Optics and Photonics Journal, 2013, 3, 1-5
doi:10.4236/opj.2013.32B001 Published Online June 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/opj)
Simulation Studying Effects of Multiple Primary
Aberrations on Donut-shaped Gaussian Beam*
Chen Zhang1, Kaige Wang1, Jintao Bai1, Yong Liu2, Guiren Wang2
1Institute of Photonics & Photo-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, United States
Email: zchen80@yahoo.com, wangkg@nwu.edu.cn, baijt@nwu.edu.cn, liuyong7612@sina.com, guirenwang@sc.edu
Received 2013
In this paper, we demonstrate the variation of donut-shaped depletion pattern which influenced by multiple primary
aberrations. The simulation is base on a common stimulation emission of depletion (STED) system composed by Gaus-
sian laser and vortex phase plate. The simulation results are helpful guidelines for analyzing the aberration of depletion
patterns in real situations.
Keywords: Donut Shaped; Depletion Pattern; Primary Aberration; Gaussian Laser; Phase Plate
1. Introduction
By means of stimulated emission of depletion (STED)
technology the far-field optical microscopy has broken
the diffraction limit and realized super-resolution of nano
scale [1-4], as well as in nano structures fabrications [5-7].
The size of the dark core of depletion pattern deter-
mines the resolution of the whole system, and it is be-
lieved that a smaller dark spot size a higher resolution of
STED system [8,9]. However, in realistic experiment the
donut-shaped laser spot is unavoidable to experience
influence from primary aberrations (Spherical aberration,
coma and astigmatism) even with a well-corrected objec-
tive and excellent-alignment. The researchers have re-
vealed the appearances of the annular laser spot influ-
enced by these aberrations respectively [10,11]. Never-
theless, the multiple of primary aberrations will perform
in optical system at the same time, and this has not been
shown yet. Based on realistic situation we demonstrate
and analyze the change of donut-like depletion pattern
under multiple primary aberration influence through nu-
merical simulation. The calculation results reveal a more
believable appearance of depletion pattern in STED system.
2. Theory
The numerical simulation work is based on circular po-
larized Gaussian beam, and a vortex phase plate is in-
serted before high NA objective. Suppose the amplifica-
tion of objective in simulation is 100 multiple and its NA
is 1.4, refractive index of space medium n is 1.52, wave-
length λ is 532nm. Figure 1 is the schematic image of
optical distribution at point p. The diffracted electric field
at this point can be expressed as (1) [11].
Figure 1. Schematic drawing of light distributing on the
focal plane.
()cos(,) exp[(sincossinsincos)]
coscossinsincos (cos1)
(,)cossin(cos1)(cossin cos)sin
sin(cossin )
Ep EEAikxyz
 
 
 
 
 
