0.2656 0.20408
Ulex boivini U-boi 106 0.09589 0.54508 0.12108
Urginea maritima U-mar 107 0.1957 0.47672 0.63100
Urtica membranacea U-men 108 0.44905 0.22183 0.29046
Vulpia myuros V-myu 109 0.39663 0.1611 0.14071
Withania frutescens W-fru 110 1.95393 2.32502 1.69473
Ziziphus lotus Z-lot 111 0.4309 0.13791 0.33385
Table 4. Eigenvalues and percentage of inertia for the first
three axes of FAC. “species”.
Axe 1 2 3
Eigenvalue 17.606 5.485 4.413
Rate of inertia 35.2 11.0 8.8
3.2. Analyzes Factorial Plan
3.2.1. Factorial Plan (Axis 1 - 3) (Figure 5)
Interpretations of axis 1:
Eigenvalue: 17.606;
Rate of inertia: 35.2%.
On the factorial plan (1 - 3): we can study the posi-
tion of the species on the two sides of the axis 1 (Table
5), of the positive side most extreme shows a regrouping
of the statements of species which represents a degraded
matorral, containing Chamaerops humilis, Asphodelus mi-
crocarpus, Withania fru tescens, Calycotome spinosa, As-
paragus albus. The proliferation of these species, gener-
ally thorny in this environment, indicates its degradation
by the anthropozoic agents. Bouazza and Benabadji [6],
indicate that, the anthropozoogene effect allowed an
expansionist evolution of the species scorned by the
The negative side of axis 1, presents the Pinus hale-
pensis, accompanied with a low formation which con-
sists of: Lavandula dentata, Sinapis arvensis, Ampelo-
desmamau ritanicum. Indicate the instability of the en-
vironment. It is a matorral of Pinus halepensis (stage of
In the center of the factorial design, we have localized
the formation of a bull “A”. It is composed of the rest of
the whole of the species which do not seem to react to
any ecological parameter. Let us note that the factorial
map (Axis 1 - 2) (Figure 4) is almost identical to the
factorial map (Axis 1 - 3) interpreted previously.
Table 5. Taxa with high contributions for axis 1 with FAC.
Positive side of axis 1 Dimensioned negative of axis 1
Chamaerops humilis
Asphodelus microcarpus
Withania frutescens
Calycotome spinosa
Asparagus albus
Pinus halepensis
Lavandula dentata
Sinapis arvensis
Ampelodesma mauritanicum
3.2.2. Factorial Plan (Axis 2 - 3) (Figure 6)
Interpretations of axis 2:
Eigenvalue: 5.485
Rate of inertia: 11%.
The positive side of axis 2, we noticed two groupings
of species: The 1st group consists of Chamaerops humi-
lis, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Asphodelus microcarpus,
Withania frutescens, Calycotome spinosa, Asparagus al-
bus, Ulex boivini. This meant a degradation of the vegeta-
tion. Quézel et al. [32], specifies that the installation of
these species informs about the manifestation of some
degradation (Table 6).
The 2nd group is composed of Ferula communis, Dau-
cus carota, Carthamus caeruleus, Plantago lagopus, Tri-
folium angustifolium, Silybum marianum, Pallenis spinosa.
It is a degraded environment occupied by xeric species
that are more resistant to environmental conditions which
became increasingly severe. These plants grow in a semi-
arid bioclimatic environment. Their presence also shows
certain degradation, marked by the presence of species
such as: Urginea maritima, Asphodelus aestivus, Ferula-
communis (Table 6).
The negative side, we have the following species: Pi-
nus halepensis, Cistus albidus, Ampelodesma mauritani-
cum, Lavandula dentata, Aegilops ventricosa. It is a ma-
torral in the process of degradation. We have also the
formation of a bull “B” in the center of the two axes (2
and 3) which is also made up of the remaining species
S. M. Merioua et al. / Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2013) 254-264 263
Table 6. Taxa with high contributions for axis 2 with FAC.
Positive side of axis 2 Dimensioned negative of axis 2
1st group
Chamaerops humilis
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Asphodelus microcarpus
Withania frutescens
Calycotome spinosa
Asparagus albus
Ulex boivini
2nd group
Ferula communis
Daucus carota
Carthamus caeruleus
Plantago lagopus
Trifolium angustifolium
Silybum marianum
Pallenis spinosa
Pinus halepensis
Cistus albidus
Ampelodesma mauritanicum
Lavandula dentata
Aegilops ventricosa
which do not represent any correlation with the ecologi-
cal parameters (Table 6).
4. Conclusion
The correspondence analysis, realized on the species in-
ventoried in the area of Beni Saf, makes it possible to
highlight the ecological gradients and to confirm that the
bioclimatic and anthropozoic factors explain the great
part of the information brought by the various axes. The
position of Pinus halepensis is a bit special on the level of
the various factorial designs. Its space position, explains
us to some extent, that this resinous species, introduced
into the zone of study by the operations of afforestation,
is badly integrated in some stations due to a high anthro-
pozoic pressure, and a climatic and edaphic aggressive-
ness unfavorable with the regular development of this
species which are found in a fragile situation, vis-a-vis to
diseases and decay.
Indeed, these conditions lead this vegetation to bushy
formations consisting of more resistant species, coloniz-
ing the natural environment, and replace the ligneous fa-
mily, which have become too fragile. These species in-
clude: Chamaerops humilis, Ampelodesma mauritani cum,
Calycotome spin osa, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Aspho-
delus microcarpus, Urginea maritima, Ferula communis.
Calycotome spin osa, Asparagus albus, etc., justifying also
the degradation of the natural environment [29,32]. In
front of this critical situation, the protection and valoriza-
tion are the ultimate means to revitalize the structure of
this vegetation which are threatened.
Stands of Pinus halepensis in the area of Beni Saf, con-
stitute transitory formations evolving normally to the
structures of the matorral type to Oleo-mastic tree. This
vegetation still remains under the anthropozoic pressure,
which causes the degradation and the advanced regres-
sion of the natural environment.
Concerning, the Eucalyptus camaldiensis (introduced
into the zone of study, by the afforestation), after the fac-
torial correspondence analysis, does not seem to repre-
sent any correlation with the ecological parameters. This
explains its adaptation to the natural environment, in-
cluding the climatic conditions which are more or less
The objectives of forest management and the breeding
are complementary: the protection of forests against the
overgrazing and fires, the conservation of the inheritance
and the biodiversity, in addition to a livestock production
which takes part in the economic development of the
area. This system has many advantages, in particular the
structure of the territory with dual-use developments,
associating specialized surfaces for pastures, improved
by fodder plantations, available in particular in the peri-
ods of strong food need, and a strict setting to protect the
natural stands to reconstitute themselves and be main-
tained. Concerning the bovine breeding intensified for
the dairy production, we propose the creation of farms,
which most of their surface will be reserved for the fod-
der cultures and food for the cattle.
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