*Major Research Plan of Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91123030), International Cooperation Foundations of National Science and
Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of U. S and China (Grant No. 2011DFA1220)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
Here, f is the focal length of objective, l0 represents the
amplitude of the electric vector at the optical axis in the
object space, i is the plural, k stands for the wave number.
E0 means amplitude of Gaussian beam at the input plane.
A1( θ,
) is the wavefront aberration function. θ is the
angle between the optical axis and given ray, θmax stands
for the maximal semi-aperture angle of the objective lens,
is the azimuthal coordinate at input plane. φs( θ,
) is
the phase delay generated by the phase mask. In addition,
E0(γ,θ) = A0exp(-γ2ρ2) where A0 is the amplitude, γ is the
truncation parameter and ρ is the radial distance of a
point from its center normalized by aperture radius of the
focusing system. Γ = a/ω ( a is aperture radius and ω is
the beam size at waist), and ρ = sinθ/sinθmax. Wave aber-
ration function for spherical aberration, coma and astig-
matism are expressed as (2), (3) and (4) respectively.
1(,) s
Aexp ikA
A(,) exp[ikAccos]
A(,) exp[ikAacos]
As, Ac and Aa are respectively coefficient for spherical
aberration, coma and astigmatism. The intensity distribu-
tion at point P is written as (5).
3. Results and Discussions
In most STED microscopes and photolithography sys-
tems the aplanatic objectives are utilized for achieving a
high resolution. Therefore the effect of spherical aberra-
tion is quite small in realistic systems. Furthermore, in
this kind STED system the depletion pattern is insensi-
tive even with a big spherical aberration constant. Thus,
only two of the aberrations, coma and astigmatism, will
be considered. Assuming coma and astigmatism contrib-
ute same mount impacts to transformation, and the values
of Ac, Aa are in the region of 0 to 0.5λ and 0 to 0.3λ re-
spectively. Then we demonstrate the continuous chang-
ing of the depletion pattern with various value of Ac, Aa.
Figure 2 is the numerical simulation of depletion pattern
intensity distribution with different value of Ac, Aa.
Figure 2. Numerical simulation for depletion pattern on focal plane with different Ac and Aa. (a)(b)(c)(d): Aa = 0λ, Ac = 0λ,
0.1λ, 0.25λ, 0.5λ. (e)(f)(g)(h): Aa = 0.1λ, Ac = 0λ, 0.1λ, 0.25λ, 0.5λ. (i)(j)(k)(l): Aa = 0.2λ, Ac = 0λ, 0.1λ, 0.25λ, 0.5λ. (m)(n)(o)(p): Aa
= 0.3λ, Ac = 0λ, 0.1λ, 0.25λ, 0.5λ.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
It is obviously in Figure 2(a) to (d) that optical inten-
sity at one side of the donut-shaped depletion beam is
gradually weakened with sole influence from strength-
ening coma. The annular-shape pattern is transformed into
a semi-cyclic-shape when Ac equals to 0.5λ. The dark
cores of the depletion patterns are maintained in circular
shape. In addition, the depletion patterns are in axial
symmetry while suffering the influence from coma. Fig-
ures 2(a), (e), (i) and (m) illustrate the changing of de-
pletion pattern that sole affected by astigmatism.
In this situation, the depletion patterns are in central
symmetry. The annular-shaped pattern is likely tore apart
into two pieces with the increasing A
a value. The dark
core is squeezed into line-shaped when 0.3
. The
transformation of the depletion patterns are getting more
complex in the combined impact from coma and astig-
matism. The dark cores are distorted to irregular ovals in
depletion patterns.
It is obvious that in the situation of Aa= 0 the intensity
distribution is axial symmetric. In the cases of Ac= 0 the
intensity distribution are central symmetric. While coma
and astigmatism act together the intensity distribution are
neither axial symmetric nor central symmetric.
Figures 3, 4 and 5 are drawn in order to better under-
stand how the aberration works to depletion pattern. Fig-
ure 4 is the intensity cross section view of Figure 2(a) to
(d) along axis x. The optical distribution is asymmetric
about axis y, it is noticeable that the intensity of the dark
cores has increased a bit. The cross section profiles cap-
tured respectively along x = y and x = -y are illustrated as
Figures 5(a) and (b). The intensity is strong and steep
along x = y, while weaker and gentle along x = -y. The
intensity at the center of the pattern raises fast with the
increasing of Aa.
Figures 3. (a) to (i): Three demission view for intensity distribution changing in the situations of Figure 2(f) to Figure 2(h),
Figure 2(f) to Figure 2(h) and Figure 2(n) to Figure 2(p) respectively.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPJ
Figure 4. Cross section view of optical intensity along axis x
in Figure 2(a) to Figure 2(d).
Figure 5. Cross section view of optical intensity along axis x
= y, x = - y in Figure 2(a), (e), (i) and (m).
Figure 3 is drawn for the depletion patterns suffer
complex variations in the combined influence of coma
and astigmatism. The intensity at center of patterns is
nonzero and very uneven at the peripheries. The 3 di-
mensional views from Figures 3(a) to (i) are corre-
sponding to the situations of Figures 2(f) to (h), Figure
2(f) to (h) and Figure 2(n) to (p) respectively.
4. Conclusions
Our work demonstrates the variation of donut-shaped
depletion pattern under the combined influence of pri-
mary optical aberration. The simulation is based on
common STED system which utilizing Gaussian beam,
vortex phase plate and aplanatic objective. In view of the
particular designed objective and spherical aberration is
insensitive to this kind of STED system, the effect of
spherical aberration is ignored. The depletion patterns
that affected by coma and astigmatism are presented in
the assumption of the two factors contribute same mount
to wavefront aberration. Through our study, the effects of
multiple aberrations to donut-shaped depletion patterns
are demonstrated visually, and the STED system is quite
sensitive with primary aberrations. The simulation results
are helpful guidelines for analyzing the aberration of
depletion patterns in real situations.
5. Acknowledgements
This work has got many supports from colleagues of
Northwest University (NWU), China, and University of
South Carolina (USC), United States. Especially, we
would like to thank Dr. Baole Lu (NWU), Dr. Xiaoming
Chen (NWU), Dr. Wei Zhao (USC), Dr. Fang Yang
(USC) and Dr. Jianchao Chen (USC) for their enthusias-
tic help.
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